Assignment Question? Critically evaluate to what extent the police provide an adequate response to victims of domestic violence in the UK?
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Violence against human kind is being recognized as one of the fundamental infringement, which may lead legal consequences for criminals. Over the last 30 years, UK has witnessed varied challenges within the domestic ambiance due to high rate of criminality activities in terms of physical torture and women abusing among others. In this relation to this, it is notified that the domestic police department of UK has taken extensive responsibilities, with an intention of reducing the serious consequences of domestic violence within the domestic locations of UK. In this regard, it can be stated that the government of UK has highly emphasized towards the criminal justice system including their police services for ensuring effective responses towards domestic violence associated problems. In this context, it is also identified that large numbers of governmental and non-governmental organizations of UK have started commissioning research on domestic violence and these institutes also have formulated policy recommendations regarding problems of domestic violence. However, it is also identified that the government of UK mainly focused towards the policies and legislation of domestic violence. Moreover, the government of UK also has implemented certain measures for preventing, protecting and ensuring the justice towards victimize of domestic abuses. In this regard, it is notified that during the formulation of governmental policy, the government of UK has treated the gender of the criminals in a neutral way. Interestingly, it can be asserted that during the formulation as well as implementation of domestic violation related policies, the government of UK has adopted strict measures in case of violence against women and girls (Edwards, 2000).
In this particular assignment, the objective is to critically evaluate to what extent the police provide an adequate response to victims of domestic violence in the UK. In this regard, the study will critically analyze and evaluate the traditional problems with UK legislation and its application in case of domestic violence, during the late 1970’s – 80’s and 1980’s – 90’s. At the same time, the study will also assess the current policies and principles of UK regarding domestic violence including their police perspectives. In this regard, the study will critically evaluate the responses of UK police regarding victims of domestic violence on the basis of reviewing academic literatures such as peer reviewed journals and government published reports and articles among others.
Traditional Legislation of UK Government regarding Domestic Violence. According to the viewpoint of Taylor-Browne (2000), after the establishment of General Assembly, the government of UK has adopted the ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights’ in the constitutions and law of UK in the year of 1948, with an intention of ensuring human rights and fundamental freedom. In relation to this, it can be asserted that through incorporation of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the government of UK has tried to ensure the prohibits on sexual discrimination. At the same time, the government of UK also tried to ensure the rights, liberty and security of human life.
During the year of 1970’s, the government of UK has witnessed several social problems of within the domestic locations of UK in terms of feminism. In this regard, several academic researchers have criticized the governmental policies and regulations and its implications of UK. The effect of feminism, is not only violated the life style of the vibrant women’s of the UK, rather it also explores questions regarding the nature of domestic violence. In this regard, based on the viewpoint of Paradine and Wilkinson (2004), it is identified that the vibrant women’s of UK has suffered domestic violence in the form of physical violence and sexual abusing among others. In relation to this, more specifically it can be stated that the trend of being punched, slapped, bitten and beaten are can be regarded as a psychical violence. At the same time, it can be also claimed that being pinched, kicked or burnt and strangled are also being considered as psychical violence (Hamner and Griffiths, 2001).
On the other hand, it can be stated that the trend of rape and the range of sexual humiliation such as unwanted, pressured and coerced sex are being considered as sexual abusing. In this regard, Hoyle (1998) argued that the trend of sexual violence is also can be regarded as physical assault or violence. In accordance with Walby and Allen (2004), the concept of sexual violence can be regarded as ‘Rape’. However, according to the viewpoint of Logan et al. (2006), it is notified that during the 1970’s – 80’s, some of the minority communities of UK has believed in a myth that sex is one sort of duty for women.
