Psychology Assignment Writing Essay Help online:: Behavior of social policy & Asylum seekers in UK – Aliens act
Choose an area of social policy relevant to the unit and explore its development and how it impacts on delivery of services.
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Social Policy of every country is set in such a way that it can protect people from the harsh behavior of others who are dominant in the society. Some people in the society have power and position and this power and position are often misused by them and hence, the harass people who are helpless and poor. Every country has set a social policy so that they can take care of the common people but when the common people are not protected by the government of their own country then they seek help from other countries. Every country has a policy to protect asylum and refugees so that they too can lead a regular life. Many a times, the term asylum seeker and refugee are used interchangeably by people in their conversation but there is a huge difference in both of these terms.
An asylum seeker is a person who has applied for protection under the 1951 Refugee Convention. Basically, a person applies for asylum when he thinks that there are possibilities of prosecution against him/her in their own country. The fear of prosecution against them is on the grounds of race, member of a particular social group, religion, nationality or political belief. Once the person’s application for asylum is requested then they are termed as refugees. Once a person’s asylum request is accepted then arrangements will be made by the UK government so that they can relocate the asylum seeker from their country to that of the UK.
Asylum seekers in UK
UK has a social policy that is friendly towards asylum seekers and this fact was known to all and hence, the number of asylum seekers increased drastically in the UK. The UK government was forced to implement rules so that they can take care of the asylum seekers who were actually in need rather than that of people who just entered the country without any strong reason. UK government started laying huge penalties on the shipping and airline companies which were helping people to transport from their country to the UK without any proper documentation of being a refugee. The asylum seekers in the UK were eligible for benefits so that they can be safe in the country but this was stopped due to the continuous increase of asylum seekers. If the asylum seeker’s application was rejected by the government then the benefits which the government was giving was also stopped so that the deserving asylum seekers can get it. The withdrawal of benefits from asylum seekers weren’t accepted positively by the newspapers, NGOs and even churches. They all protested against the government stating that withdrawal of basic needs like food, shelter and health care is an injustice and hence, this rule shouldn’t be implemented. The NGOs decided to file a case against the government regarding this rule and the court stated that every person, in the UK, is eligible for a house and hence, the government has no right to cancel it (Kaye, 1999).
After a whole lot of protest, currently the asylum seekers are eligible for certain benefits so that they can survive in the UK. They are eligible for 70% of the income support and the income support of the UK is £39.34 per week so it can be said that they are eligible for £27.54 per week. If an asylum seeker applies for the National asylum seeker support service then they will be eligible for housing support as well but this service is not opted by many asylum seekers because the government disperses people all over the UK. Asylum seeker feels safe in London where they can find a group of migrants staying already. Once an asylum seeker’s application is rejected then they won’t be eligible for any benefits but families with children or children who are unaccompanied are an exception to this rule.
The entitlements that Refugees in UK receive
The refugees in the UK are eligible for various benefits and UK’s social policy is designed in such a way that they can make the refugees feel like home. All the entitlements that are available for UK citizens are available for the refugees as well. Apart from that, they are also eligible for social care service so that they can be treated with due respect in the society, housing and council tax benefits so that they can have a proper shelter to live with their family and the tax benefits will help them to save the money and utilize the same for some other purpose. If the refugee is handicapped then they will also be eligible for disability benefits. They are also eligible for job allowance till one of the family members doesn’t find an accurate job to support their family (Patel, K, 2006).
A large group works for asylum seekers and refugees
Various organizations work towards the betterment of asylum seekers and refugees in the organization. Refugee agencies work actively as per the need and requirement of refugees. These agencies aren’t run by the refugees but they employ refugees in the agency so that they can understand the actual requirements of the refugees. Apart from that, they also provide training and employment support to the refugees so that the refugees can find a suitable employment for themselves.
Charities also play a major role in providing help to refugees. The charities identify refugees who have been a part of physical or mental torture in their home country so that they can help them with counseling. They use to undertake projects so that they can help refugees who have migrated recently to the UK. Churches also have a role to play in helping refugees to lead a normal life. Many asylum seekers who are homeless stay at the church. Apart from that, churches also provide counseling to victims by way of prayers.
The refugees of the country also had access to legal advice for free of cost. The Britain government had professionals who would help the refugees with legal advice regarding the things that they need to do if they have faced any kind of embarrassment from the local community. There were campaigning organizations as well which use to provide help and support to people informally. This kind of help can be for the rules that have been set forth by the Britain government or for the voucher system that prevails for asylum seekers.
Lastly and more importantly, there were refugee community organizations. There were different community organizations for different community’s refugees thus, allowing the refugees to relax with their people. In this RCO, refugees can communicate with other refugees in their own language, thus making them feel even more comfortable (Sales, 2002).
