Modern Slavery, Human Trafficking & Organised Crime-2254239

With reference to example of labour trafficking, critically evaluate the role of debt and intermediaries in trafficking, modern slavery and labour migration.

There had been increased issues related to modern slavery, organised crime and human trafficking and it had increased the attention of the public (Latham-Sprinkle et al., 2019). Modern slavery states about the exploiting individuals through the means of certain means which includes forced labour, servitude and human trafficking. It is considered to be grave violation in terms of the human rights along with it is regarded as criminal offence. There is a significant legislative framework that is referred as the Modern Slavery Act 2015 where different kinds of issues related to slavery is been identified. It tends to evolves business who is required to disclose certain level of efforts that had been made for ensuring about the relevant supply chains that are said to be free from any kind of slavery as well as human trafficking issues. Moreover, human trafficking is regarded as kind of modern slavery which tends to involve transportation, harbouring, recruitment, transfer or it could be receipt of person through the means of certain kind of force, deception or it might be coercion for the purpose of exploitation. It had been identified that the Modern Slavery Act tends to includes various provisions that is related to human trafficking and these crimes had been recognised at international level based upon some relevant crime. Also, there is National Crime Agency which is considered as essential as it plays an important role in terms of fighting with human trafficking issues. Moreover, organised crime groups are those which tends to play certain role in terms of facilitating people in terms of human trafficking as well as modern slavery. Such kind of groups are been engaged within some kind of systematic criminal activities. These activities are inclusive of trafficking, money laundering along with drug trade. Therefore, it is necessary that these activities need to be addressed as it is regarded as complex challenges which tends to evolve collaborative efforts that had been seen between intelligence services, law enforcement agencies along with international cooperation. Therefore, these initiatives are such that involves awareness that is been given to the public and with the help of these initiatives the victim will not fall in such kind of crimes and these are said to be vital. There are several NGOs along with government agencies who are been involved in running such campaigns that provide education regarding such an offence to the public.

The prevalence as well as extent towards the child labour is seen greatly across regions. There are several literatures which states that human trafficking is such which identifies about the sexual exploitation, domestic servitude along with forced labour. It had been reported that several people who had been involved in trafficking which is committed for illegal activities like shoplifting, benefit fraud, drug smuggling, pick-pocketing, cannabis cultivation (Caruana et al., 2021). It had been identified that human trafficking is determined through certain factors like supply factors as well as demand factors. There had been wider implications for enhancing certain level of probability of success where a proactive approach had been undertaken for dealing with economic as well as social issues. Based upon child trafficking, it had been seen that during the year of 2003, UNICEF had stated that there were at least 250 children from UK who had been trafficked within the concerned five years. There are several transit countries which had been used for the purpose of trafficking and these routes are such which tends to evolve report at such level. There had been Albanian route which commonly runs through Italy to France and also, they end in Belgium. In such kind of route, it had been seen that victim had been taken from boat and when they are been travelled to Belgium then they had been taken by car. Another is the Nigerian route which commonly departs from the Western African country and the victim had been taken to Netherlands or it could be Germany from Nigeria.

When identifying about the role of debt in case of human trafficking then it had been seen that debt bondage is referred as such kind of method which is used for controlling (Guild and Barylska, 2021). As it had been seen that these victims belong to vulnerable background where they had been given a promise regarding employment but later, they had been forced into certain amount of debt. These debts are counted through the means of recruitment fees and these things make it like an exploitation. There is another crucial thing that these victims are been exploited through the means of debt which they owe to another person and they are required to pay on time. It means that these victims tend to believe that they had to pay significant amount of debt to these concerned traffickers. This is the major reason that this debt tends to become like a tool which could be used for manipulation, discouraging attempts that had been made for escaping purpose and ensuring about compliance. Moreover, these traffickers tend to provide promises to these victims in terms of things that they will provide well-paying jobs to them. It is such a case where they are been felt like they will be getting high paid jobs during the time of their arrival but later these victims are been confronted with huge number of debts where they get fear and think like it is an obligation upon them.

