This research study is about the cloud ERP implementation in the retail industry of the current UK market. In order to complete the research study, aim and objectives are selected at the beginning level of the research study. The research questions and the aims of the research study are set at the beginning level of the research, in the first chapter of the dissertation. The second chapter of this study stating the literature review for understanding the different factors of the area of the research study. Literature review is followed by the research methodology that shows the different methods and approaches selected in order to carry out the research. It also highlighted the sample size of the economy in order to analyze the data collected for the current research. Furthermore, the research focused upon the findings and data analysis that is derived from the data extracted. After rectifying the issues and drawbacks of ERP implementation in the economy, certain recommendations are provided for the development of cloud based ERP system.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction. 7

1.0 Introduction. 7

1.1 Background of the Research. 7

1.2 Background of the organizations operating in United Kingdom.. 7

1.3 Rationale of the research: 8

1.4 Research Aim: 8

1.5 Research Objectives: 8

1.7 Outline (Problem Statement): 9

1.8 Dissertation structure: 9

1.8 Summary: 10

Chapter 2: Literature overview.. 11

2.0 Introduction: 11

2.1 Conceptual framework: 11

2.2 Concept of Cloud Computing: 12

2.3 Concept of ERP: 12

2.4 Theories and models of the cloud computing system: 13

2.5 Concept of cloud based ERP: 19

2.6 Effectiveness of cloud based ERP in retail sector 20

2.7 Challenges in developing the Cloud Based ERP: 21

2.8 Gaps in Literature: 22

2.9 Summary: 23

Chapter 3: Research Methodology. 24

3.0 Introduction: 24

3.1 Research Philosophy: 24

3.1.1 Justification of Choosing Interpretivism Research paradigm.. 24

3.2 Research Approach. 24

3.2.1 Justification for selection of the chosen Approach. 25

3.3 Research Design. 25

3.3.1 Justification for selection of the chosen Design. 25

3.4 Data Sources: Secondary. 26

3.5 Research Methods for data collection: 26

3.5.1 Laboratory measurement: 26

3.5.2 Field Observation: 26

3.5.3 Collection of the Qualitative Information. 27

3.5.4 Archival Data: 27

3.5.6 Interviews: 27

3.6 Population and Sampling techniques: 27

3.9 Gann chart: 28

4.0 Introduction: 30

4.1 different segmentation analysis. 30

4.2.1 Data Analysis: 33

4.3 Summary: 35

5.0 Conclusion: 36

5.1 Linking with the objectives: 36

5.2 Recommendations: 37

List of Figures

Figure 1.1: Dissertation Structure. 10

Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework. 11

Figure 2.2: ERP structure of an UK based retailer 13

Figure 2.3: IaaS methodology. 14

Figure 2.4: PaaS methodology. 15

Figure 2.5: SaaS implementation on SOA.. 18

Figure 2.6: Cloud based ERP system.. 19

Figure 2.7: Benefits of web, SaaS and Cloud technology. 20

Figure 3.1: Kinds of Research Design. 25

List of Tables

Table 1: Gantt chart 29

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.0 Introduction

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is software which manages and allows an association to utilize a scheme of incorporated application to supervise the industry. Most of the corporations are proverbial in the midst of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software. They depend on this to facilitate amassed and organize facts that is stretch across each one of its sovereign departments (Allison and Pineda, 2013). Conventional ERP elucidations are regularly housed in a corporation’s own attendant infrastructure and need modernizing and servicing for staying current. Cloud ERP, the same as the forename suggests, it is founded within the cloud a lot like SaaS (Software as a Service.). Not like old ERP software, the Cloud ERP depends on cloud somewhat than aptness server transportation to assist companies divide information crosswise in sections. Cloud ERP tool incorporates some or every one of the necessary occupation to carrying on an industry, e.g. secretarial, accounting and arrange organization, CRM, human resources, etc. into one inclusive system (Awad, 2014).

1.1 Background of the Research

Cloud ERP is kind of a shift on the way to ERP system which utilizes cloud computing programs to afford an association with further bendy production process modification. It assists medium and small corporations to discharge their dealing potential. Authorization of employee, who have control over industries and handling potentials are the major purposes of the cloud based ERP. The ERP software is getting more popularity due to the advantages of the system over the traditional process management system. New strategies are developing for the implementations of the ERPs (Dinesh and Vetrivel, 2012). Research work is needed to be done in this area for understanding the different factors and the strategies of the system and the effectiveness behind the huge popularity of the system.

1.2 Background of the organizations operating in United Kingdom

There are several companies who are expanding enormously in United Kingdom. Most of the leading companies is operating in retail sector is also situated in the United Kingdom like Sainsbury’s, ASDA, etc. Handling the huge information and business data, the traditional process management system is not efficient. Therefore, the ERP system is very much needed for handling the huge data needed for conducting the business and analysing the performance and management of the organizations operating in retail business sector.

1.3 Rationale of the research:

At present, the traditional management system is not sufficient to handle the pressure of the big organisations operating in retail sector. The technology of the present world is changing the environment of the business management area. The organisations operating in huge market and lot of information for handling business affairs, wants to change from traditional to technology based management system. The solution for this problem is the ERP development in United Kingdom (Al-Johani, and Youssef, 2013).

