ANSWER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
- (i) With reference to both the case AND the relevant literature, discuss whether staff are likely to resist the planned changes; use your answer to identify the reasons for resistance to change. (50%)
(ii) The Managing Director clearly advocates the use of coercion to overcome any resistance which might occur. Through reference to the relevant literature critically evaluate the full range of measures which are available to management in attempting to overcome resistance. Illustrate your answer through reference to the case study scenario. (50%)
- Through reference to the planned change literature, recommend a model of ‘planned changed’ which TR’s management could have used in implementing the changes. Critically evaluate the advantages which the use of such a model would bring to the situation.
Change is one of the most challenging tasks to perform for any organization. As the word defines its definition, it is the beginning of the new era. Whether it is any organization or any kind work or in any household, the word ‘change’ brings smiles on the faces of the people. Everybody likes the changes which are done for the betterment of the society. From the business point of view, change is need of organization to compete in today’s competitive business environment and to perform corporate planning efficiently (Agboola&Salawu, 2011). In order to perform change organizational managers have to work together to develop a strong organizational culture that would not resist the change. Different organization use different techniques for performing this changing process.
Planned Change Model:
Organization need to undergo through process in order perform change efficiently. In this modern era, there is numerous numbers of factors which force the organization to bring chsnges in there in and around ambience at regular interval of time. . The factor that lead organization towards change is may be the internal factors which includeemployees’ attitude, culture, policy and procedures. In addition external forces likegovernment legislation, customer demand, competitors, and economiccondition will force an organization to perform changes (Allen, Jimmieson, Bordia &Irmer, 2007). The top level managers of the organization are very well aware of the forces, which force them to make compromise with the word success. In 21st century for managing the workplace a significant part of change management strategies should include is Kurt Lewin’s three step model of change. This model was developed in early 90’s but its ‘Unfreezing-Transition-Freezing’concept is still remains relevant current business environment.
Kurt Lewin’splanned change model:
The change management model will explain here to implement changing process in TR Ltd. How the three phase model work for TR Ltd. as key part of their business improvement and performing successful organization change is explained here.
The phases of three step change model are given below:
In this stage management team of TR Ltd required makingthe need for change so obvious that the employees, group of individuals and organizations can becomeready to accept it. For instance in TR company the assembly line workers may resist the change because they will have to move towards new employment contract that would impose lower pay scale. To influence the human resource manager who resistschange to take action can be done by doing attitude survey of all staff at TR Ltd. This survey may show the morale of staff is quite low and hence risk of safety is quite higher.
First step is educating employees and communicating with them about the need for change. This can be done by stating the outcome that the company can achieve such as if company gets successful through this change in future employee will get good career options and promotional opportunities (Arif, Jan, Marwat&Ullah, 2009). This would help to increase employees’confidence and belief that these changes are possible.
It is important to do the analysis first to identify what change is required. Because change cannot be performedfor change sakebut it happen when compelling information about business and market is showing organization that how necessary to change now. To build and understanding internal research and external research and gathering of data about it is essential (Barachini, 2009). For developing new strategies and way of performing function it is important to break existing status quo. That is needed to break the system which is a resistancefor organizations success.Managementhas to compel people in terms they can understand that the old ways company using for manufacturing cannot be continuing now (Bernerth et.al, 2011).Because the old status quo providing poor outcomes. During the changing process it is needed to maintain regular communication with the employees.Leaders have to apply open door policy where employee can discuss their concern and fear about the change.
Managing Director of TR Ltd said that with the next pay slip everyone will receive the letter of new salary details and employment contract which include their new duties. Before this transition will happen it is require shifting or alteringemployees’ opinion about change. The process will require time to show its effect and will not happen quickly and will take time to be comfortable with change and act according to it (Bisel& Barge, 2011).
Once employees get to know the importance ofchange and how beneficial it is for them and for the company they will start to take initiative in the change and drive it. The people who unnecessarilycreatesproblem in managing change and increase resistance towards change should be terminated from the organization (Bisel, Messersmith&Keyton, 2010). As instructed by the managing director of TRLtd. Change agents have to foster new values, attitudes and behavior by internationalization.
When everything like employee, organizational structure and strategy elements all combined together and working well, then it’s time to freeze the things. This stage of model requires that every department manage make sure about the persistence of improvement (Carless, 2005). Freezing eliminates confusion for people who are unsure about what needs to be done if changes were not locked.
Regarding to this context Managing Director conducted board meeting with the director of human resource department, finance department and production department. In that meeting all directors put their views about impact of changing process on organization level in front of managing director.
Advantages of planned change model for TR Ltd:
Organization would achieve effectiveness and efficiency:
There are different meanings of efficiency and effectiveness in terms when we are discussing about management unless they are the synonyms; the other word which comprises the synonymsare competency, productivity and the proficiency. There are other ways in which we can consider is efficiency means the output minus the input divide by the input or doing it in right way and effectiveness means doing the work efficiently and effectively. Let us consider the example of the surgeon, who is going to operate and have proper skills to do so and perhaps he is the one of the best in this field throughout the country. The job of the doctor is to operate the left knee of the patient. The efficiency of the doctor can be judged, when he tells the right, quick and efficient solution for the problem. To make that job an effective one, it is totally depend on the inner satisfaction of the patient that he/she is comfortable after the surgery.