Several intermediaries play a different role, it includes several unscrupulous recruitment agencies who might be regarded as intermediaries and these tends to work based upon movement of workers concerning to different borders. It had been seen that excessive fees might be charged by these agencies where they tend to misled such individuals based upon their concerned nature along with conditions related to work. There had been certain other role which had been played by these brokers or it could be intermediaries which is related to potential victims based upon employers. It had been seen that these intermediaries are such which tends to exploit those who are job seekers and it had been made possible through the means of unfair conditions as well as wages that had been offered to them. Therefore, these use of debt along with intermediaries commonly target those people who are vulnerable and those who wanted to seek an employment. This is the reason that these people undertake deceptive practices through the means of intermediaries and make contribution in evolving such situation where the victims had been exploited unknowingly. It had been evaluated from the above that there are chances that economic disparities may arise along with lack of opportunities seen in case of home countries concerning to the victims. These tends to contribute towards their susceptibility based upon the deceptive practices. It had been identified that a promise had been given for the purpose of economic prospects where this victim tends to ignore any kind of potential risks that had been faced by them. There are certain kind of role which had been followed by intermediaries where they highlight about the regulatory gaps in which the unscrupulous actors had been allowed in terms of their operation. Moreover, these recruitment practices had been strengthened based upon the relevant practices which is said to be crucial for the purpose of preventing exploitation. These debts are such which is regarded as powerful control mechanism which tends to install certain level of fear in the mind of victims and through such means the chances of exploitation tends to increase. Therefore, it is necessary that the root cause needs to be tackled properly which tends to highlight about the debt bondage system and also, through such means the traffickers tends to held accountable for their concerned offence.

It is crucial that the issues related to human trafficking needs to be addressed through the means of strengthening regulations which is related to recruitment along with employment practices. It is inclusive of certain things like capping or there might be reducing recruitment fees which would be helpful in protecting vulnerable individuals. It is necessary that awareness needs to be raised between migrants where chances might evolve that they could face any kind of risks related to exploitation. Also, certain level of tactics could be evolved against migrants which might be used by traffickers and such things needs to be identified through the means of awareness program amongst migrants. Moreover, such issues could be addressed when there needs to be cooperation seen between government, agencies, law enforcement and NGOs. As this cooperation seems to be crucial where it reduces the chances of risks based upon human trafficking effectively.

Modern slavery is regarded as brutal crime through which thousands of people had been impacted in UK. There are certain victims which had faced certain situations related to exploitation, threats, controlled through the means of deception and violence. Moreover, it had been seen that exploitation could be hidden through the means of plain sights, nail bars, brothels, car washes, fields and private homes. It had been identified that modern slavery tends to evolve different forms like forced labour, human trafficking, descent-based slavery, forced as well as early child marriage, debt bondage, human trafficking, child slavery and forced sexual exploitation. It is considered as grave issue and these intermediaries along with role of debt is such which tends to play crucial role in terms of perpetuating the crime. When these had been examined which highlights about certain level of challenges which tends to address different kinds of problem. When identifying about the debt which is referred as tool of control for example, a migrant worker who had been promised by another person that he will get job in UK and for this reason that another person had charged certain amount of recruitment fees from him. Moreover, after the time of their arrival in UK, it had been found by these workers that they are required to pay huge amount of debt. Through such means a coercive environment had been created where employer had been involved in using such kind of debt as it is like leverage for control. Therefore, it had been evaluated from the above that debt is such which is regarded as a mechanism that had been used for exploiting vulnerability. Moreover, these traffickers as well as unethical employers had been evolved for the purpose of capitalize in terms of economic desperation where certain individuals had been entrapped based upon the situations where these migrants would not be able to escape from such kind of impossible debts and they did not have any chances but required to pay such kind of debts to their employer.

There is an example of exploitative intermediaries where unscrupulous recruitment agencies are been evolved in terms of charging higher fees for the purpose of providing job placement along with accommodation to migrants as these are said to be vulnerable. It had been identified that these agencies are such which tends to misled their workers based upon the concerned employment and the contract related to employment is such that includes exploitative conditions. Therefore, it had been evaluated from the above that these intermediaries are such which tends to make contribution towards the perpetuation in terms of modern slavery. It had been done through facilitation of entry that had been given to victims in any such kind of exploitative situations. Moreover, it had been seen that there had been lack in terms of stringent regulations as well as oversight where these intermediaries are been allowed to operate with impunity.  There is another example related to human trafficking networks where the brokers had been involved in terms of collaborating with certain kind of intermediaries that are across different level of borders. It had been identified that these victims are been transported through the means of guise in terms of employment. It is possible due to the reason that they wanted to find themselves as they had been trapped in certain kind of forced labour during the time of their arrival. Therefore, it had been evaluated from the above that the global nature related to modern slavery networks tends to evolve significant challenges which could be faced by any person. As there had been interconnected criminal enterprises which are been evolved in exploiting regulatory gaps. Also, through such means the international cooperation had been necessitated where these said networks had been dismantled effectively.