Retail industries of the present world used to handle a lot of data and need a proper system for this purpose. Depending on the recent trend in the area of ERP system the topic is selected for conducting the research study. Therefore, implementation of cloud based ERP will be effective to handle the total information.

The research study will help to understand the various facts of the ERP system and the need of the system. Detailed information and all the benefits of the ERP system will be understood by the research study. After understanding the various factors and benefits some suitable suggestions will be given for the development of the ERP system.

1.4 Research Aim:

This particular research study has the aim of mitigate the problem in implementing of Enterprise Resource planning or ERP in UK. Apart from that the researcher also explains the effectiveness of cloud based ERP system to effectively run the organizations situated in the nation.

1.5 Research Objectives:

  • To understand the different factors of the cloud based ERP system
  • To understand the benefits of the cloud based ERP system in the retail sector
  • To critically analyze the effectiveness of ERP system in UK to increase efficiency of every department within the organization
  • To give some suitable suggestions for developing the ERP system for UK organizations

1.6 Research Question

The research questions highlighting the significance of the current research are:

  • What is the requirement of ERP system in retailing sector of United Kingdom?
  • What are the benefits of the ERP system and how it can be developed in retail sector?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of using ERP system by the organization operating in UK?
  • What are the issues faced by the organization while adopting the ERP system for carrying out the operation of the business?
  • What are the suggestive recommendations concerning the issues faced by the organization while adopting the ERP system?

1.7 Outline (Problem Statement):

The difficulty of learning the accomplishment of the cloud based ERP come into view when the organization operating in retail sector possess their own cloud supported ERP system, with untrained employees in the organization. An additional problem occurs within this system are:-

  • Incapability to get the right person who has the idea of operating the business operation in ERP system
  • The lower and medium scale companies cannot afford to adopt these types of system in their operation due to high cost occurrence

1.8 Dissertation structure:


Figure 1.1: Dissertation Structure

(Source: Created by Author)

1.8 Summary:

This fastidious proposal is founded on the Cloud supported ERP system within retail sectors in United Kingdom. The researcher finished about the compensation and also disadvantages of this cloud computing. Here the researcher mostly spotlighted upon the various types of challenges and again barriers concerning the completion of Cloud supported ERP system in retail sectors of United Kingdom. In order to hold up the scrutinized work in a successful method the researcher used different types of research methodology to support the research.

Chapter 2: Literature overview

2.0 Introduction:

Literature review may be defined as a text of an academic paper, which consists of the existing facts, which includes theoretical and practical aids, substantive findings to an exacting subject. Literature reviews are used in derived sources, and does not describe new experimental job. The purpose of the literature review are – it justifies the research, it ensures that the research was not being done before, it provides a background to the research, it highlights the drawbacks in the previous researches, it provides the outline gaps in the previous researches, helps researches to study from the theory which was previously done.

This chapter highlights on the establishing an organization of academic awareness which are related to the behaviour of the client. There is a chance of the researcher and the readers to elaborate the research topics in more specified way and is able to recognize the crucial perspectives. Implementation of different models and theories includes literature to the research topic in order to, improved the analysis of the results in later chapters.

2.1 Conceptual framework:


Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework

(Source: Created by Author)

2.2 Concept of Cloud Computing:

Cloud computing is the concept of using the software resources available in the World Wide Web. Here the user need to make payment for the using of the services of cloud computing. There are basically, three technologies of the cloud computing system. They are Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a service (SaaS). All the theories and models related to the technologies will be discussed in this chapter later (Alam, 2012).

2.3 Concept of ERP:

As per Amoroso (2014), Enterprise Resource planning (ERP) is business management software, which is a collection of integrated applications that helps an organization to collect, keep, manipulate and use data from many business activities like Costs, service deliveries, sales, as well as shipping and payment methods. It mainly provides an integrated and real time business process, which finds better solutions for the organizations. It tracks business related things like money, raw materials, production capability etc and the status of different business related things: purchase orders, payroll etc (Woestenburg, 2010). Even it not only facilitates information of one section or department, handles several departments like manufacturing, sales, accounting etc (Vimalkumar, 2012).


Figure 2.2: ERP structure of an UK based retailer

(Source: Garverick, 2014, p.98)

Even the structure of ERP modules reveals its structure in depth to the different business related issues related of an organization. In the outer structure, different business aspects integrated in EPR solutions like customer service and sales, human resource management (HRM activities), corporate performance as well as data Governance, accounting etc. The inner structure defines the compact solutions of different aspects related to an organization like Business intelligence, E-commerce, enterprise asset management, supply chain management, product launch managing and several other things related to the business process. The main concept of ERP refers to integration which co relates a set of activities (Maas, van and Soeters, 2014).

2.4 Theories and models of the cloud computing system:

Cloud delivery models or service models mainly divided into 3 three parts in a hierarchy manner. The three types of models have different characteristics, issues as well as solutions to its consumers or the organizations. Even the security level as well as the methodology varies in case of each model (Morris, 2011).

