Critical Review of “Beyond Criminalization-2280622

Introduction: Presentation of the author and the text

  Immigration presents challenging environment for criminology and it becomes a collision of legal, social, and economics aspects. Criminologists look into how drastic changes in immigration laws and implementation affects the frequency of crimes, community life and law enforcement system. The layers of complexity in it requires a cear understanding so as to develop policies that not only manage security concerns but also critically respect human rights and social justice. This is what works to create secure and safe societies.

In his article “Beyond Criminalization: “Immigration and Case of Dany Villanueva: A Challenge to Traditional Criminological Outlooks” João Velloso emphasizes the issue of immigration and the way traditional criminological point of view is challenged using Dany Villanueva’s case as an example (Velloso, 2022). Velloso underscores the vitality of addressing the intricate relationship between crime and immigration in contrast to the conventional criminological strategies, which are otherwise very ineffective as they fail to adequately deal with the complex nature of imprisoning social attitudes, particularly against immigrants (Stageman, 2020). The common thread in Velloso’s essay is the belief that during this time, criminology has almost exclusively explored aspects of criminology that result in criminalization, leaving the broader social contexts to be overlooked (Velloso, 2022). The author shows this with the case of Danny Villanueva, who is a persona through which the author discussed some legal and administrative proceedings, such as probation, pre-trial orders, as well as immigration proceedings, in order to draw the fact that there might be a need for understanding of punishment mechanism through which people get ensnared. Furthermore, Velloso supports the concept of decriminalization in the discipline of criminology, in which the subject should go a step further from its traditional boundaries, adapting approaches suitable for understanding different social phenomena (Velloso, 2022). Applying a more holistic view can provide a complete picture, allowing a more profound comprehension of why, when, and how people react in a punitive manner, thereby making the field of criminology more relevant to understanding crime, punishment, and social control in modern society.

Part1: Review of the text

In his thought-provoking article “Beyond Criminalization: “Immigration and Criminology: Spotlighting Criminology’s Paradigms,” João Velloso traverses the intricate field of criminology, calling for the need to broaden the academic perspective beyond conventional criminal justice matters(Velloso, 2022). The essay introduces Velloso’s main argument, which includes the necessity of criminology breaking away from the traditional approach prominently concerned with criminalization and scrutinizing immigrant issues, as presented through the case of Dany Villanueva. In the story, Velloso scrutinizes in depth how standard criminological theories have their reasons for being. Gardner and Weber (2018)  in their study indicated that the criminal justice system must find innovative ways to reconcile the deterrence function with the need to provide alternatives to the traditionally used constant confinement . Velloso’s assertion relies around the premise that orthodox criminology is not simply competent enough to deal with society’s ruthless sport of punitive reactions, especially when the alternative issue is migration. Velloso asserts that criminalization-centred criminology ignores a broad spectrum of ways in which people fall into punitive procedures, which is often a result of the simultaneous application of legal and administrative methods, such as the ones used in the seclusion room. René Villanueva’s case (exemplifies) the problem that one person passes through multiple (forms of charges) (Fired Dallas Officer, Cleared of Criminal Wrongdoing, Is Reinstated, 2015); such as probationary orders, pre-trial directives and immigration proceedings, which shows you how complex the punishment reaction of society is.

The core of Velloso’s argument is that he opposes the sensation of criminalization, which is a classic criminological school of thinking. Velloso, drawing on the ideas of scholars such as Clifford Shearing, advocates for a more inventive definition of policing that encompasses not only state institutions but also a variety of non-formal methods. Velloso contends that if we perceive policing as a multifaceted sociological phenomenon rather than a duty for the police force, we will engage in comprehensive policing in the neighborhood..

To begin with, Velloso displays the depth of his research in applying different theoretical models to be able to destruct and differ from traditional criminology views (Blix & Wettergren, 2018). The author considers critical theories to scrutinize the hidden criminal-centric approaches whose prejudices have lurked behind why society develops forms of punishment. This, in turn, has freed space for alternative interpretations that account for the punitive social reactions. Velloso’s use of multidisciplinary methodologies, such as sociology and socio-legal studies, makes his study more entangled and successful in grasping the powerful dynamics behind these phenomena. Velloso carefully moves through the interplay of sanctioned reactions to immigration during the article, exposing how they are mutually implicated. Through topical context, Velloso shows to what degree a person could feel the degree of injustice resulting from the conventional punishment system.

This aspect of the system is mainly for the downtrodden or marginalized population. She makes this point very clear through her detective work and investigations, revealing the many inadequacies of conventional criminological practices that underestimate the entirety of the societal retribution responses. Besides Velloso confuting the criminal view of crime with various arguments, the paper could focus more on the notions contradicting the criminal justice perspective. Through the approach of different perspectives and by seeking the answers to unfair objections, Velloso may better substantiate his case and prevent potential criticism before it arises. Also, the practicalities of criminalizing acquiring criminology need more explicit discussion. Thus, the article can be pertinent and applicable to the actual scenario.

