Formative Assessment-130982


I need to finalise an online course for my Diploma in Childcare Education in Australia. The unit is HLTHIR404D – Work effectively with Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people.
There is a formative assessment with 15 questions, each requires at least 150-200 words. And there are 2 summative assessments for which i require help on the second one. I need to submit a 2000 word paper.


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Formative Assessment

Activity 1

10 historical events are:

  1. Lack of emergency response: At most of the time, indigenous people are not getting the emergency services from the government, which leads to health deployment that must be addressed
  2. Overrepresentation in criminal justice system: Interplay of contemporary and complex historical factors that include structural disadvantages, systematic racism, over-policing, trauma and poverty
  3. Situation of incarceration: Indigenous areas are dirty, lacks air-conditioning, misappropriate rehabilitation, which needs to be addressed
  4. Accessibility to justice: Aboriginal people remain chronically disadvantaged regarding justice accessibility and situations in family violence
  5. Stolen generations and wages: These people are not paid accordingly and are physically and sexually abused and finally wages are stolen from them
  6. Child poverty, neglect and abuse: Aboriginal children are five times more prone to child protection than non-aboriginals are
  7. Right declaration to indigenous people: Aboriginals are facing right discrimination and they are deprived from usual basics in their lifestyle

Native title land: “Reforms to the Native Title Act create legal certainty for governments and third parties at the expense of native title, but fail to deliver compensation for the

  1. wrongful extinguishment of native title to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Australian law does not recognize traditional owner”
  2. Deprived in employment: People are not getting government jobs just because of racism
  3. Deprived in standard of living and health: The government in required amount does not support the lifestyle requirements for the aboriginals


Activity 2

It is necessary for health care staff to demonstrate knowledge and respect just because of the fact that aboriginals are deprived from the society, and they do not receive equal justification from the staffs. Most of the time it is found that health care staffs does not recognize the family structures and ignore the amount of medical requirements. At is also found that the staffs try to compare the religion and arts of the aboriginals with common people and differences create negative implication on their mind.

For example, “Torres Strait Islander people” get services from government staffs, who stays with them for more than 10 days. Such staffs try to keep separate distance from the families and thus fail to get idea of the aboriginal requirements.

Activity 3

Health service organizations need to get meaningful understanding of history and story of “Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples” and the impact of servicing and communities on the lives of people. In this way, they will get to know about the differences. The staffs need to “develop culturally appropriate programs and ways of servicing” for the “Torres Strait Islander people”. Service providers need to understand the needs holistically by considering aspects such as “lives, cultural traditions and commitments”.

10 cultural realties

  1. Aboriginal time
  2. Social factors
  3. Relationships with service providers
  4. Community and/or family factions
  5. Work and economic status
  6. Other issues relating to communication
  7. Individuals understanding of health conditions and illnesses
  8. Aboriginal people in liaison roles
  9. Aboriginal people who do not identify as being Aboriginal
  10. Environmental issues

Cultural realties examples:

  • Racial problems: Kids face discrimination in school
  • Family Problems: Children are carried away from their families
  • Environmental issue: Food clothing and shelter is not provided




Activity 4

Numbers of strategies are:

Allocation of required time: Amount of time for understand the people and their requirement has to be increased, so that more cultural issues are solved

Extension of relationship: Service providers need to understand the requirements of aboriginals by staying with them. This will increase the mutual relationship with the people and thus, staffs will get to understand deep concern of cultural differences.

Economic Status: Staffs need to understand the requirement of economic stability by extending more opportunities of employment for at least one member of the family.

Communication: An audit team has to be set up for the aboriginals so that after every six months their problems are addressed.

Direct health care supplements: The audit team has deliver required amount of supplies so that each family members is given required food, medical treatment and post cultural treatment.