IaaS: It mainly defines infrastructure as a service, which provides access to fundamental resources such as physical machines, virtual machines, virtual storage etc (Zunnurhain Vrbsky and Hasan, 2014). Even apart from these, this model also offers:

  • VM disk storage
  • Virtual LAN (VLANs)
  • Load balancing using load balancers
  • IP addresses
  • Software packages or bundles


Figure 2.3: IaaS methodology

(Source: Riordan, 2013, p.118)

In the methodology part, the IaaS vendor has the storage of data or information. The software owner uploads the VM to the storage for virtualization. Automation technique is use with the help of VM to deploy the VM in the power computers. Then the service starts. The consumer or the end user accesses the services through a firewall with the load of load balancer for load balancing (Panigrahy, 2010).

Issues and solutions of IaaS: In this service model, infrastructure like storage support, security, cloud services, network storages are provided to the consumer. This model can suffer from the services like hardware related problems, network related problems etc. Sometime, a network dependency becomes a headache to the consumers. Even the isolation of VM’s can create major issues with the un-patched application support. These issues could be resolved with the help of efficient cloud consultants or experts (Sosinsky, 2011).

PaaS: Platform as a service provides the environment support to the consumer with the help of proper platform and its supported tools. This offers development tools, required to offer developments tools to provide application support. Even this service model has point and click tool that enables to create applications without having programming knowledge or computing background (Zhu et al. 2010). Google’s app engine and are the examples of PaaS offering vendors. The vendor support of this model makes it an effective one. PaaS has lower administrative overhead because the business organization provides the dedicated platform lowering the total cost of ownership (Bailey, 2009). Scalable solutions are given to the clients with more current updated solutions. In PaaS it becomes easy to scale resources form low to high as per requirements. PaaS provides browser based development, which means it gives developer the opportunity to create databases, edit the application code either via some framework (API) or via point and click tools (Furht and Escalante, 2010).

Even the types of PaaS are application delivery only environment, standalone development environment open platform environment and add-on development facilities (Verma, 2011).

The following figure describes how PaaS offers an API and development tools to the programmers and how it provide support to its consumer to access business application:


Figure 2.4: PaaS methodology

(Source: Hurwitz, 2010, p.119)


In this diagram, developer used an IDE or Integrated Development Environment to develop business apps which will be used by the business users or consumers. The platform provides the data security, backup as well as recovery, application hosting, flexible and scalable infrastructure to the IDE (Turban, McLean, and Wetherbe, 2009).

Issues and its Solutions:

  • However, the lock-in concept in this model becomes a drawback of this model. Even the developer on this platform becomes platform dependent. As a example an application written in python using Google’s API is less likely to work on other platforms. Therefore, the vendor lock-in feature is the biggest problem in this PaaS (Schwalbe, 2010).
  • PaaS also place significant burden to maintain secure and reliable connections with the proper updated patches to the provider systems. Therefore, PaaS shares many issues of SaaS associated with it (Lee, 2012).
  • In short, lack of portability, secure engineering, event based scheduling between to its consumer and its providers should be maintained to maintain a efficient support.

SaaS: Software as a service model allows to provide software as a support to its consumers that can deployed on hosted service and that can be easily accessible through internet (, 2015). The example of SaaS applications are:

  • Billing systems
  • CRM apps
  • HR solutions
  • However, some SaaS applications cannot be customized such as Office.

SaaS makes the software available on the internet, which facilitates its characteristics. Even, the software is maintained by the vendor itself rather than the consumer. So they are cost effective and provided on demand. On the other hand, they can be scaled up or down and automatically updated. There is another characteristic, which is its sharing nature. It means instances can be shared with multiple users (LaBarge, 2012). The centralized data support and efficient software license with the modest tools provide added benefits to its consumer.


Issues and its solutions:

Despite having many advantages associated with SaaS, it also has some other drawbacks:

  • Browser based risks: The foremost security issue is the users browser based risks. It means if the user visits some malicious and infected websites and his browser got infected and subsequent access to those SaaS applications leads to compromising data security. To avoid this type of threats, the consumer should use protective measure form infecting his browser by installing traditional antivirus or online protections based antivirus support.  Another way to prevent form potential threats is to use a particular browser for the SaaS applications (Martin-Flatin, 2014).
  • Network dependency: The SaaS software can be delivered only when the network is continuously available to the consumer. It means using SaaS based application; user should have internet connectivity to gain the benefits of SaaS. Even the network should be reliable and scalable one for better performances (Sotiriadis and Bessis, 2015).
  • Lack of Portability: Portability is the technique that a software can run and work in any environment whether it can be any vendor like Windows, Linux, Mac eperating system. In case of SaaS, transferring applications form one platform to another one becomes an issue sometime to the provider. So, portability between different SaaS clouds troubles the provider under specific condition (Rountree and Castrillo, 2014).
  • SOA and open SaaS: Open SaaS uses SaaS software that are developed using some open source programming language (Soto, 2013). These can be used as well as operated in any platform and database. Open SaaS has some additional benefits:
    • No license
    • Low installation cost
    • Less vendor lock-in
    • More portable applications ( platform independent)
    • Effective robust solution

The following diagram shows the SaaS implementation based on SOA which is called as service based or oriented architecture


Figure 2.5: SaaS implementation on SOA

(Source: Willian, 2011, p.154)

This architecture shows the overall methodology and its implementation of SaaS on SOA.