At the same time, based on the report of Ministry of Justice (2010), it is recognized that between the late 70’s – 80’s, the trend of coercion and control also has violated the life style of women in UK. In this regard, more speciously it can be argued that large numbers of UK male citizens have restricted the freedom of the women after marriage through putting concern on their wife’s personal life by accessing and monitoring personal mails, phone calls and others. In this regard, Hamner and Griffiths (2000) argued that the females of UK had not only monitored by the perpetrator, rather it can be also mentioned that the perpetrator, also have put restriction on their wife’s life through not allowing their association with other friends and family members. In relation to this, Harne and Radford (2008) stated that in case of moving out from the home, the wife’s should have take prior permissions of the perpetrator. Moreover, it is also notified that most of the perpetrator’s usually had snatched the self privilege of women’s life by put a restriction on meeting their own family members. Nevertheless, it is also revealed that if the women’s are does not adhere the restrictions of their own perpetrators, then they usually get punished by either physical or sexual violence (Hamner and Griffiths, 2001).
According to the viewpoint of Hester and Westmarland (2005), it is identified that due to the effect of high domestic violence, the government of UK has introduced ‘Domestic Violence and Matrimonial Proceeding Act 1976’ with an intention of reducing the effect and impact of domestic violence within the UK. In relation to this, it can be argued that incorporation of this above mentioned particular act has not only helped UK to resolve the problems of UK women, rather it also has ensured the life style of UK citizens. Through incorporation of this particular act, the government of UK has tried to ensure the punishment for those male, who will persuade violence on their wife’s/ women. Apart from this, through incorporation of this particular act the government of UK also tried to ensure the protection as well as security of women’s life in case of marriage associated aspects (Harne and Radford, 2008).
In this context, it is also recognized that through incorporation of this particular act has encouraged UK police to ensure the protection of women and child girls. However, it is also revealed that police of UK has ensured the protection of victim women’s and child girls by assisting them in terms of providing emergency protection. In this regard, based on the viewpoint of Lewis Herman (2008), it is identified that the police department of UK has always emphasized towards the determination of danger level of the victimized women’s and child of UK. Moreover, it is also revealed that the police department of UK has tried to ensure the safety of the victimized women’s and child. In this regard, it is also recognized that the involvement of police and UK government has reduce the trend of physical and sexual abusing rate and criminal record in the domestic regions of UK. In relation to this, it can be asserted that incorporation of Domestic Violence and Matrimonial Proceeding Act 1976 and involvement of police has not only reduced the rate of domestic violence in UK, rather it also has reduced the threats of homicide or suicide rate of women in between the 1970’ – 80’s (Hester et al., 2000). However, it is revealed that the policies and regulations of Domestic Violence and Matrimonial Proceeding Act 1976 do not ensured the protection of unmarried women as this above mentioned legislation is being framed to ensure the security of married women. On the other hand, with an intention of ensuring the security of unmarried women and child, the government of UK has adopted varied other policies and regulations, which has ensured lower trend of domestic violence within UK (Kelly et al., 2005).
Apart from this, it is also revealed that the police department of UK government also has collected evidences regarding the domestic violence related cases in UK. In this regard, it can be mentioned that police usually gather data regarding domestic violence cases by collecting photo graphs of victims’ injuries and recovered weapons and others. Moreover, police also analyze and scrutinize the medical reports and visual as well as verbal feedbacks of the live witnesses. In this regard, it can be stated that police may have the authority of arresting victim based on the evidences of their inspection. Based on the scenario of 1980’s, it is revealed that polices of UK government have shown little empathy towards the victimized domestic violence of UK. However, it is revealed that a few numbers of academic researchers have claimed that police does not have the privilege of interfering private family matters (Hoyle and Sanders, 2000).
In this regard, in order to highlight the gaps of police services in UK, it can be mentioned that often it is identified that police services of UK government sometimes have struggled to gather validate evidences regarding the criminal activities of UK, which are associated with domestic violence. As an effect, it is revealed that policed have failed to arrest the actual criminal (Hoyle and Sanders, 2000). On the other hand, it is also recognized that in the 1980’s and after the late 80’s police have made their arresting decision towards victimized domestic violence based on their victim’s pursued prosecuting, which has affected the reliability and validity of the polices inspection process, which can be regarded as one of the prime loophole of polices services of UK (Groves and Musgrove, 2007). In relation to this, it can be also claimed that in case of making moral judgments regarding the domestic violence criminal police department of UK has failed to ensure the punishment towards the actual criminal, which has created a gap in between actual crime rate of UK and arrest. Additionally, it can be argued that lack of application of computer system in case of investigation process has lead greater challenges for UK during resolving women’s domestic violence related problems and it also has hampered the investigation procedure of police department during the late 90’s (Home Office, 1997).