Activity 5

10 resources are:

  1. Health camp: Health camps will help in increasing the number of health related concerns. If some of the members from health camps are from aboriginals then they will be trained about the way to deliver medical services.
  2. Separate hospitals: Hospitals will have the best outcome, as individuals will get services in individual basis.
  3. First-aid equipments: Each of the families is to be given separate first-aid treatments and free kits that will help in health sustainability.
  4. Hygienic food: This is one of the most important resources as the people lack in basic food. Thus, hygienic food has to be delivered to them.
  5. Medicines: Free medicines are to be given to them directly from the organizations.
  6. Specialized services: Specialized resources related to “general surgery, pediatrics, ophthalmology, obstetrics and gynecology, and ENT surgery”
  7. Clothing: Free clothing and costumes are to be given
  8. Vaccination: Free vaccination to combat with tough diseases
  9. Doctor: Doctor who will be available at any time but will have a period of not more than 15 days
  10. Free Hospitals: Free hospitals are to be arranged for the people

Activities 6

Communication issues can be identified by getting the concerns from the aboriginals. There will be half yearly audits from the service organizations who will identify the issues that the aboriginals are still facing. If the issues are reduced, then it will indicate that there has been effective communication among the staffs. The issues can be identified if it is found that the aboriginals are not effectively communicating with the smart hospital personals. Moreover, if the cultural language differences are not solved then surely aboriginals will not be best communicated.

15 Communication Issues:

  1. Cultural based communication
  2. Language based communication
  3. Community related communication
  4. Ignorance among staff
  5. Misappropriate use of language
  6. Lack of personal communication
  7. Informed decision among aboriginals
  8. Confusion
  9. Use of jargon
  10. Inappropriate instruction
  11. Ineffective community protocols
  12. Failed promises
  13. Inappropriate use of Murri Grapevine
  14. Tone of voice
  15. Lack of responsibility

Activity 7

Services are to be delivered in creative and flexible manner so that changing needs of the communities are addressed. This flexibility will help in involving the indigenous community members. Service structure has to be created that conducts informal programs so that culturally different people are brought together. Cost to service users are to be kept minimum so that expense is limited.

On the other hand, services are to be delivered in the local language of the people or there must be translators who present the language in simple English. Cultural artifacts are to be involved by the staff members, which will represent extension of kin networks. On the other hand, if the community members are the one from aboriginal elders, then better communication will be ensured.

10 communication strategies

  1. Strong personal relationship
  2. Cross-cultural communication
  3. Pick leaders from aboriginal groups
  4. Demonstration of skills
  5. Conducting informal programs
  6. Changing service structures
  7. Try to develop local language
  8. Focus on attracting right staff
  9. Creating piggybacked services
  10. Creating trust among the community

Activity 8

Ineffective communication strategies can be identified if it is found that the aboriginals are not proceeding to the hospitals and camps to strengthen their health. On the other hand, if it is found that amount of deaths and suicides are increasing among aboriginals, then it will indicate poor communication.


Six communication strategies are:

  1. Strong personal relationship: This will help in mitigating the gap among aboriginals and service providers
  2. Cross-cultural communication: This will help in extending relationship among different cultural people
  3. Pick leaders from aboriginal groups: Aboriginals will be motivated in explaining their concerns if leaders are picked from their groups
  4. Demonstration of skills: It will help in delivering right services at right time and even the aboriginals will get to know about the services
  5. Conducting informal programs: This will attract more aboriginals to express their feelings and thus, communicating gap will be reduced
  6. Changing service structures: Hierarchical structure will have to be created where the lowest member will be aboriginal group leader

5 resources:

  1. Health camp
  2. Separate hospitals
  3. First-aid equipments
  4. Hygienic food
  5. Medicines

Activity 9

Cultural safety can e ensured by education, economy and equity. Aboriginals are to be educated with free material s and books. Moreover, if economy is raised by giving government jobs (labor oriented), then source of income will support aboriginal lifestyle. With employment, cultural differences will be mitigated as both non-indigenous and indigenous people will work in coordination with each other.

Certain challenges such as government bodies do not arrange adequate funds in free of cost. Moreover, the government officials are too much reluctant in proving such services as none of the white people are enthusiastic to serve the aboriginals. Furthermore, communication is the most important problem as the aboriginals does not support the staffs for getting service.

Activity 10

Some of the most important strategies are communication, trust, love and cooperative behavior. These factors will help is coordinating the employees and grouping them under one umbrella. Moreover, when the leader from aboriginals is chosen from among the group then they are able to convey the best message to the organization regarding their shortcomings. Strategies such as health and safety compliance with free services and medical facilities will help in enhancing the lifestyle of aboriginals. Diversity tolerance will help in cooperating more amounts of people and thus the needs will be fulfilled.