2.5 Concept of cloud based ERP:

Cloud based ERP is an advanced solution with the facilities of cloud computing like flexibility, large storage space, and different supportive models, easy to access from anywhere having internet connectivity. In an easy way, it is a method to organize various resource planning (ERP) that use cloud computing platforms and services to a business organization with more robustness and efficiency (Arbel and Donchin, 2009).


Figure 2.6: Cloud based ERP system

(Source: Deshmukh, 2012, p.89)

 In this technology FMCG use cloud accounting software for their account related purposes. This not only helps the business process but also make ease of data accountability that unlocks the business potential (Wilson, 2014). Even when any particular retail companies inretail sector in United Kingdom choose to approve Google android or any other platform like Windows, Mac, Linux, a cloud ERP solution Acumatica can go with any one of all these giving a great advantage to the people of United Kingdom. Cloud based ERTP provide application scalability; reduce hardware cost rather than a traditional one. Even organization can chose their Cloud ERP delivery form any of these: SaaS, PaaS and LaaS (, 2015). These reduced cost solution become effective for the mid size organizations. Even web based technology gives cloud based ERP a solution to access the applications from their browsers. However, the vulnerabilities of those browsers should be patched to maintain security goals to remain large amount of data confidential. Large amount of data stored in a daily manner in the FMCGs’ will help in the future for review purpose (Elragal and El Kommos, 2013).  Even client always look for the web-based cloud ERP software due to the reasons mentioned below:


Figure 2.7: Benefits of web, SaaS and Cloud technology

(Sources: Collins, 2014, p.89)

2.6 Effectiveness of cloud based ERP in retail sector

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is business management software, generally presented as a bunch of applications, that purpose to helps an organization to generate automatic data collection, storage, management, and analysis from different business sources like accounting, marketing, service delivery etc (Weng, 2014).  Using this method, owners and managers can get an incorporated real-time data of business processes, resources, and commitments. ERP simplify the flow of information between departments whereas integrating systems used in general platforms. In cloud-based ERP, the integrated data that collected from various resources can be analyzed for the future use in case of review needed. Even those data can be accessed from anywhere having internet connectivity (Chauhan and Jaiswal, 2015).

Even the storage capacity is much more rather than traditional one. On the other hand, the security features increased when a private cloud model is used. Different cloud services gives customers, an opportunity to choose from different cloud based models like SaaS, PaaS and IaaS based on the requirements. Web base cloud ERP solutions follow the SaaS model, which reduce the installation cost as well as the maintenance cost (Chhabra and Kumar, 2012).

The cloud-base ERP solutions allow increasing data securities comparing to traditional data base systems. Data security is ensured that the data are safe. The Cloud-base ERP solutions always supports 24*7 than traditional one. If create any issues, it can be solve rapidly (Sudarsanan, 2012).

2.7 Challenges in developing the Cloud Based ERP:

The retail sector of U.K. was dependent on traditional based ERP system before the implementation of cloud based ERP. The traditional systems were effective in the earlier nineties but during the late nineties the large amount data makes it impossible to the firms to track down all the activity as well transactions details. This issue become a major one in case of retail sectors of UK due to their expansions in different sector (Garg and Garg, 2014). This replacing methodology faces several challenges in different aspects:

Security and privacy: Security and privacy of information from these firms become the biggest challenges to cloud computing as well as the implementation methodology. Security policy, if compromised once loses faith of its user form its provider. These can be mitigated by applying proper security mechanisms like encryption, effective hardware and security applications (Albarakati, 2015).

Portability: The large amount of data sets collected every hour from the online analytics on the ERP may need extra storage in some cases, and then platform dependency can become a major issue to the retail companies of UK. Cloud based ERP may face some lock-in drawback of SaaS related to ERP systems. However, this problem yet not been solved due to the different providers different language using methodology (Olichney, 2012). Here the researcher tried to mitigate the problem as much as possible.

Interoperability: Cloud based ERP applications should be able to integrate with services or application forms another platform. The researcher made it possible via web-based services, but writing web based scripts become a complex matter to the programmer (Rana, 2014).

Computing performance: Data that reside in cloud can be reviewed to check some previous transaction details. So a better and efficient computing performance is needed to set up an cloud based ERP solution for a retailer or an FMCG (Wagner and Yezril, 2013).

Reliability and Network availability: It is necessary for the cloud based ERP solution to be reliable and robust for better performance. So network availability becomes an issue. Even most of the business like this dependent on the services provided by vendor or third party (Rivard and Aubert, 2012).

Installation and Maintenance cost: The researcher faced many problems related to the installation and maintenance of cloud based ERP during this implementation. Even the hardware cost is much more including the cloud provider charges (Roman, 2010).

Inefficient experts: Less no of cloud experts become an issue to the installation of Cloud based ERP in retail sector of U.K. even auditing and maintenance of systems or applications became hectic (Pal, 2008).