Challenges for refugees
The refugees who are relocating from any part of the world to the UK may get various benefits but they have to face various challenges so that they can lead a normal life. Few of the challenges that they face in their day-to-day life are discussed below.
Language is one of the biggest problems that refugees in UK face. They are very depressed with the problem that they had undergone and communicating their situation to anyone can reduce their stress but that is not possible due to the language problem. It is also noticed that most of the refugees are from underdeveloped countries and hence, they are unaware of the English language. Most of the women and elderly people from the refugees don’t get an opportunity to work due to lack of education and hence, they are completely unaware about communication in English.
The mental health of the refugees isn’t stable because they hardly know anyone in the UK and people in the UK are afraid to be friendly with the refugees because of their depressed state and the local people have a perception that the refugees may hurt anybody. The refugees underwent a lot of torture in their home country and hence, they are depressed. By reaching the UK, they might have safeguarded their life but their legal and economic status is very much insecure.
UK has lots of benefits for the refugees but the refugees aren’t aware about it completely and hence, they have to struggle a lot every day. They aren’t aware about the law and they aren’t aware about people who can help them to understand the law. They generally try to live within the benefits that they have so that they can at least be alive.
There isn’t any training provided by the government of the UK to the refugees. Refugees aren’t aware about how an organization works and hence, they assume and operate as it was in their homeland. This creates an unacceptable environment wherein they are present (Gill, 2006).
Effects on the mental health of refugees and asylum seekers
The refugees or asylum seekers who are currently in the UK might have gone through a difficult situation in life and hence, their mental health is affected thus, forcing them to have fear and trauma. It is noticed that most of the asylum seekers have lost their close family member or friend and in many cases, they also have been in death situation. Many asylum seekers may have been in difficult situations wherein they would have been deprived of water and food and they somehow would have saved their life and would have come to the UK. Apart from this, the asylum seekers also have undergone torture, brainwash, kidnapped, forced separation of family members and forced isolation from family members.
The asylum seekers who would have been in such situations face a lot of difficulty like they get the fear when they think about the situation in which they have been in the past. Many refugees use to get very angry all of a sudden and few asylum seekers use to get sweaty and shaky when they think about the past.
UK government observed the problems that the asylum seekers had and they provided counseling to them so that they can be protected from such mental issues. Apart from that, it was noticed that if the refugees are kept away from their family for a long time period then such effects will increase and hence, the UK government tries its level best so that the family members can stay together. If the asylum seeker is the only survivor then they use to keep them with other refugees who speak the same language so that they can share their problems with that of one another and find a bit relaxing. Initially, the asylum seekers are put in a medical checkup so that health care can be done and in case of any problem, proper treatment can be provided to them. In short, UK government undertakes all possible things so that the asylum seekers get to know that they are safe now (Steel, S, B, M, 2006).
Aliens Act, 1905
Aliens Act, 1905 came into existence because, in 1869 – 1870, it was noticed that many Jewish population entered the UK. It was noticed that many cities in the UK was overcrowded with the Jewish population. Many Jews started taking up all possible small jobs that they came across and they were willing to work at any wage because they just wanted to earn their livelihood. Many women, who couldn’t find a suitable job for them, began victim of prostitution. Many Jews also started with a small business with whatever money they had. After a certain point of time, the Britain was irritated because they realized that the Jews are taking up their jobs and hence, racism started in the country. Even at the workplace, anti-alien rules were there thus, the trade unions never supported the aliens who were working with that organization.
Aliens Act, 1905 clearly stated that if a person who is willing to migrate from some other nation to the UK will not be entertained if they didn’t have enough possession or position to support their livelihood and family members, if he is lunatic or has any other disease, certain crimes have been registered in his name or having an expulsion order. This made the people of Britain feel secure about the refugees who were migrating to their country. If a female is willing to relocate to the UK because she is married to someone who stays in the UK then she will not be permitted to relocate until she proves her marital status.
The first thing that was put across by the Aliens act, 1905 was the immigration control. This law never stated that the immigration of refugees should be stopped but it stated that the immigration should be controlled. Many political parties weren’t happy with this act as they believed that every person has the right to move from one part of the world to another. Many researchers have also stated that this is a basic human right and no one can deprive it from them.
Many researchers have supported Aliens Act, 1905 as they believed that every society is formed by group of values and culture. Increase in the number of immigrants will dilute the value and hence, the originality of the society will be diluted. Apart from that, every society has its own set of wealth and social status and this is also distributed when the presence of people from other society tends to increase.