Activity 11

4 critical issues are:

Lack of training: The staffs are not given required knowledge and training to uplift the aboriginals.

Financial problem: The government has maintained several policies but none of those is appropriate enough in serving the aboriginals. The government is not having enough fund and employment opportunities for raising the status of aboriginals.

Lack of team bonding: The staffs who are selected, are generally from different background and thus they are culturally different, hence there is lack of team cohesiveness.



5 Critical Issues

Communication: The aboriginals are not getting appropriate treatment from the coworkers, as they are not highly communicative. There is predominant language barrier and improper leadership.

Ignorance of lifestyle: Most of the government staffs are lacking the proper idea of aboriginal lifestyle and thus they are not able to deliver appropriate service.

Genuine motive: The officials and staffs are often found to have lack in motives to serve the aboriginals. Staffs are corrupted and consume the services for personal use. Thus, the whole service team is affected.

Approach from clients: Often it is found that the clients are reluctant is proceeding with their issues to the staff and thus a gap is created.

Racism: The clients are racially different from the staffs and thus, the clients are not getting attention.


Activity 12

15 factors for cultural misunderstandings:

  1. Communication: Staffs are not well aware of the style of communication that is to be delivered
  2. Language: Local aboriginal language is not well known by the staffs that creates differences
  3. Racism: Racism has to be removed from the minds of co-workers
  4. Behavior: The workers need to change their urban diplomatic behavior
  5. Stereotypes: Diversified culture is ensured and thus, categorized behavior has to be ensured
  6. Ethnocentrism: Workers judge the local aboriginals by their values and beliefs and thus misunderstanding occurs
  7. Failed Promises: Government officials fail to keep promises
  8. Negligence: Workers neglect the black people and thus miscommunication occur
  9. Support: Support from government is not achieved by the workers
  10. Initiative: Workers do not take initiative is really upgrading the lifestyle of aboriginals
  11. Love: Sympathy and love is often found to be lacking among the workers
  12. Difference in treatment: Workers do not differentiate the type of treatment for each patient
  13. Miscommunication and misinterpretation: Difference in language creates misinterpretation
  14. Cultural ignorance: Aboriginal culture is not justified by the employees
  15. Lack of training: Workers are not properly trained and so misunderstandings are created



  1. Training
  2. Motivation
  3. Language development
  4. Eradication of racism
  5. Change communication style

It is important to revisit the effectiveness of strategies as with change in time, the motivation among the workers and staffs are changed. Thus, the initial initiative starts lacking. Hence, it is required to deal with new half-yearly audits and meetings for measuring the effectiveness.

Activity 13

Services can be increased if 10 % of the employees are from aboriginals. The leaders from aboriginals are to be included in the service methods so that most of the aboriginals get motivated in expressing their feelings and problems. Quite often it is found that aboriginals are not given employment, and thus if they are made as the part of health services, then they will start earning. Moreover, the government employees are to be given training and proper communication skills so that communication is reduced. The local languages and style of delivering the services are to be customized so that the expectation of aboriginal people is ensured. Finally, false promises are to be stopped so that trust among the clients are raised.

Activity 14

Health care services will be extended with the introduction of more amounts of health camps and medical facilities. There must be installation of new departmental hospitals among the aboriginal epicenter so that there is no requirement of visiting the urban hospitals. Specialized trained doctors and nurses are to be included in the hospitals who need to stay at the site for at least 6 months. In this way, the relationship among the clients and staffs will be increased. There shall be medical professionals and in regular basis, the bio-medical suggestions are to be provided. Audit team has to be arranged and justified outcome has to be ascertained so that none of the service is left out. Finally, first-aid box has to be arranged to each of the families, which will ensure trust and confidence among the clients.

Activity 15

The most important resource from the government is capital. The amounts of aboriginals are increasing in Australia and thus, it is required for the organization to increase the fund allocation. Health report has to be generated so that the current problems from the aboriginal people are collected. This is one of the most important resources, as it will help in identifying the viral diseases, and communicative sickness. Doctors from top institutes are to be collected with higher salary so that they get motivated in serving the aboriginals. Employees from registered training institute are to be collected as they are fluent in communication and are trained with equipment handling. The local communication has to be learned by the employees so that there is no miscommunication among them. Free medicines are to be allotted for the aboriginals direct to their homes so that fast service is ensured. Finally, hygienic food is the main requirement for the aboriginals, as they do not have enough access to quality food.