2.8 Gaps in Literature:

In this literature overview, the researcher critically analysed the gaps or disadvantages regarding the Cloud based ERP installing in UK based Retail market according to statistics, 46% CFO (chief forensic officers) suffer from ERP software data inaccessibility. Complex structure and its methodology as well as its operational cost become a headache to the small size organizations. Even the maintenance cost increases with the time being. The adoption of new method of processing the business process in ERP requires time by the companies to adopt the changes made. While carrying out the research it is found that corporate governance and international business regulations need to be done properly in a yearly basis to else it could lead to data lost or data inefficiency. This gap can be burden in tracking down the details of consumer. Migration form a totally different platform to a new one was never easy to any organization. Therefore, it results of inadequate problems remained in this implementation made in United Kingdom retail business sector. Its complex supply chain process and financial operations need to be rigorously under observation. Robustness can become an issue if the setup not done properly. According to the researcher, vendor support plays a key role in the whole process. Pay per use charge on a monthly basis is not cost effective. Even integration between CRM or customer relationship management and the integration still create a gap in the whole architecture. Automation needed in the whole process. Even the researcher suggested not rushing integrating of CRM and ERP cloud data. Reliable Consumer size risks still became depends on the employees using cloud based ERP system in the organization (like browser based threats).According to the researcher based on the statistic, a messy gap still became remained managing the big data dilemma between CRM and ERP. Even customer reviews can be used to analyse the matter in depth.

2.9 Summary:

Based on the fact discussed above, big data in the cloud bridges the gap between the CRM and ERP. Though this cloud based ERP installation and its procedure is complex, but the data storing and extracting on these applications are in a well and most efficient manner. This technology benefitted from both cloud and ERP. It means its association resolves several issue regarding to legacy based systems as well as with the commercial ERP application running previously in small or mid-size organizations. Mainly large organizations or the large giant corporate switched from traditional ERP to cloud based ERP for more reliability and efficiency regarding data.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

3.0 Introduction:

For getting complete results of that process Research methodology helps as a reference in defining the best prominent approach that requires adoption. Research methodology’s application helps to understand the process which adopted in analysing the research decision. The researcher tried to implement each process with detail of the research methodology. The application of the relevant methodology would be helpful enough in establishing the ERP process of UK retail sectors like Sainsbury, ASDA, Morrison, etc.

3.1 Research Philosophy:

Research philosophy’s application helps for determining the proper manner for taking details about research topic. At the time when a research topic is conducting, the researcher undertakes research philosophy which helps to explain assumption process. To evaluate a specific topic the process of thinking can vary and also the selection of the research philosophy. The bigger and common forms of knowledge which is part of research philosophy are Realism, Positivism and Interpretivism (Preser, 2014).

3.1.1 Justification of Choosing Interpretivism Research paradigm

For this particular research study, the researcher has conducted the research among the different retail sectors in UK. The study is all about the establishment of the perception of cloud computing and the effectiveness of it in creating ERP System. The use of the Interpretivism philosophy is much relevant because; the research needs to contain the evaluation of the human psychology as well as the information gathered in relation with the subject matter. The obtained information is needed to be associated with the general knowledge and accordingly has to be presented with the addition of the proper relevance. The Interpretivism philosophy helps in presenting the information with the amalgamation of the perceived knowledge (Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2009). Hence, the use of the Interpretivism paradigm is aptly justified here.

3.2 Research Approach

Approach for study of topic is required that the format needed to conduct study is come up. A particular topic can undertake for study in two big ways, either deductive or else inductive. Inductive way helps in study a research subject when enough information on the selected lone is not existing (Saunders et al. 2009). The first phase of inductive way is inspection that helps in taking related information as well as builds the path of the research consequently. Equally, deductive way is used like a procedure that describes the practical appliance of the theories premeditated to get access to content of the research document. Deductive way aims to construct a theory with extra specifications and concepts of information analysis (Salkind, 2010). Though, depending upon the environment of the study and research theme, the choice for research approach is made that can assist in better analysis of the theme.

3.2.1 Justification for selection of the chosen Approach

The research study is based on the effectiveness of cloud computing in enhancing the customer ERP in UK retail sectors. The study requires the elaboration of the subject matter by collecting the relevant information. The research requires the support of the different information about the subject from different source. Therefore, the use of the Inductive approach would be justified for this secondary analysis.

3.3 Research Design

 Research design helps in elucidation the structure of the research theme that will assist in selection of the collection and checking pattern. Kinds of research plan used in educational research pattern are probing, instructive and descriptive.


Figure 3.1: Kinds of Research Design

(source: Ketchen and Bergh, 2011, p.145 )

3.3.1 Justification for selection of the chosen Design

Application of instructive was avoided because it supports the idea of longitudinal learn that was not probable with the exacting topic. Apart from that, reminiscent design was able to explain the detail process taken in the appliance of cloud computing in retail sector for enhancing the ERP system. The evaluation of the ERP system is also being justified accordingly. The extent of persuade imparted by retailing over the customer’s decision-making procedure is appropriately scrutinised with the help of evocative plan as being the selected research design (Harrison and Reilly, 2011).