On the other hand, in order to highlight the greater loophole of UK government regarding their police their police department, it can be stated that lack of female police force in case of domestic violence can be regarded as one of the prime gas. In addition, it is also argued that lack of proper framework and information sharing process between the internal departments of police has influenced more challenges for UK in terms of domestic violence. These are the above mentioned aspects; it can be evidently defined as prime failure of police department of UK even after the 21st century (Home Office, 2004).
Contemporary Legislation of UK government regarding Domestic Violence. Domestic violence is socially constructed and has emerged over time and focus on prevailing understandings, power distributions and interests in the contemporary world. In the contemporary world of technological advancement and modernity, women and children are still victims of domestic violence despite several measurements taken up by the UK government and police (Dobash and Dobash, 1992). Children assault and abuse have affected many families giving birth to juvenile delinquency. Others have suffered their ill fate at the hand of the elders. Women are getting trapped in violent relationship which is subjected to physical abuse, Physical injury, rape, mental torture and financial abuse. Gynecological and violence during pregnancy are still eminent in the literate society of UK.
Women suffer hugely at the hands of men in the patriarchal society, though the men constitute themselves in a literate society. The stench of redemption and domestic intolerance reflects its occurrence on many women leaving the life of a solitary reaper. Incidents of rape have increased at an alarming rate over the years with the advancement of technological implosion and virtual mechanism. Children are quite affiliated with adult content these days with the application of internet (Edwards, 1989). Therefore, criminal offence by children has led by examples leading to disastrous results in context of domestic violence. Intimidation, isolation, coercion, threats and intruding children towards prostitution has contributed significantly to domestic violence in UK.
Migrant women are often vulnerable to victimization and face major difficulties while getting accustomed to the UK society. Lady Child has faced lot of criticism in subject to mutilation, where they were forced to suppress their sexuality right from child hood. Discrimination based on racism and castes have resulted in severe torture over women in the UK environment. Violence against lesbians often leads to isolation of the lady partner. Sexual harassment on children and women by the core family members has served as a hidden secret amongst many family issues (Cretney and Davis, 1997). The practice of intolerance in the patriarchal society has resulted in many separations of women in the contemporary society. Hammering the children at an infant age often raise question against the plutocratic society of UK.
The primary objective of government is to diminish gender biasness and spread sense of equality in the patriarchal society of UK. In order to address the rising concerns, Government has initiated much preventive measure for protection of women and children in the society. The laws are strengthened punishing the guilty without any mercy. Previously, prior to the implementation of DVCVA, if an individual was found guilty due to breach of law, the respondents had to pay fine. This was a loose attempt and especially the elite class was immune from any punishments as they had ample finance in their pockets. However, the government took active participation in amending these laws and regulations. In the present context the government in association with UK legislation can inflict family violence orders, mental health orders, molestation orders and charge sheets, often leading to lifetime or five years of imprisonment.
Women empowerment often laid to the foundation of a new renaissance in the contemporary society. Women have gained confidence and many a times combat these issues by reversing the same reaction to the prosecutor (CPS, 2009). The government introduced breach of non molestation orders as a criminal offence and promises to punish the victim without any condolence and mercy. Many nongovernmental organizations have initiated her will of spreading awareness about domestic violence in respective societies. Women are literate these days and they immediately seek the assistance of police and government at times of pressurizing scenarios. Elements of depression and addiction to drugs have increased in an alarming rate over the years. The government issues drug warrant and many times report the victimized to rehabs.
The latest child protection act aims to strengthen the protection of child from sexual harassment and elderly abuse. Youth generations are regarded as pillars of success in the future and therefore, special impetus is laid down by the government in order to stress on juvenile delinquency as it has increased at an alarming rate. The basic ideology is to promote a stress free life for women and children in the society (Buzawa, E. and Buzawa, 2007).
