Discussion Board Assignment-93570-51425


Personal Communication. 3

Middleware. 4

Applications of Middleware. 4

Origin and Limitations. 5

References. 6

Personal Communication

In case of personal communication that includes letter, emails, memo, conversations and telephone discussion and messages, the rules of APA citation can be considered a bit different. In APA citation function, the materials of personal communication cannot include reference list as the data are non-recoverable. Therefore, in the text citation is done in the case of personal communication. In a personal communication, the letters, emails, memos, conversation, and messages are considered as not retrievable by others. As a result, the reference list is not added to in text citation. Citation of personal communication can be presented by giving the initials of the person with the surname of the raconteur (‘BASF and Cognis joining forces for innovative personal care solutions at CITE Japan 2011’, 2011). For instance,

S. Knowles (personal communication, August 5, 2015) develops a unique relation between the two new factors.

Professor Cabbie in a letter offers his views on a certain theory presented in the section. (L. T. Cabbie, personal communication, July 15, 2015)

Therefore, in case of personal communication APA guidelines are very easy to say the least. At the same time, citation method is different from book citation or journal citation. Any interactions, conversations, and personal communication have to follow same citation rules that have been presented in the segment (Boase, 2008). The orientation of personal communication is very essential to understand the name of the communicator. Therefore, the citation is necessary to explore the behalf of the communicator. Meanwhile, there is not much to do with the citation method as far as citing personal communication is concerned.

Personal communication is an essential instrument in any institute or organization. Therefore, organizations and institutes put more importance on personal communication development. Understandably, communication is a medium to exchange information. At the same time, personal communication can increase discussion and knowledge sharing. Therefore, communication can be valued highly in world-class organizations (‘How to cite Evidence-Based Communication Assessment and Intervention’, 2007). Developing personal communication methods are highly regarded as far as personal skill development is concerned. In case of written presentation such as email, letter or interview conversations, the in-text citation is essential and can be termed as one the most important factor as far personal communication is concerned. Within an organization or an institute, professionals and students are trained mainly to make note of personal communication at the highest level using proper citation method. The discussion paper is indeed written to describe such facts associated with the personal communication. In-depth citation knowledge in personal communication can encourage the writer to produce more evident contact with provided communication materials such as a letter, emails, memo, conversations, written interviews and telephone discussion.


In this segment, software named Middleware has been critically discussed to determine the technology, origin and application of the software. First of all, the definition of Middleware has to be presented to make a statement on the software. Middleware is the specific software that joins enterprise application or software constituents (Hadim & Mohamed, 2006). On a technical basis, Middleware is the software stratum that positions between the computer operating system and the business applications on each part of a scattered computer network (Stebbins, 2006). Middleware mainly provides services to those specific applications that are attached to the organizational operating systems. The software has made it easy for the software developers to execute efficient communication so that the developers can focus on an individual application used for a particular purpose. Typically, Middleware distributes business applications that can support the complex within the circulated computer network (Noergaard, 2011). To make the communication easy, the software supplies all critical applications needed to maintain the other software. Middleware mainly comprises content management structures, Web Servers, Application Servers and analogous tools that can efficiently support application deliverance and sharing within the circulated computer network (Plagemann, 2002). Middleware is designed fundamentally to support information technology that is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML), Web servers, Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), Web 2.0 infrastructure and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) (Li & Zhou, 2010).

Applications of Middleware

Middleware software enables a source of communication and data management to deliver and sharing applications within the circulated computer network. Middleware services include enterprise application integration, data integration, message oriented middleware (MOM), object request brokers and enterprise service bus (ESB) (Miller, 2004). Middleware successfully sets up the communications system within a distributed computing system to deliver essential data and applications as per requirement. Distributed Computing System Middleware can be alienated from two different groups such as the web requesting human-time services and machine time services. The software is very useful within a distributed computing network as Middleware successfully performs the delivery job of data and documents (WU, 2013). The software and the distributed system must be standardized as far as security is concerned. Service Availability Forum has got the authority to approve such distributed computing networks by following the guidelines. Such technology can be used in telecom industry and defense sector to make communication more fluent and safe. In case of modern Android OS, Middleware has played an efficient part to control communications. Mobile-oriented middleware software is very demandable for the performance of the software as far as distributed network is concerned. Android OS provides a layer of Middleware to develop communication apps increasing data storage online. The Middleware layer can successfully enable the Android users to use services such as web browsing, data sharing, and multimedia. The software is also capable of creating more applications as far as Android OS is concerned. The middleware layer used in the Android OS is included core Java application library to make it more useful.

Origin and Limitations

In the 1980s, Middleware gained fame as the software could easily solve the linkage problem between two distributed computing systems. Since then Middleware has been gone through some changes. In current time, the software is successfully making its mark on the larger application and distributed computing networks. Middleware has been a revolution as far as computing networking is concerned. The software has opened new floodgates for the developers to work with in networking sector (Noergaard, 2011). Meanwhile, Middleware has got some limitations as well. The difference between computer operating system and Middleware’s working capabilities can be termed as random. In telecommunication, IP stack has been added to the Middleware to create an operating system. Such limitations can be termed as petite as far as Middleware’s performance is concerned (Noergaard, 2011).


BASF and Cognis joining forces for innovative personal care solutions at CITE Japan 2011. (2011).Focus On Surfactants2011(8), 3-4. doi:10.1016/s1351-4210(11)70231-1

Boase, J. (2008). PERSONAL NETWORKS AND THE PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM.Information, Communication & Society11(4), 490-508. doi:10.1080/13691180801999001

Hadim, S., & Mohamed, N. (2006). Middleware: Middleware Challenges and Approaches for Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Distributed Systems Online7(3), 1-1. doi:10.1109/mdso.2006.19

How to cite Evidence-Based Communication Assessment and Intervention. (2007). Evidence-Based Communication Assessment And Intervention1(1), 7-7. doi:10.1080/17489530701322216

Li, Q., & Zhou, M. (2010). The Future-Oriented Middleware Technology. JCP5(2). doi:10.4304/jcp.5.2.250-257

Miller, J. (2004). Emerging issues in the electronic environment. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Information Press.

Noergaard, T. (2011). Demystifying embedded systems middleware. Amsterdam: Newnes.

Plagemann, T. (2002). Middleware + multimedia = multimedia middleware?. Multimedia Systems8(5), 395-396. doi:10.1007/s005300200060

Stebbins, L. (2006). Student guide to research in the digital age. Westport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited.

WU, Q. (2013). Network Computing Middleware. Journal Of Software24(1), 67-76. doi:10.3724/sp.j.1001.2013.04296