3.4 Data Sources: Secondary

The secondary data collection is associated with the different information gathered from the different books, journals, websites, articles, and other secondary sources (Cameron, 2009). The subject is based on the impact of the cloud computing in UK retail sectors on the enhancements of the ERP System. The research requires the evaluation of the enriched data sources and the data authentication. The previous researchers have left the piece of work based on the similar research. Data derived from such sources would be effective enough in discussing the issues more specifically. Therefore, the polished and enriched data collection in this secondary research process would be relevant enough for this particular research.

3.5 Research Methods for data collection:

Research process is the helpful to gain the better data collection. Data is the known as collection of information, which is helpful in studying any research with good details and delivering the accurate result to this process and perfect format to the research work (Denk, 2010).

3.5.1 Laboratory measurement:

A laboratory measurement is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. In addition, this type of measurement is effective in analysing the logics behind conducting the research (Gobo, 2011). As the context of the research is revolving around technical research analysis, the adoption of laboratory measurement is very much effective for carrying out the current research.

3.5.2 Field Observation:

It is the observation that is analysed after applying the method of the research upon the research topic to peek over its effect. Therefore, the researcher observes about the applied techniques and research designs in the current research.

3.5.3 Collection of the Qualitative Information

The collection of the qualitative information helps in acquiring the quality information about the subject matter. In this process, different managers from different retail sectors will be answering the questions, which are helpful for analysing the key areas for the current research. The amalgamation of such information with the research topic would be establishing the relevancy in adding the prominent features to the study.

3.5.4 Archival Data:

These are the data that is derived and applied to carry out the current research from the books and journals. Furthermore, the data that is derived is also linked with the research analysed in this study.

3.5.6 Interviews:

The interview is conducted with the managers of different retail companies in UK, in order to derive the internal information of the organization that is not available or found in any of the resources. Therefore, these are the information that is also included in the research completing the requirement.

3.6 Population and Sampling techniques:

The collected information from the qualitative data analysis will be effective enough in justifying the key analysis of the subject matter. The population has been described in considering the number of the managers from different retail companies UK. Use of the non-probability sampling techniques will be effective enough in gathering information from the knowledgeable people who have been dealing with such scenario.

The information derived from the managers and the books or journals would contain of the enriched knowledge, which is helpful for the research study. The researcher would be able to gain the information about the strategic implementation in concerning the subject.

3.7 Ethical Consideration:

In research methodology process, a researcher necessary to follow a code of conduct that we helped in identifying the right and the wrong set of behaviours required to be adopted during the process. The researcher for analysing the effectiveness of the cloud computing for the enhancement of the ERP System tried to follow few ethical considerations that can be helped in adding standardisation to the research subject (Truscott et al. 2010).

  • Application of Data: Data are take via study of the research subject is helpful in understanding the present trend of cloud computing and customer ERP enhancements with special reference to retail companies in UK. So any data application will be avoided so that the observation can be sternly narrow only for academic purpose.
  • Respondents’ participation: The researcher tried to insert no external influence on pressure over the respondents for taking part in the feedback process of the research topic.

On the ethical considerations, the researcher tried to uphold the fundamental research ethics.

3.8 Research limitation

A research study that can help in results of the troubled topic is permitted to encounter list of restrictions that are both avoidable and non-avoidable in nature. Areas encounter with research boundaries are enlist as subsequent:

  • Consistency: Respondents involved in the process were not involved in any form of pressure or influence. However, customers and managers of different retail companies in UK can be biased towards the organization that may affect the findings of the research topic.
  • Time-Constraint: Due to cross-sectional character of the study, the researcher had time control that lead to learning of the work within a short time.
  • Budget-Constraint: With a limited budget, the researcher faces few boundaries in the study of the research topic. Lack of economics imperfect the function of SPSS software.


3.9 Gann chart:

Main activities/ stages

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 6

Week 7

Topic Selection


Data collection from secondary sources



Creating layout


Literature review




Research Plan Formation



Appropriate Research Techniques Selection



Secondary data collection



Interpretation & Analysis of Data Collection



Findings of the Data


Conclusion of the Study


Rough Draft Formation



Final Work Submission



Table 1: Gantt chart

As illustrate in the more than table, the researcher will be appropriate Gantt chart at unremitting interval so that the category as per ordinary interval can be analysed.

3.10 Summary:

The present researches describe a mixture of research tools of selection that can help in well again investigation of the matter. Help of this interval the canvasser tried to align the scenery of the study next to the available research techniques so that possibly the best research line of attack is frame.

Chapter 4: Data analysis and Findings

4.0 Introduction:

This chapter is the most important part of the total dissertation. This is about the collection and analysis of the data required for the research study. The data collected through the interview process of the managers from different retail companies in UK. As the study is based on the impact of the cloud computing for the enhancements of the ERP system in the retail sectors, it is required to analysis the key areas of the subject matter.

4.1 different segmentation analysis

Different traditional software providing the effective management environment

In concerning the different traditional software providing for the effective management environment, it has been seen that the retail sectors in UK are not so much efficient. The management system is unable to manage the huge information and therefore, the evaluation of the cloud computing has been necessary for the retail companies.  In order to handle the total management procedure efficiently, the traditional system need to be changed into a modern effective technology.