In order to address the rising issues in the nation, the police aim to train the call handlers for ensuring proper gradation of domestic violence incidents. Previously, the scenarios were underrated and were given less impetus in terms of importance in the society. The treatments given by the police to the victims ensure that such incidents are not repeated in the mere future. However, in some cases the police department is considerate in some cases, especially with a juvenile delinquent child. Incidents of rape are dealt with immense seriousness, punishing the criminal in a most harsh manner.
The police man is given proper guidance and training about handling risk factors of domestic violence. The police protection have enhanced in numbers and any suspicious are immediately taken into account, thus reducing the elements of crime in the domestic society. Inclusions of public protection investigation unit have served the cause of women and child protection in an eminent manner (Buzawa and Buzawa, 1996). The police departments often prepare dash questionnaires for notifying susceptible risks and take immediate actions before a criminal occurrence. Special impetus is given on vulnerable adults and risk assessment in order to promote stress free lifestyle in the society.
The police departments are always cautious and stay red alert in order to address the issues faced by women and children. Most of the criminal cases are subjected to repeated and serious abuses which create an element of fear and doubt in the police department. However, the police departments have become very much cautious these days, treating the issues right from the root. Many criminal cases which were hidden behind the bush were reopened, thus addressing the criminals in the police custody. Police departments are identified as the savior of the nation, yet they have faced criticisms off late for being reluctant in taking necessary actions against the criminals (Burton, 2008).
Nevertheless, the government has strengthened police protections by minimizing criminal acquisitions, yet only a limited number of addressed cases results in arrest of the criminals. In addition to that, political influence has been a blessing in disguise for criminals on various occasions. In many occasions, the police arrived much later after the occurrence of a criminal activity (ACPO 2008). Real life application often contrasts with the rules and regulations embedded for the protection of women and children in the society. Minor percentages of the criminals were actually sentenced to lifetime imprisonment, thus allowing the criminals to loiter freely in the society. Acts of bribe and falsification activities are still into practice, questioning the prominence of police department for the protection of women and children.
In order to critically analyze and evaluate the risk management and risk management process of UK regarding domestic violence, it can be over the last three to four decades, it is identified that the police department of UK government has highly concentrated towards the regular based auditing process with an intention of ensuring the implementation of policies and regulations of UK government for reducing the impact of domestic violence in UK. In the contemporary era, the applications of UK governmental policies and principles are being implementing in a significant manner for investing the cases of domestic violence criminals. In relation to this, it can be also argued that through the adoption of domestic violence related legislation, the government of UK has reduced the trend of high rate domestic violence incidents, which also has helped the government to reduce the overall numbers of victimized people than that of the traditional era (Hester, 2005).
Moreover, it can be also mentioned that the government of UK also has highly emphasized towards the risk evolution and risk management associated processes with an intention of reducing the chances and threats of domestic violence in future. In this regard, based on the above discussed context, it is evidently identified that the government of UK has not only concentrated towards the married female citizens of UK, rather the government also has established child safety related plans. However, it is also revealed that the government of UK also has incorporated technology and tools, which may help police department of UK to ensure the emergency protective order. On the other hand, it can be also argued that incorporation of through adoption of technology and modern approaches and measures the police department of UK has enhanced its potential of capturing domestic violence criminals in more significant manner (Richards et al., 2008).
Based on the above mentioned analysis, it concludes that Domestic violence is of significant practice these days, yet it revived much of its contradictions in the past. The traditional era experienced huge pressure of women violence and child harassment. The regulations were loose and women were the eminent victims of the patriarchal society. Later on with advancement of literacy and technological advancement, women power came into existence, which laid stress on surviving and combating the tuff issues. The government amended many acts and further strengthened the protective policies for women and children in the society. Gender biasness is a major issue, which needs serious attention in order to minimize disastrous results of feminine dominance in the patriarchal society. The police departments need to deal the vulnerable issues with immediate care in order to promote a sense of safety amongst the women of the society.
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