Moreover, it had been seen that there are certain legal as well as regulatory challenges for example, there are chances that regulatory framework might be weak and these enforcement agencies are such which tends to allow these unscrupulous intermediaries based upon the continuity with their operations (Crane et al., 2022). It had ben identified in an example, that there are chances that certain level of legal loopholes which might be enabled to these concerned traffickers which could be possible in terms of avoiding prosecution. However, through the means of said example, it had been evaluated that there might be certain level of ineffectiveness which had been identified in these laws along with the contribution had been made by this legal enforcement in terms of persistence based upon modern slavery. Therefore, it is necessary that these legislation needs to be strengthened and this regulatory mechanism should be enhanced. As these said things are essential for determining the influence based upon these intermediaries’ agencies (Gadd and Broad, 2023). There had been certain level of impact upon the victims for example these migrant workers when they arrived are been deceived by the concerned intermediaries through such means it had been ensured that there is involvement of harsh working conditions which needs to be faced by these workers. Moreover, they sometimes faced low wages, bad working conditions and debt bondage. Also, these victims faced fear in terms of making report against these intermediaries that is based upon any concerns which is related to deportation. Therefore, it had been evaluated from the above that the role of debt in terms of modern slavery along with intermediaries which might evolve severe abuse related to human rights. These victims are such who had been trapped within different level of cycle based upon exploitation, there had been fear based upon reprisals during the time when they wanted some help from other people. There is involvement of comprehensive support programs which needs to be provided to these victims so that these kinds of cycle could be broken when it is needed.

In case of modern slavery, it had been seen that there is requirement of cross-sectoral collaboration (Raets and Janssens, 2019). For example, there had been a collaboration which is seen between law enforcement, businesses and NGOs which tends to be limited. Moreover, there could be lack of communication which could be seen within trafficking network; thus, such things could be adapted and through such means the operations could be continued. Therefore, it had been evaluated from the above issues that this modern slavery could be tackled through the means of multidisciplinary approach which needs to be adopted (Pettinato, 2023). Through such means of an approach the collaboration needs to be improved along with information-sharing could be made between these stakeholders and these things are said to be essential for the purpose of dismantling trafficking networks and it could be implemented by these migrants.

Labour migration is considered as a major global issue through which several nations had ben affected. On one hand, there is involvement of certain positive aspects concerning to the cross-border migration. These labours are such which make contribution towards the migrant workers in terms of their growth as well as development within different countries of employment. Moreover, these migration process tends to evolves serious challenges and which is been commonly faced by low-skilled workers. these migration for employment is regarded as part in terms of global agenda related to the International Labour Organisation. through the means of expansion and evolving several complexities in terms of labour migration, the obligation is upon ILO where they tend to play a unique role for the purpose of developing principles as well as guidelines concerning to the government. This international labour migration is regarded as a multidisciplinary issue which is seen in various different sector based upon their work. It highlights about labour standards, social protection, employment and social dialogue. Therefore, this labour migration is regarded as complex phenomenon which tends to evolve different kinds of role of debt as well as intermediaries that had been involved which tends to determine the concerns related to ethical as well as human rights.

There are certain kinds of recruitment practices which had been obtained for example, when these migrant workers tend to arrive in new country then the chances evolves that they might become victim that had been made by these unscrupulous recruitment agencies for which the exorbitant fees which had been charged from these workers for the purpose of their job placement (Hodkinson et al., 2021). In such kind of situation, it had been seen that these migrant workers are said to be desperate as they want employment for themselves due to the reason, they tend to take loan from certain banks for the purpose of paying such fees that had been charged by these agencies. Therefore, this is the major reason that these migrant workers are been involved in such kind of cycle of debt which needs to be paid by them. Therefore, through the means of example related to exploitative recruitment practices, it had been evaluated that the nature of these said practices are such which tends to make contribution in terms of vulnerability of these concerned migrant workers. Moreover, it had been seen that these migrant workers are required to face such kind of situation where they had been charged with excessive amount of fees and this is like a pressure upon them and due to this, they had been forced for accepting such work but they are required to repay such number of debts.