The effectiveness of the different software tools for managing the lot of data

In a traditional database management system, different types of tools are used for the different types of tasks. Therefore, it can be said that different tools for different tasks is not the effective way of managing the information of various facts of the retail organisations. A new platform is needed where all the tasks can be completed within a single system. The retail sector includes different segmentations, due to which the managements are keeping the information on the system. It is also very much indicative that the advanced technicalities are required for keeping the entire data and these technological tools have to be accessible. The spacious orientation will be significantly keeping the information and the management of the retail companies can access whenever required.

The data accessing method of the traditional system

As per the information obtained from the managers of the retail companies, the traditional system needs the support of the huge accessing system. The retail sector in UK is large and wide and the documents or the information of different segments are needed to be kept safely. Thus, an easy accessible system is required for keeping the entire information and continuing the works. The need of the advanced tool for data accessing is very much essential. The traditional system has to be more advanced in concerning the storage of the important documents as well as the information.

Traditional systems for handling the domestic and international business

The UK retail companies like Sainsbury, Morrison, and ASDA are conducting the business at international level. Therefore, the management of the retail organisations need to handle both the domestic and international information regarding their business, marketing, staff handling, finances etc. Hence, the traditional data base management is not enough at the current situation for handling the Big Data needed for the management of the retail organisations. The wide environment of the retail business in UK needs the support of such technicalities and it is helpful enough in determining the business growth.

The effectiveness of the traditional software regarding the time

The most important feature of any computing system is the time effectiveness. As per the report, it has been seen that the traditional software is needed to be more advanced for handling the cloud computing system. The reservation of the data requires the enough spaces and capacity for using. traditional system is taking more time to compute the huge amount of data at the present situation. Some innovation is needed in the system for doing the computation in less time.

The problem of the customer service of the Retail organisations due to the complexity of the traditional database and process management

The main of the retail industries is to provide better customer services. It is to be noted that while using such complex cloud computing system, the employees and the managers involved in the retail industries are needed to be more skilled and trained. If the customer services are not skilled enough for the services, it will affect the retail business as a whole.

Efficiency of the ERP system

The ERP system is effective enough in resolving the issues that may arise during the implementation of the cloud computing system. The ERP system contains of the data relevant for the continuation of the process in the retail sectors. The employees as well as the management system get benefitted with the use of ERP system and hence it is significant enough for the further process. In concerning the storage of the different information and documents, the ERP system is holding one of the most significant place.

The cost effectiveness of the ERP system

Another important issue of implementing any new idea is the cost effectiveness of the new concept. The employees engaged in the management team of the retail organisations have the idea of the cost needed for the current traditional management system. While assuring the implementation of the ERP system, there is the necessity to concentrate on the cost structure. It is to be noted that the adaptation of the latest technicalities are effective enough for concerning the evaluation of the cloud computing system. The retail industries are therefore required to invest more for adopting the technicalities. Hence, the cost effectiveness in ERP system is very much high and necessary.

Handling of the total data of the retail industries in a single system

It is to be noted that the UK retail sector has spread in a wide area. The companies like Sainsbury, Morrison, and ASDA are dealing with the international business market. Therefore, it is necessary to keep the documentation and the entire information safely. Even the system has to be accessible. It is quite difficult to handle the entire data in single system. Therefore, the cloud computing system would be much efficient and safe as well.

The Cloud ERP system will provide the necessary facilities for handling all the data in a single system

It is to be notified that the retail sector is based on a wider area in UK and some of the retail companies are dealing with the other countries as well. The retail industries contain different segmentation. The records are necessary for evaluation of the different features, quality enhancements, and promoting the business. Therefore, one single system cannot retain the data. If one system will crash, the companies would lose the entire data. On the other hand, the ERP system in cloud computing is very much safe, secure, spacious, and accessible. The featuring of the cloud computing can hold the entire data and distribute them when necessary.

4.2 Collection of the Qualitative Information

In this procedure, the information has been gathered after conducting the interview process among the managers of different retail companies in UK. There is the result based on the different segments, which are important for the analysis part. The study is containing of the different segments about the cloud computing and the ERP system. Hence, it is very much necessary to justify the information derived from the experts who have been dealing with such system. The further evaluations will be fulfilling such requirements accordingly.

4.2.1 Data Analysis:

Difficulties with the management process with the traditional software


First Manager: While answering this question, the first manager of the one of the retail companies said that they are facing some difficulties regarding the maintenances of the huge data they required for the management purpose. The traditional standalone database system is taking too much time for accessing and manipulating the huge amount of data. Therefore, they are thinking about the implementation of ERP system for the retail organisations.

Second Manager: The second manager of another retail industry said something about another challenge. He said that the cost and maintenance of the different software for the different tasks is so high. They are searching more cost effective system for the retail companies.

Third Manager: While answering the same question, the third manager of one of the retail organisations said that they are conducting the business at the international level and the traditional system is not giving the proper facility for it. The complexity of the traditional system is so high. Therefore, they are searching for a new system for manipulating all the data in a single system with less complexity.

The ERP system is required for managing the huge amount of data of the retail sectors


First Manager: As the answer of the second question, the first manger of one of the retail companies said that they are thinking about the implementation of the ERP system for the retail industries. It will be very helpful for the management. It is needed for the retail companies depending on the current status of the business growth and huge amount of Big Data.