Summative Assessment


“Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people” are the oldest inhabitants of Australia. Due to the economic and educational crisis, these kinds of people suffer from bad quality of life. Due to unhygienic climate and food quality, they also suffer from various health issues (Murphy 2015). The study will analyze health and health related issues that the indigenous people have faced in the earlier days. The study will also analyze the contemporary health issues of indigenous people. The study will demonstrate strategies to overcome the disadvantages of issues and make the health services of culturally safe. The study will depict the resources that would be required for implementing the strategies to overcome the health issues of indigenous people. The accountability of funding bodies, government and health service provider will also be demonstrated in this study. At the end, the study will analyze the strategies for anti racism in Australia.

Health and health service issues of Indigenous people in Australia

“Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people” are the oldest original inhabitants in Australia. These kinds of people have occupied the mainland and some of the surrounding islands of Australia. The health and well being statistics indicates that “Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people” are much less healthy than the normal community of Australia is. Due to unhygienic climate and unhygienic food available to them, they suffer from various health issues (Nicholson et al. 2015). It has been found that the life expectancy of “Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people” is twenty years lower for male indigenous and nineteen years lower for female indigenous. According to the survey of Australian health minister in 2004, the mortality rates of across all age group are very high, especially in the age of 34-55, which is 5 to 6 time higher than the normal Australian community is. From the year 1999 to 2003, the mortality rates of “Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants” are three time higher than the “non-aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people”.

The national health survey of 2001 in Australia shows that in spite of strict control, indigenous people have higher rate of alcohol consumption that lead to ill health for those people. Indigenous people mostly suffer from ‘hepatitis B’, ‘intestinal parasites’ and some ‘bacterial infections’. Trauma is the most frequent reason for the death of these kinds of people. In the earlier days, these people mostly suffered from ‘smallpox’ and ‘sexually transmissible infections’. In the contemporary days, “Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people” mostly suffers from ‘tuberculosis’, ‘influenza’, ‘measles’, ‘scarlet fever’, and ‘whooping cough’. Cancer is also the most common disease among these kinds of people (Dempsey et al. 2014).  In the earlier days, these kinds of people did not have many treatment options for their ill health. However, nowadays many health treatment services are available to them for treating their ill health.

Preventing health services are focused with an intension to improve the health condition of the “Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people” and providing them better life. Australia has 8 million separate hospitals for these kinds of people. In spite of these hospitals, the indigenous people still has to face several health related issues (Maddox, Durkin and Lovett 2015). In the  public hospitals, these people are to wait in a long queue for their treatment like ‘lective surgeries’, including’ cataract extraction’, ‘septoplasty’ and ‘total hip replacement’. Apart from that, these kinds of people themselves are less likely to undergo a medical treatment in the hospitals. Thus, prevention of health issues is very difficult for these kinds of people.

Strategies to overcome health service issue

Health promotion campaign

The health service provider of Australia should establish some health promotion campaigns for the treatment of “Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people”. This health treatment campaign should be developed in conjunction with indigenous people. The health service camp would provide various type of health support material for the improvement of the indigenous people. The campaign would also provide biomedical information and health suggestion to these kinds of people (Nicholson et al. 2015). The indigenous community would help to ensure that the health materials and biomedical information provided by the health service provider are relevant. Moreover, community based health promotion campaign would be helpful for improving the cross-cultural communication among the “Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people”.

Employ indigenous people in public health service

Many indigenous people do not want to undergo a medical treatment in a public hospital due to cultural differences. In such case, if the public hospital employs some indigenous people in public hospital, it would be better for the indigenous people to go to the public hospital. Indigenous people usually do not understand English language; therefore, it is very difficult for these people to communicate with the non-indigenous in the public hospital (Brown et al. 2015). In this case, if these people find some people of their category, who understand their language would be beneficial for communication with the service provider of the public hospital.