Bringing change in organization and its implementation:
The change in the organization is quite constant and this always occurs. Evaluation of the kind and level of the change that anybody wants to bring in an organization can be done by understanding all of the components at an individual level. Understanding the needs of the every individual and its impact on his life is of very much importance because this shows how much level of satisfaction can be achieved by bringing the changes.
FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:
The following are the factors which can influence the organization to bring changes in it:-
1) The most important factor that influences the organization to bring changes is the external factor, which means the people who are visiting the organization notice most of the aspects that is not good inside and understanding those aspects are very important and with that respect changes can be done inside the organization.
2) Perhaps of the external factors, there are lot of internal factors that can influence the organization to bring changes like there are some manufacturing parts which are having problem of accuracy due to the problem of the die or some machine internal problem or there is lack fo system in implementing some new rules in the company. So these kind of internal problems encourage organization to bring changes in the organization.
Effective operation in global environment:
There is a huge impact of the environmental factors on the organization. They join hand in hand in developing the organization in every aspect. This environment can be the internal or the external it have quite an influential effect on the company. Like as we say they complete cycle of the system in the way that the environmental factors inside the company include the organizational culture that hoe everybody is treating with each other in the organization, is the follow up of the proper channel of system? The behavior of the employees towards the development of the organization is optimistic or negative, the cleanliness is maintained in the organization and everybody is performing its duty to make the ambience clean and clear which helps in developing the organization’s internal environment. From the external perspective the pollution that is created by the companies is affecting the health of the people as the pollution can of any kind, it can be air pollution or the water pollution. The air pollution means the contaminated air which is breathed by the workers and the water they drink.
The main aim of the section is to study the environmental factors and the response of the organization in this context (Pillai, Watson and Eisenach, 1999).
The analysis of organization-environment factors and its effects will results in setting up of much influential organizational strategies to cope with environmental changes. There are six variables that are considered in this perspective: internal environment, external environment, strategy, strategic orientation, competitive organizational structure and performanceof business (Higgs & Rowland, 2005). The test of validity and reliability shows that the variables which are considered are reliable and highly valid in this respect. Concerning these effects, following are the findings are: (1) there is positive influences of the external environment to competitive strategies, (2) on the other hand, internal environments also have optimistic influences to competitive strategies, (3) the structure of the organization have negative influence to competitive strategies, (4) on the strategic orientation the competitive strategies have optimistic influence, (5) business performance also have the optimistic influences of competitive strategies, (6) also organizational structures have optimistic influence on competitive strategies,(7)strategic orientation have optimistic influence to the business performance, and (8) business performance are influenced by the organization structure.
Demonstrate awareness of their probable impact on future:
Taking the future perspective in this context, globalization is the way we make it to the global level. The interaction of the people of different countries, culture, ethnics and colors develop the possibilities to expand business to the global level. With the development of the information technology now it is quite easy to share the things from one place to any part of the world. The economic perspective for the organization will rise if they get connected to the different people who are working with different organizations. The socio economic behavior of the people develops with the globalization which give boost to the international trade and investment.
The communication technology is advanced with the time i.e the technological advancements of internet, telecommunication, smart phones and other communication mediums. These types of communication systems help in developing the business.
Help to manage conflict in organization:
There are different kinds of conflicts that occur in the organization and there is a need of efficient and effective management to handle those conflicts and settle them in the favor of the companies. The conflicts are nothing just the communication barrier which is being created due some internal politics. Every organization hasthese kinds of conflicts, but there is always a need to settle those conflicts as soon as possible so that I may not affect the production of the component and reflect negative effect from the customer perspective.
There are internal and external issues which even by ignoring rise up as a conflict. Like if we take the example of the internal conflicts, while maintaining the machine, the mechanical maintenance department workers was maintaining then suddenly the production supervisor started shouting on it to complete the work as soon as possible and also used some unhealthy words to him which he couldn’t abled to resist himself to give revert back to him. This raised the conflict in the workshop and all the workers of that workshop got involved into it by favoring the maintenance department worker. This situation took a huge face, which resulted in the loss of the production, internal environment of the organization got disturbed and from the economic perspective there occurred huge lose. This shows that there is huge rise in the conflict and the production supervisor is involved in this conflict. Now it is the responsibility of the production manager and maintenance manager to get involved and solve the conflict and bring the movement in the production and if they will not get involved then it would certainly effect the production. So there is need of strong management to solve that conflict as soon as possible in favor of the company. This will increase the profitability of the organization and teaching the workers the lesson that how these conflicts affecting their lives and their performance. Encouraging the hard working workers is another perspective by increasing their salaries and promoting them to the respectable posts. This also encourages the workers to get involved in their work and keep away from the conflicts.
In concluding the above discussed facts, I came to the conclusion that maintaining the organization environment is quite important to keep the organization healthy from every perspective i.e from customer perspective and from organizational benefit perspective and also from the economic perspective. There is always need of skilled and strong management which take steps in a planned way so that the rules can be implemented in a effective way and are followed it efficiently. The management should have good relation with the employees of the organization so that they respect every decision of the organization. There is a responsibility of the management to provide them knowledge of every step that is being taken and its effects on the lives of every person involved with the organization.
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