Second Manager: The second manager of another retail retail companies said that they need the ERP system, as it will give the data accessing and manipulation techniques with less complexity and time.

Third Manager: The third manager is also agreeing with the fact, he said that they need the ERP system for getting a single platform for all type of data manipulation. Doing different tasks in different software platform is too difficult to handle and that’s why they feel the need of the ERP system.

Judgement between the ERP system and the Cloud ERP system


First Manager: The first manager of the one of the retail industries said that the cloud ERP system is the better technology than the normal ERP for the retail companies. They have to deal with the data of all the branches across different countries. The cloud based ERP will help them to do it efficiently.

Second Manager: The second manager of the different retail retail companies also prefers the Cloud based ERP system for the same purpose. Beside this, he mentioned another facility of the system they needed. He said about the accessibility of the system. They need it as it will give the access the system from anywhere at any time.

Third Manager: With agreeing with the above mentioned opinions, he third manager of one of the retail companies mentioned that the cloud ERP will be better as it automatically updated with the new technologies, they don’t have to install the updates manually.

The Hardware and Software cost is decreased by using the Cloud ERP system


First Manager: The first manger of one of the retail companies said that they have already computers in their workplaces for the data manipulation and management. They also have the internet facility, all that they have to do is to make payment to the cloud provider for the cloud based they will provided to them. It will be less cost effective than to buy different software for different works.

Second Manager: The second manger of another retail companies mentioned that the initial cost of the hardware and software is not too less, but the advantage of the system is the less maintenance cost of the system. They don’t have to invest a lot of money for the maintenance of the system. They just have to make payment according to their usage.

Third Manager: The third manager of a retail companies is not saying that the cloud based ERP system is so much cost effective. He prefers it not for the cost effectiveness, he prefers it for just for efficiency of performances.

4.3 Summary:

In the above chapter, all the data collected by the different methods of data collection are gathered, summarized and analyzed for the better understand of the problems of the traditional system in the retail industry. The expected facilities of the cloud based ERP system has been analyzed after gathering the viewpoints of the managers engaged with the management of the organisations. After analysing the collected data, the conclusion of the whole dissertation work will be discussed in the next chapter of the dissertation.

Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations

5.0 Conclusion:

The whole dissertation has been done on the area of retail industry of UK for the purpose of using the cloud based ERP system. After determining the objectives, aims and research question in the first chapter the further works were done in the specific way as described in the third chapter of the dissertation work. Relevant data were collected and analyzed for the fulfilment of the objectives of the research work. The literature review and data analysis helped together for this purpose. The objectives declared at the initial stage of the research work will be linked with the findings.

5.1 Linking with the objectives:

To understand the different factors of the cloud based ERP system

In order to understand the factors of the cloud based ERP system the literature review is used in this research study. All the factors of the cloud computing, cloud based ERP system and their effectiveness in the management of the organisations are discussed in the literature review chapter. The relevant theories and models of the system are understood by a good review of the literature available in the form of books and journals. The SaaS, PaaS, IaaS are the three main technologies of the cloud computing.

To understand the benefits of the cloud based ERP system in the retail sector

The current retail industries are dealing with lots of Big Data. In order to handle those, the traditional database system is not enough. The ERP system provides a single platform for al type of data manipulation. This is very helpful for the retail industries as they are facing very much problems in handling the different types of data needed in their business. The retail industries that are operating their business within many branches, especially which are conducting international business have more need of cloud based ERP system. The literature review helped to understand this factor and the data analysis with respect to the retail companies in UK helps to understand the different types of benefits of the cloud based ERP system.


To critically analyze the effectiveness of ERP system in retail companies in UK to increase efficiency of every department within the organization 

Data were collected from the employees of the management section and data handling section of the retail companies and three managers of the retail companies regarding the problems with the traditional software and the need of the cloud based ERP system. After summarizing the finding of the research study, the researcher can conclude that the retail companies is having problem with the traditional system in mostly handling the Big Data of the various branches and the data needed for the international business. In order to solve the problems they need to develop a cloud based ERP system for their retail companies. As per the opinion of the managers, the cloud based ERP system will help them to summarize and manipulate the various types of data in single platform. The maintenance of the cloud ERP system will take less complexity and money.

To give some suitable suggestions for developing the ERP system for the retail companies in UK

After conducting the total research study, some suggestions will be given to for developing the cloud based ERP system. In order to develop the cloud based ERP system some organisational changes is needed. The suggestions for the development are given in the next section.

5.2 Recommendations:

In order to develop the cloud computing system a proper strategy is needed to developed at first. The employees who will control the system have to be trained by a professional team. The needed hardware and software needed for accepting the cloud based ERP system have to be installed in the workplaces of the retail companies. High-speed internet facility is the first criteria of the cloud-based software. At first, a technology for the cloud network has to be selected then a provider should be selected for the cloud system. The SaaS cloud system will be the effective one for the retail companies. All the specifications of the retail companies should be given to the cloud provider retail companies for the development purpose of the ERP system. After the development the system will be accessible from anywhere at any time with the proper authentication. As the system will be available in the world wide web so the authenticity factors must be kept with high security.

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