Part 2: Methodological analysis

In “Beyond Criminalization: Unblinking and Shifting Sands: Immigration and its Criminal Justice and Immigration Systems,” José Velloso successfully uses a methodologically rich approach to dissecting the intricacies of Dane Villanueva’s dealings with the criminal justice and immigration systems. How he analyzed the method reveals the intellectual deliberation of the legal document and case studies he undertakes to provide the most confident understanding of Somoza’s reaction to Villanueva, particularly that which considers the country’s status as an immigrant nation. Besides this, Velloso applies a critical theoretical approach, providing an intellectual base for the criticism of traditional criminal theories and a deeper understanding of the social meanings of reactive actions, introducing methodological richness (McGregor, 2021). The critical issue of Velloso’s approach implies using primary resources, such as legal documents and case studies, for data gathering. The songwriter uses these materials to narration Villanueva’s conflicts with the judicial and immigration systems. The access is made possible by allowing a wealth of details regarding the systems used to oppress him. However, this choice of methodology is noteworthy. Because of this, Velloso tends to provide illustrations and empirical evidence to submit that traditional criminology has generally not been sufficient to comprehend sophisticated conflictual reactions, especially among immigrants.

In addition, the. Through a careful exploration of the legal and administrative actions that were imposed on Villanueva at that time, Velloso was able to trace the pattern of multiple measures, drawing attention to the sophistication of punitive mechanisms that countless people like Villanueva have to go through and revealing various aspects of the punishment process beyond traditional criminalization In this case the usage of such methodological technique is not only said to be playing a role in the increase of empirical content for Velloso’s argument but also the emphasize of the theoretical implications produced by the analysis above.

Velloso also incorporates his use of primary sources, mentions the theory he applies from a critical perspective, and demolishes orthodox criminological understanding, thus advocating for a more comprehensive understanding of punitive social reactions. Balancing his theoretical collaboration with critical criminology and socio-legal studies to dismantle the foundations of crime-centring approaches, Velloso offers a very elaborate argument by pointing to the biases and underlying assumptions. Through this critical theory lens engagement, Velloso makes the researchers rethink their perception of punishment, envisaging a more subtle and complex picture of punishment and control in modern society. Additionally, Velloso’s methodology is characterized by its inversive nature, applying social sciences, including sociology, socio-juridical studies, and critical theory, to a finished product for a thorough analysis. This integrative perspective enables Velloso to surpass the established academic borders and, consequently, give a more sensitive look at the social retributive responses. The interaction with different views helps reveal those dominant social and political phenomena that help to shape a sense of crime among people within the system of social control. Thus, the notion of punitive justice appears.

Nevertheless, although Velloso, using an integrated methodology with robust components, takes a comprehensive approach, this has its limitations. Because the author’s research relied on legal documents and case studies, such current findings can be implied to be specific only to particular individuals and situations. Besides, Critical theory implemented with such methodology might be criticized as subjective, as it is based on the researcher’s understanding of the social phenomena. This methodological approach is undoubtedly a significant contribution to criminology, which helps to rethink the social reaction equation by exploring punishment other than imprisonment and going beyond the influence of correctional policies and practices on crime and punishment in modern societies.


In conclusion, João Velloso’s article “Beyond Criminalization: “Immigration and Criminology” is undoubtedly one of the prominent and influential works on criminology and immigration. Through questioning the conventional thinking about immigrant crime and punitive relationships he openly portrays in his novel, Velloso gives a contextualized understanding that irrefutably does credit to the factors that make immigrant youth like Dany Villanueva have such social reactions. Velloso details a systematical analysis of legal materials and case studies; she points out the restraints of the criminogenic approach; he suggests a more comprehensive sense of any relationship between crime and migration. On the other hand, Velloso’s analytical approach, using critical discourse analysis, exposes the existing motives and assumptions of the dominant narratives, thus strengthening the frame of reference concerning the subject. Overall, the essay by Velloso highlights a substantial contribution to scientific knowledge, demonstrating new angles and fresh views on the relationships between crime and immigration in current societies.


Blix, S. B., & Wettergren, Å. (2018). Professional emotions in court.

Fired Dallas officer, cleared of criminal wrongdoing, is reinstated. (2015, March 12). Dallas News.

Gardner, M., & Weber, M. (2018). The ethics of policing and imprisonment. In Springer eBooks.

McGregor, Rafe. (2021). Critical Criminological Methodology. 10.1332/policypress/9781529219678.003.0006.

Stageman, D. (2020). Immigrants and Crime. Publications and Research.

VELLOSO, João (2012). “Beyond Criminalization: Immigration and Issues for Criminology,” Criminology, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 52-82

Velloso, J. (2022). Beyond criminalization: Immigration and the challenges for criminology. Criminologie, 1.

Velloso, J., & Paes, V. (2021). Introduction: Judicialization of social problems and governance of security in comparative perspectives. Oñati Socio-Legal Series, 11(6), 1260–1272.