Flexible and coordinated health service

Flexible and coordinated health service would be helpful in creating a welcoming environment for the indigenous people to the health service department of Australia. The normal structure of the health service should be avoided in the health service department for indigenous people (Aspin et al. 2012). No fixed appointment criteria should be there in hospital that would create hectic situation for the indigenous people. Some people should be there in the entry point of the health service department, who will be able to assist the indigenous people.

Indigenous specific health services

Some health services should be developed in Australia, which would be only for indigenous people. This health service department would mostly run by indigenous community. It would reduce the cross-cultural communication issues of these people. These kinds of health service departments would provide multidisciplinary health program in one location. It would increase the accessibility of health services for the “Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people” in Australia.

Resources for addressing the health issues

Registered training organization

In order to provide better health service to the indigenous people, it is required to provide training to the employees of health service. Apart from that, in indigenous specific heath service department, the indigenous service provider should also be given training for providing better health service to the people. The people should also be trained in nursing courses for better curing the indigenous patient. In public health service department also, employees should specially be given training for specific aboriginal health care practice (Davis, Davis and McAullay 2015). The emphasis of this kind of training would be on acquiring practical skills for the treatment of “Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people”.

Doctors association for aboriginal people

Australia should make an association of various doctors for the indigenous people. The association of doctors would constantly discuss over the health issues of indigenous people. According to the discussion, they would try to make immediate solution for mitigating the health issues. The doctors would also provide free medical check-up for the indigenous people. This association would also try to understand the root causes of the health problem and try to get rapid solution for these health issues.

Reports on the health

Unless and until any report on the health issues of the indigenous people is get, it is not possible to undertake any prevention measures for treating those issues. The health service department should try to collect information related to the health related issues of indigenous people (Heffernan et al. 2012). Depending upon the information collected this health service department would provide service to the aboriginal community. This report should also be collected in a regular basis to identify any gap between the service provided and the service received by the indigenous people.



Medicines and medical checkup

Due to the economic problem of indigenous people, they are not able to buy any expensive for their treatment. Therefore, it would be better, if health service provider of Australia provide some free medicines to the indigenous people. The health service provider should also provide free medical checkup for these kinds of people for their awareness about their health issues.

Necessity of greater accountability of funding body, Government and health service provider

 Funding bodies

The funding bodies of Australia should be highly interested for the development of indigenous people. They should realize the needs of quality life of these kinds of people. In order to develop the life and health of indigenous people, it is necessary to establish many educational institutions and health service departments. It requires huge amount of money to be invested in the development program (Markwick et al. 2014). They should try to collect funds for various donors like government, multinational organization and NGOs. Apart from that, the funding bodies should also maintain transparency in the funding for the development of indigenous people. It should be ensured that proper money is allocated in proper development plan. Unless and until funding bodies show honesty in allocating money, it will not be possible properly develop the life of indigenous people.




The Government of Australia should take appropriate initiative for developing the health and life of the indigenous people. Government should apply appropriate ethics and values for the development of these kinds of people. Some laws should be developed to reduce the discrimination between the “Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people” and “non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people”. The accountability of government is very much needed for developing the indigenous people (Arabena, Rowley and MacLean 2015). Conflicts among the political parties in Australia may destroy the result of initiative taken by the Government for developing these kinds of people. Therefore, all the political parties along with the government should take initiative in enhancing the quality of the life of indigenous people.

Health service provider

Accountability of health service provider is very important for the development of indigenous people. The health of these kinds of people in majorly depends on the medical professionals. They should be genuinely interested to mitigate the health issues of indigenous people and provide appropriate medicine and health guide to them. The medical professional should also have specialized knowledge on the specific health issues face by the “Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people” so that they can provide right treatment to them. Inappropriate treatment may lead to worse health condition of the indigenous people.

Reasons and way of implementing anti racism strategies

Racism of indigenous people may take many form of like bad comments, jokes and harassment. Many indigenous female often face sexual harassment in their locality (Aquino 2016). Racism can directly exclude the indigenous people to be employed in any organization. It creates inequalities among the people of Australia. The belief of superior and inferior among the indigenous people is decreasing their morality (Maher and Askew 2014). Thus, one part of Australia is lagging behind in their education and qualification and thus dropping down the development of Australia. Therefore, racism should be reduced for the indigenous people to make Australia a culturally and economical sound country.

