This is a structured assignment. You are required to use the prescribed sample of literature (readings) and only the prescribed sample of literature and the prescribed headings.
Format and structure of the Literature Report is. The title of the Literature Report is:
Using Levels of Analysis to Understand the Influence of Violent Media on Aggression
You will use the following headings for your Literature Report:
Heading: Introduction (15% approximately 170 words)
Provide a brief explanation of the ‘levels of analysis’ framework used in psychology to view and understand human behaviour. You do not have to relate this part to the effects of media violence.
Conclude your introduction with how the levels of analysis framework can be used to understand the effects of media violence on aggression.
Heading: Overview of findings on the effects of media violence on aggression (25% approximately 280 words)
Summarise the influence of media violence on aggression to demonstrate how well you have understood the prescribed literature.
Here you will cover how the following influences have been explained in the prescribed literature: Anderson, C. A. (2004). Violence in the media: Its effects on children. Presentation for the Victorian Parenting Centre & Young Media Australia: Issues in Parenting Education, September 11, 2003.
Potter, W. J. (2003). The 11 myths of media violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. (Chapter 2 – Myth 1 – Violence in the media does not affect me, but others are at high risk. pp. 31 – 51.)
1) Active versus passive media (i.e. TV and movie violence versus video game violence)
2) Short and long term effects; and
3) Subtle effects of media violence.
Make sure you reference the relevant prescribed readings for each point.
Heading: Levels of Analysis Framework
This is an important section of your Literature Report – it is worth 35% approximately 380 words). Use the headings and follow the instructions.
Heading: Biological Level of Analysis
Explain what the biological level is. Provide an example from the readings to demonstrate your understanding of this level and a reason (rationale) why the example you have chosen matches this level.
Heading: Psychological Level of Analysis
Explain what the psychological level is. Provide an example from the readings to demonstrate your understanding of this level and a reason (rationale) why the example you have chosen matches this level.
Heading: Environmental / Social Level of Analysis
Explain what the environmental / social level is. Provide an example from the readings to demonstrate your understanding of this level and a reason (rationale) why the example you have chosen matches this level.
Heading: Conclusion (15% approximately 170 words)
Based on the evidence from the prescribed literature you have presented above, write a conclusion on how the levels of analysis framework can be used to understand the influence of media violence on aggression.
Influence of Violent Media on Aggression
General perception of people is that the present day media is harmful for children and the exposure to the violence perpetrated in visual media causes children and adult to behave more violently and aggressively. This kind of exposure has led to commit crimes which are basically sadistic and bestial in some cases.
The belief has gained momentum and many psychologists along with health organisation representatives have pointed out that scientifically it has been proven that media violence has increased the level of intolerance and bestiality.
More than the print media the television and to some extent the films have increased the level of interaction with incidents around the world and more than ever people usually perceive the violent means of getting their views across.
The recent violent acts against women and live decapitation of prisoner of war proves these point beyond doubt that human nature although detest the sight of blood and gory but deep inside these very acts incites them to act and behave improperly. For some these acts are purely for kick and for the rest these are act of getting across a message which they cannot do in normal life.
Active versus passive media
Active media mainly concerns about television where streaming of video of either war zones live, explosions, accidents, sadistic assault against women etc are covered. People do come out with protest but at the same time out of those millions we incite a miniscule number of populations to set out for repetition of similar acts if not more.(Bushman, 1995)
The acts of violence in US schools by school going students where they carried weapons and killed their own schoolmates is an live example what we believe is an after effect of similar acts carried out earlier.
Brandon Centerwall a renowned psychiatrist and also an epidemiologist has suggested that the contemporary increase in violent crime is mainly due to television. According to him the number of violent homicides, rapes and grievous injuries that are perpetrated would have been lesser of not for television.
About a tenth of population believes that television and some movies are to be blamed for everything that is negative and bad for children and adult alike and hence many lobby groups have proposed banning of these coverage’s of crime and gory.
In comparison the video games that are played out with precision instructions to attack, set sight and shoot also plays a big role in fostering aggressive nature amongst children. Mere games for the sake of fun is definitely not affecting but there are games which provides feedback from experts during the creation of such games gives ultimate effect to the act of shooting, methods of killing, and aggressive postures to win a game.
These are not live but do play a big role in affecting the young minds to become aggressive and unrepentant.For such groups these games become a window of venting their angst against people they detest in personal life.
Short and long term effects
Children and adults both becomesmessenger of violence when they are exposed to such excessive violent movies, television media and games. Short term effects could be mainly for adults as children take time to absorb in these violent acts and enact.
For adults these acts of violence work them up and if not controlled might actually take them to the definitive negative emotions more rapidly. Adults definitely primes these set of aggressive negative constructs more vigorously and rapidly.
The movies always show the hero killing or decimating the bad guys by all means of violence and we all enjoy these as we want to show our emotion through violence or extreme acts of aggression. We all show our intent either by violence or aggression and these have become our after effects what we observe day in day out (Huesmann, 2006).
Violence whether in active or passive media establishes or affirms the social relationship that we usually build over a period of time. These also help in shaping our opinions about all kinds of scenario where we pre decide who is our saviour and aggressor.
From the above discussion we could also perceive that violence always perpetuates violence and all kinds of social interactions, the preferences and self-perceptions propagate the same ideology of violence. James Gilligan rightly said that all kinds of violence that we see around us are very closely to either feeling of shame or disruptive justice.
- Bushman, B. J., &Huesmann, L. R. (2006). Short-term and long-term effects of violent media on aggression in children and adults. Archives of Pediatrics& Adolescent Medicine, 160(4), 348-352.
- Bushman, B. J. (1995). Moderating role of trait aggressiveness in the effects of violent media on aggression. Journal of personality and social psychology,69(5), 950.
- Griffin, T. (Ed). (2013 edition): pp. 11 12; 23 – 25; 242 – 255 or Griffin, T. (Ed.). (2010 edition)pp.46;1820;236–248.