Study Outlines: 1345719

Outline of the study by Moore & Klingner (2014)

Meta-analytic procedures

Framing of the research questions

Searching of literature

Reduction of the data obtained from the studies identified

Summary of results regarding the needs of the English Language Learner Populations

Summary of results 

After an extensive search of 67 professional education literature published between the years 2001 and 2010, the authors conclude that 25 studies out of the set identified addresses the specific needs of the English Language Learners. The study thus concludes that many researchers are considering the diverse needs of different struggling students in various learning environments.

Inclusion criteria, Exclusion Analysis, MPTA analysis

Must date between 2001 and 2010

Has to be professional literature

Studies had to have more than 20 participants

Meterrater analysis

Result: 67 intervention studies were identified for students who were struggling or those who were considered at-risk readers.

Summary of the results: the results elaborate more on how the authors focused on and addressed issues related to population validity. An elaboration of whether the authors of the studies selected considered ELLs in their work. The study ends by showing how the authors made a generalization of their findings.

Moderator analysis 


Category intervention 

Categories were based on target, ethnicity, and conclusion or finding discussions of the article.


Space limitation hindered vital aspects in the study, such as ecological validity, implying that instrumental aspects such as validation of the correct designed environment for the respondents were not ensured. The researchers needed to validate if the environment that was considered in the study was perfect as designed. Failure to make the validations lowers the accuracy of the study.


Moore, B. A., & Klingner, J. K. (2014). Considering the needs of English language learner populations: An examination of the population validity of reading intervention research. Journal of learning disabilities47(5), 391-408.

Outline of the study done by Walker (2017)

Meta-Analytic Procedures

Listening to multimedia electronic books

Listening to traditional orals and reading traditional books

Combination of simulation with support modicum using native language (Spanish)

Analysis of the results

Summary of Results

A sample size of 93 Latino dual language learners was assigned to read the expository text and narrative texts under different factors, including whether the children had support in reading and if they were involved in the manipulation of the entire story objects. Texts were delivered using the EMBRACE system, and from the two analyses, it was found that while simulation promotes comprehension narrative, it had no impacts on expository text.

Inclusion Criteria, Exclusion Analysis, MPTA Analysis

The studies had to consider bilingual children between ages 5 to 8.

Exclusion of participants with less than 75% log data completion

Meterrater Analysis

Results: Effects of simulation had an interaction with the child ability to decode, and Spanish was of great advantage when combined with simulation

Summary of the Results: 

Reading of grade-recommended texts produced in a simple narrative style and interaction and simulation of texts helps in comprehension. Also, reading an exposition that is advanced and having the ability to decode is vital in the learning process of a child. Simulation helps in language comprehension.

Moderator Analysis

Variables: Skill of English language, the fraction of post chapter inference, and verbatim questions.

Results: Both post chapter and verbatim questions were answered correctly, having a reflection of the two analyses.  

Category Intervention

The analysis was based on children of ages ranging from 5 to 8 years old.

Log data was applicable, and the mean number examined on every chapter tapped by the student.




Walker, E., Adams, A., Restrepo, M. A., Fialko, S., & Glenberg, A. M. (2017). When (and how) interacting with technology-enhanced storybooks helps dual language learners. Translational issues in psychological science3(1), 66.

Outline of the study done by Richards et al. (2016)

Meta-analytic procedures           

Sampling criteria were established by the researchers

Sorting was done based on English learning status considered in the studies

Information regarding the fidelity of the implementation was recorded.

Summary of results 

The study by Richards et al. examines the effect of the provision of reading interventions to English learners who were at high risk of encountering academic difficulties as well as the students who had different forms of disabilities.

Inclusion criteria, Exclusion Analysis, MPTA analysis

The studies selected had to be:

Those published from 2000 to 2012 in peer-reviewed journals

The studies had to be for learners with a disability or English learners at risk in Grades K-12

Meterrater analysis

Results: Most of the studies measured various outcomes across many areas of reading, although those that specialized in improving foundational skills had better and more consistent effects compared to other outcomes.

Summary of results of the main effect: the studies focusing on foundational skills such as phonics and PA while considering the younger children in first grade and kindergarten had a more consistent effect compared to those that focused on improving the learners’ comprehension and vocabulary.

Moderator analysis

Variables: Type of personnel delivering the intervention, size of the group, and duration of interventions

Results: not significant predictors of outcome

Summary of results: from the regression analysis that was conducted, it was evident that there was no significant relationship that was realized between the intervention outcomes and each of the moderator variables that were considered.

Category intervention 

The categories considered were based on the domains given by the national reading panel




Richards-Tutor, C., Baker, D. L., Gersten, R., Baker, S. K., & Smith, J. M. (2016). The effectiveness of reading interventions for English learners: A research synthesis. Exceptional Children82(2), 144-169.