The ways of anti-racism

Creating awareness among the community: The Australian should make anti racism campaigns that would try to aware the community about the bad impact of racism.

Employment of indigenous people: The economic difference would surly minimized if the indigenous people get equal opportunity in regards to employment in the organization (Goodman 2015). If these people get jobs in any organization, it would reduce the economic crisis of them. Thus, minimization of economic difference would ultimate reduce the cultural difference of Australia.

Education: It should be the responsibility of the Australian Government to motivate the indigenous people to be educated and develop their life (Richie 2015). The Government would take initiatives to open special educational institutions for these people.


While concluding the study, it can be said that lack of education and economic support preventing the development of “Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people” in Australia. Unhygienic climate leads to various diseases of these kinds of people. Many indigenous people do want to undergo any treatment in the health service department due to cultural differences. The Australian should employ indigenous staff in the public health service department so that it becomes easy for indigenous people to go to the public health service department. In order to implement these strategies many medical professional would be required in the health care department. The accountability of finding bodies, government and health service department is very necessary for the development of indigenous people. In order to reduce racism of indigenous people, the Australian people should be aware of the bad impact of racism on the country.

Reference list

Aquino, K., 2016. Anti-racism ‘from below’: exploring repertoires of everyday anti-racism. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 39(1), pp.105-122.

Arabena, K., Rowley, K. and MacLean, S., 2015. Health Promotion in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities.

Aspin, C., Brown, N., Jowsey, T., Yen, L. and Leeder, S., 2012. Strategic approaches to enhanced health service delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness: a qualitative study. BMC health services research, 12(1), p.143.

Brown, A., O’Shea, R.L., Mott, K., McBride, K.F., Lawson, T. and Jennings, G.L., 2015. A strategy for translating evidence into policy and practice to close the gap-developing essential service standards for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cardiovascular care. Heart, Lung and Circulation, 24(2), pp.119-125.

Davis, T.M., Davis, W.A. and McAullay, D., 2015. Re: essential service standards for equitable national cardiovascular care for aboriginal and torres strait islander people. Heart, lung & circulation, 24(6), p.626.

Dempsey, M., Elliott, M., Gorton, C., Leamy, J. and Yeganeh, S., 2014. Improving treatment outcomes for HIV-positive Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people at Cairns Sexual Health using the treatment cascade as a model. Fire in the belly: the call to action on HIV from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, p.36.

Goodman, D., 2015. Can You Love Them Enough to Help Them Learn?: Reflections of a Social Justice Educator on Addressing Resistance from White Students to Anti-Racism Education. Understanding and Dismantling Privilege, 5(1).

Heffernan, E.B., Andersen, K.C., Dev, A. and Kinner, S., 2012. Prevalence of mental illness among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Queensland prisons. Med J Aust, 197(1), pp.37-41.

Maddox, R., Durkin, S. and Lovett, R., 2015. Plain packaging implementation: perceptions of risk and prestige of cigarette brands among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health.

Maher, C.M. and Askew, D.A., 2014. Health and well‐being of urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women at their first antenatal visit: A cross‐sectional study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 54(1), pp.88-90.

Markwick, A., Ansari, Z., Sullivan, M., Parsons, L. and McNeil, J., 2014. Inequalities in the social determinants of health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: a cross-sectional population-based study in the Australian state of Victoria. Int J Equity Health, 13(1), p.91.

Murphy, E., 2015. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Green Left Weekly, (1072), p.5.

Nicholson, A.K., Borland, R., Couzos, S., Stevens, M. and Thomas, D.P., 2015. Smoking-related knowledge and health risk beliefs in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The Medical journal of Australia, 202(10), pp.S45-50.

Nicholson, A.K., Borland, R., van der Sterren, A.E., Bennet, P.T., Stevens, M. and Thomas, D.P., 2015. Social acceptability and desirability of smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The Medical journal of Australia, 202(10), pp.S57-62.

Richie, B.E., 2015. Reimagining the Movement to End Gender Violence: Anti-Racism, Prison Abolition, Women of Color Feminisms, and Other Radical Visions of Justice. U. Miami Race & Soc. Just. L. Rev., 5, p.257.