The Aliens Act, 1905 of the UK also states that the country will always welcome people who are genuine immigrants. It is also noticed that many people are willing to relocate to the UK for the economic benefits that they can see in the near future so such benefits will be given only when the government of UK approves. There is also an immigration on humanitarian grounds when people want to stay together with their family. In such situations, immigration is allowed by the Aliens act. The UK government also states that the immigration is beneficial to the country as a whole because immigrants will sharpen their skills and knowledge so that they can find a suitable job in UK. A research has shown that most of the immigrants to the UK are business or politicians from succeeding generation and hence, they get wealth with them (Wray, 2006).
Funding for Asylum seekers and refugees
It was noticed that asylum seekers and refugees were dispersed in the name of the housing facility. This was not liked by the asylum seekers and refugees because they felt totally alone when they got housing facility with no one known around. RCOs (Refugee community organization) were formed so that they can help refugees in relocation. These RCOs use to accumulate cash so that they can help the people who need them. One of the problems with these RCOs was that they supported a specific group; for example, an RCO will support Tamil refugees and other RCO will support Jews thus, making it difficult for minor asylum seekers and refugees to seek help. The funding that the RCOs receive totally depends on their capability to raise cash. It was noticed that the new organizations found it difficult to raise funds because the funding institutions needed a track record to show. One of the major problems with the RCOs was that they were willing to undertake registration and other formalities thus, making it difficult for them to survive. A formal registration proved that they can exist for a long period and hence, the funding organizations were ready to shell money from their pockets. Registration was considered to be an expensive thing by these organizations and hence, they preferred to operate as per their convenience. Secondly, every organization preferred to help people from their own community rather than that of all the communities who are refugees. Refugees from minority group didn’t support these organizations as they knew that it isn’t going to help them anyway (Zetter, G, S, 2005).
“Undeserving” Asylum seekers
There is a new term in Britain which states that only the deserving asylum seekers will be given approved and they will be considered as refugees when the undeserving asylum seekers will not be permitted to enter the country. The asylum seekers are not happy with the kind of policy that has been followed in Britain. Asylum seekers and refugees have become a political issue. The asylum seekers will have to use vouchers to make purchases and this thing is not liked by the asylum seekers community. Apart from that, they are dispersed and hence, they don’t get an opportunity to be a part of their community. These activities make the asylum seekers to be different than that of the UK citizens and hence, they get a negative thought that they are burdens to the society. It is also noticed that many schools in the UK don’t prefer to admit kids who are from refugee families because the school authorities believe that these kids cannot perform due to the language barrier that they will have to face in school. Many general practitioners don’t entertain patients who are asylum seekers because they very well know the Britain Government is not going to pay for the treatment of these patients and hence, if the doctors get an idea that the treatment is going to expensive then the remove the patient’s name from the list without any reason.
The Britain council is strongly against racism but it is noticed that the asylum seekers are given approvals on the basis of the country to which they belong. Apart from that, the asylum seekers have to come across embarrassing situations almost every day and they are never accepted by the local people as people among them. The asylum seekers were forced to use vouchers and the usage of vouchers created a lot of complications because the vouchers were usable only at designated stores. Apart from that, the asylum seeker couldn’t get the remaining changes from the storekeeper. For example, if an asylum seeker purchases goods worth £18 and they give a voucher of £20 then the remaining change of £2 wasn’t returned to them. This voucher couldn’t be used to purchase goods like cigarettes or tobacco thus, making their life even more difficult. To get rid of this problem, many asylum seekers started exchanging their vouchers for cash so that they can use the money to the fullest.
After the postwar, Britain tried its level best so that they can contribute to the betterment of the refugees and asylum seekers. It was noticed that the males in the refugee families were bread winners and female were involved in household chores. If a male in the family is given an opportunity to work then the complete family of the asylum seeker or refugee is taken care of. Britain women are considered to be a part of the paid labor force and hence, the women from the refugee’s family took up jobs, like house cleaning, cooking and childcare, in Britain families. Thereafter, refugee women were also considered as bread winners. The government of Britain also allotted some basic facilities like schooling and health care to the families of the asylum seekers so that they can grow equally with the Britain citizens. They were also given social care facilities so that they can find themselves secure in the complete unknown land.
If an asylum seeker enters the country without any prior approval from the government then they will have to apply for the benefits of refugees separately. During this time period, if an asylum seeker needs any help then they will have to get it from the National Asylum Support System (NASS) and once this is approved, they will get all the benefits from the Britain government. The asylum seekers were strongly against the dispersal of housing facilities. During the 1990’s, it was noticed that the majority of the asylum seekers was located in London and then they were moved to other places in the UK which were empty. The government of Britain made it very clear that they were disbursed for no other reason but due to non-availability of space. The asylum seekers preferred to be away from the local community so that they can save themselves from the embarrassment. They were given no option while choosing the housing option and hence, they were forced to stay in houses that were allotted to them by the Britain Government. Many a times, they were forced to stay in a hostel and hence, they were forced to mix up with the local community (Sales, 2002).