Outline of the study done by Slavin & Cheung, (2005)

Meta-analytic procedures 

Formulation of a research question

Searching for studies  

Matching the studies and choosing the desired

Analyzing the results pertaining to bilingual and English only reading programs for learners studying English

Summary of results: despite the fact that the number of high-quality studies is relatively small, the evidence that is available is in favor of bilingual approaches that teach students reading in their native language and English at different intervals within the day.

Inclusion criteria, Exclusion Analysis, MPTA analysis

The study had to include a comparison of children taught reading in English immersion classes and those taught in bilingual classes.

The studies had to either use matching criteria or random assessment to establish the degree of comparability of immersion or bilingual groups before the commencement of the treatment.

Treatment duration utilized in the studies had to be at least one year.

The studies had to focus on English as a subject in elementary or secondary schools that were located in English speaking countries.

Meterrater analysis

Results: alternate bilingual models are not fully conclusive, but there is no evidence to show that it is harmful to the reading performance of children when both English and the native languages are introduced at different times of the day.

Summary of results of the main effect: one evident aspect of the study is that there were few quality studies to be considered. However, the few showed that bilingual models were effective in enhancing the reading capabilities of children.

Moderator analysis


Category intervention 

The categorization of the studies was done based on the language of students that were considered in the individual studies.


The first limitation that was considered was the fact that the case studies and qualitative studies were excluded when identifying the control groups and the measurable outcomes. Programs that do not have an effect on children reading achievement may result in children’s interest in reading behavior at home or away from the school environment. Nevertheless, studies do not focus on measuring such outcomes in a comparative or systematic way. Most of the reviews that were considered were old.


Slavin, R. E., & Cheung, A. (2005). A synthesis of research on the language of reading instruction for English language learners. Review of educational research75(2), 247-284.

Outline of the study done by Marulis & Neuman, (2010)

Meta-analytic procedures 

Formulation research questions and topics

A search for appropriate studies  

Selection of qualified studies

Analysis of results from the selected studies

Summary of results: From a review of 67 studies, the authors had evidence to conclude that the vocabulary interventions were most likely to be effective in children who were at risk but came from middle and upper-income families compared to those who came from poor families.

Inclusion criteria, Exclusion Analysis, MPTA analysis

The studies selected had to:

Include training, interventions or a specific teaching technique for increasing the learning of words

Had to apply a quasi-experimental design

Focus on participants with no physical, mental or sensory handicaps, and they had to be between ages 0 to 9 years

The study had to be focusing on English words

The outcome variables in the study had to include dependent variables measuring word learning that was either identified as receptive or expressive vocabulary.

Meterrater analysis

Results: vocabulary interventions were most likely to be effective in children who were at risk but came from middle and upper-income families compared to those who came from poor families.

Summary of the result: the results from the study show that despite the fact that vocabulary interventions might enhance oral language skills, they are not optimally sufficient to completely close the gap even if they are utilized in the kindergarten and preschool years only.

Moderator analysis

Variable: 4 interventions, two outcomes, two participants, two outcome measures, and two study level

Results: training provided by teachers or the experimenters led to an equal degree of growth.

Training provided by childcare providers was significantly less successful.

Summary of results: the differences recorded were as a result of variations that were made by the moderator variables. We can, therefore, conclude that moderator analysis registered greater effects for personnel who provided the treatment and adopted other pedagogical strategies.

Category intervention 

Categorization was done based on the individual who was rendering the intervention.


Since the study was based on a meta-analysis, it utilized studies that lacked some instrumental details of the materials that they utilized in the intervention. Based on vocabulary intervention, most of the studies that were consider did not factor in the difficulty level of the words that were utilized in the studies. Again, there were many potential confounds in the moderator analyses.


Marulis, L. M., & Neuman, S. B. (2010). The effects of vocabulary intervention on young children’s word learning: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research80(3), 300-335.

Outline for Rolstad, Mahoney & Glass (2005)

Meta-analytic procedures 

Formulation of the research topic

Collection of studies

Application McGaw, Glass and Smith strategies of utilizing many studies

Analysis of results

Summary of results 

Bilingual education programs are instrumental in enhancing academic achievement.

Inclusion criteria, Exclusion Analysis, MPTA analysis

Uses of McGaw, Glass and Smith’s strategies of including numerous studies in the research as possible

Meterrater analysis

Result: the research suggests that bilingual education programs are effective in enhancing academic achievement.

Summary of the result: There is a need to allow educational policies to encourage and allow the implementation and development of educational policies that push for the implementation and development of the bilingual educational programs 

Category intervention 

The categories were broadly divided into study identification, characteristics of students, programs, research design, teachers and effect size.


The study has a selection bias due to the criteria of the study selection adopted. The inclusion criterion adopted may influence the researcher to select a study based on personal preferences, which may not be accurate. The second limitation of the study is arbitrariness in the selection criteria, which deters accuracy.


Rolstad, K., Mahoney, K., & Glass, G. V. (2005). The big picture: A meta-analysis of program effectiveness research on English language learners. Educational policy19(4), 572-594.