These migrant workers who tends to arrive in UK for the purpose of finding the job and they commonly gets burden based upon any relevant debts which needs to be paid by them on time. Moreover, these employers had knowledge about such kind of financial struggles that had been faced by these workers. Moreover, it had been evaluated from the above in case of labour migration that this debt bondage is considered as such kind of mechanism which is been used for the purpose of controlling as well as exploitation. Like it had been used by these agencies for controlling these migrant workers. Therefore, there are higher chances that these workers might fear from such kind of working conditions along with they had been manage in terms of repayment of such debts. Moreover, the contract that had been signed by these workers which is related to their employment is said to be transparent. For example, when these employment contract that had been signed by these workers for which they did not had any clear understanding related to the terms of the employment contract. There are certain intermediaries who had been involved in misleading these workers because they think that these workers had been migrated from different countries and they did not have much knowledge about the conditions of employment due to this reason they are said to be vulnerable. It had been determined from such an example, that there is lack of transparency which could be identified in the employment contract which had been signed by these workers. During the time of labour migration, it had been seen that these migrant workers did not have the knowledge about the relevant law as well as languages. It is necessary that there should be legal safeguards which needs to be present for these workers so that any kind of exploitation of workers could be prevented.

These informal intermediaries are evolved which tends to operate from outside regulatory frameworks which tends to have connection with employers as they wanted to make them connect with different workers (Severns, Paterson and Brogan, 2020). For example, these unregulated intermediaries are been evolved where they wanted to exploit these workers through the means of doing some unfair practices with them. Therefore, their involvement with these workers determined about the gaps which could be seen in case of labour migration. However, such issues could be resolved when these regulations need to be strengthened along with it should be properly monitored so that any kind of abuse upon these vulnerable workers needs to be prevented. It tends to evolve certain other impact on social as well as mental well-being of these workers during the time when they face issues related to exploitation. For example, these migrants’ workers think that they had fear because of such reprisals along with social isolation through which their mental health had been disturbed. It is based upon beyond any kind of economic considerations, it is necessary that the priority to be given to these social as well as mental conditions of these migrant workers. However, there are also chances that proper support systems should be provided to them along with certain mental health services which needs to be provided to these workers so that they could properly manage with the migration polices without any kind of exploitation been faced by them.

Sometimes these migrants’ workers are been engaged within any relevant ethical channels which involves the chances that they might face any such exploitative conditions (Cockayne, 2021). Therefore, it is necessary that ethical recruitment practices need to be adopted at the time of hiring them. When this ethical recruitment had been encouraged then it will be seen that the rights as well as dignity of these migrants’ workers are been given priority by these concerned agencies and they are not been exploited again. Moreover, there are certain programs which stated about the temporary migration which is based upon the open government policies. There are different forms in terms of temporary migration programmes which is related to modalities in terms of entry along with the selection based upon the eligibility applications. There are chances that these seasonal workers are been supplied along with these skilled migration schemes where working holidays are also been provided to these young people. These temporary as well as circular labour migration are said to have become popular. While this temporary labour migration is such where certain destination had been enabled where the labour shortages could easily be fulfilled and this capacity had been based upon globalized economy.

It has been concluded that combating modern slavery, organised crime as well as human trafficking is considered as multi-pronged approach which tends to evolve legislative frameworks, international cooperation and public awareness. There are different kinds of challenges that had been identified in the paper is said to be significant but there are ongoing efforts which had been undertaken for the purpose of creating a safer environment for these migrant workers because they are said to be vulnerable in the society and there are chances that any kind of criminal networks which could be evolved in such kind of situation. Moreover, the paper had highlighted about the role along with the role related to intermediaries which had been evolved during the time of providing job to these migrant workers. This is regarded as a complex issue which tends to state about multi-stakeholder approach. Therefore, it is essential that root causes need to be addressed and the relevant regulations should be strengthened and the proper awareness needs to be provided to these migrant workers so that such problems need to be reduced which is regarded as kind of exploitation committed by agencies against the migrant workers. The paper had determined the need which is regarded as comprehensive along with there is necessity based upon coordinated response. The priority needs to be given to these victims so that proper support had been provided to them as it is part of the integral components that is based upon such serious crime that is committed against the migrant workers.


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