Refugee Children in UK are safeguarded
If the refugee family is having children with them then they were given the required protection so that the children in the family can be protected. Apart from that, many unaccompanied children also come into the country and they are also given required protection so that they can be safe. In fact, while considering the interests of parents and children, due importance is given to the children’s interest rather than that of adults in the family. The UK government strongly believes that anything that harms a child before the age of 12, creates a great impact on their mind and hence, they try their level to protect the child from abuse and other mental harassment. If the name of the child is registered with the Britain government then the government will keep a track of the child and its family members so that the child can be safeguarded from problems.
A Children’s trust has been formed in the UK so that the children in the country are protected. Apart from protecting the children when they are in some problem, this organization also funds causes that are for the betterment of the kids. This trust also takes care of the family members of the children so that the family members can take care of all the requirements of the children. Educational needs of children are well taken care by this trust and if the child has special educational needs then that too are taken care by this trust. Generally, the children with special educational needs will have to stay away from the house but that isn’t any issue for families because the required resources for the completion of education will be provided by the trust.
Every refugee child is well examined so that a note of their requirements can be made. Every child is given a unique identification number so that the complete data about the child can be retrieved without wasting time. One of the major problems that the UK government is facing due to this is the information sharing. They share this information with the parents of the child because transparency is the key rule to this examination. Apart from that, if the data needs to be shared with another agency or trust then that can be done but the welfare of the child is of utmost importance rather than that of the confidentiality of the data. The parents should be given a complete picture about the risk that the child will have to face and if the parents aren’t able to understand this then another party who cares for the child should be sought.
If any decision that is going to affect the child is to be taken then the child’s opinion is a must. In all the cases, the child’s opinion isn’t possible but in cases, where the child is mature enough to understand the situation, the children’s opinion is a must. The concerned people should give a brief idea to the child regarding the effects of decision that they are taking and if the child is keen on its decision then that can be implemented without any second thought from parents (Goldthorpe, 2004).
Asylum seekers in UK as a whole
The UK government has been continuously improving while considering the care that they have given to the asylum seekers in the UK. Initially, when NGO started serving asylum seekers then it was noticed that the care provided by the social workers was just for the sake of doing it. The social workers who were taking care of the asylum seekers weren’t trained and hence, complete care wasn’t provided to them. In fact, in many situations, an injured asylum seeker was ignored by the social worker. After a certain point of time, social workers who have good amount of understanding and experience in dealing with asylum seekers were hired thus, allowing refugees to feel secure. Now, the UK government is hiring social workers who love to do social work and hence, people who are not sure about undertaking social work is ignored by the government. People who do social work for earning money aren’t entertained by the UK government thus, making the asylum seekers feel safe and happy about their decision to come to the UK (Briskman, C, 2005).
The asylum seekers in the UK are really happy with the social policy that they hold. All the asylum seekers can be rest assured that they are safe in the country. Asylum seekers are really stressed with the dispersion of migrants. Immigrants in the country like to be together so that they can get emotional support from one another. UK government states that the dispersion is just because there is a lack of space for accommodating all the immigrants. It is also noticed that all the immigrants who migrated in 1990’s have settled in London and hence, the majority of the population today in London is of immigrants. Refugee children in the UK are given special care because the government is well aware that if children are affected mentally at a very young age then this effect will tend to stay with them for a lifetime. If the child is mature enough then the right to decide for themselves is given to them. A special team is engaged by the UK government so that they can keep a track about the parents or the caretakers of the children. If the UK government feels that the kids aren’t secured then they take the custody of kids from them. Adults who are shocked due to the past that they had to face in their homeland are given counseling so that they build a trust that the things which had taken place in their life is just a past and it won’t be repeated at any cost. The social workers in the UK are well trained and they give them 100% so that the betterment of the society can be achieved. An opportunity for refugees and refugee women to work is created so that they can earn their living rather than that of being dependent on the welfare funds that they receive. UK promotes asylum seekers to take approval from the government before they enter the country so that arrangements can be made accordingly. If an asylum seeker’s application to be a refugee is rejected then they will have to leave the country.
Social policy of the UK is such that it promotes love and care among people of different country. The policy for asylum seekers and refugees are modified at regular intervals so that they can help the refugees and immigrants and at the same time, they can safeguard the interests of the local people as well. For UK government, the first priority is their people and hence, anything can cause harm to the local people is avoided because causing harm to the citizens of the UK will create restlessness among their population.
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