Environmental Security Ecological Footprint towards a greener future-72050

Environmental Security Ecological Footprint towards a greener future

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Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

Theory. 4

Historical Background to the Concept of Environmental Security. 7

Different approaches to the Concept of Environmental Security. 10

Environmental Change and its Impacts. 12

Analysis. 13

Conclusion. 16

References. 18





Environmental problems is one of the most significant issues in recent times and factors such as climate change become an international agenda for the regulatory authority as led in changing the overall environmental sustainability rate globally (Alpas, Berkowicz & Ermakova, 2011). This paper provides critical emphasis on the environmental issues in a particular security context and the impact of environmental insecurity to the individuals live within the society.  However, degradation of environment is another major prospective and since the globalization, the world is changing rapidly in terms of politics, economic and culture.  The economical development is another significant factor that help in increasing business opportunities but created a particular scope to understand the need of human security (Barnett, 2007).  Global awareness movements took place concerning the environment security to make the world more better place. Security of a particular nation plays the pro-vital role to maintain the social and economical balance as well as individuals’ safety within the nation and some of the countries to maintain the territorial integrity initially used it. To improve the ecological situation in a particular country the reliable initiatives has to be taken in order to achieve sustainability within the environment. Some of the regulatory authorities considered the environmental security as a national security concept to provide suitable understanding to the individuals regarding the need of this security for our growth and development (Butts, 2014).  Large and small-scale domestic project has been launched to stabilize the green house emission and achieve sustainability within the environment, which will ensure safe and healthy world for the future generation. The regulatory authorities taken several initiatives for the protection of environment and manage the required resources for the development innovatively within the indigenous population.  The entire process of globalization results in increasing the opportunities of business and thus the overall process innovation took place and the environmental degradation caused which is one of the major issues in current times. Pollution and green house emission are the major drivers that resulted in global warming, which is responsible for increasing the overall temperature of earth, diminishing ecology and degradation of entire environment (CLOVER, 2005). For this, reliable care regarding the issues such as green development become the primary concern by the regulatory authorities as it is one of the most significant alternative to maintain the ecological balance and environment sustainability in an enhanced way.


It is imperative to understand the concept of environmental security and the entire pathway of how to achieve the green environment with the time and each approach is entirely based on the fundamental concepts, which can be characterized by a particular theory. With the help of the theory illustration the fundamental base of the development of that particular approach and the effectiveness will be clearly emphasized within the environment (Coskun, Cigizoglu & Maktav, 2008). Most importantly, a particular theory process can be implemented after the analysis, which will helps in achieving the best possible environment sustainability within the environment.


Security issues can be regarded as the international agenda that provides critical impact to nations economy, society and individuals life style as well as government structure. Having an adequate security system determine the strength of the nation and to enhance the security system various strategic direction has been impended which intern helps in development and growth of the society (Dalby, 2002). The concept of world security is a changing process and it has been changed with the time as per the current circumstances. In current times, the meaning of security is to protect the individual’s rights, ensure safety, and on the other hand, provide protection of individuals against any kinds of violation and increase the daily life living standards of the individuals.  In current times, security is not just a measure of maintaining states strength but also having a clear objective to ensure standard life style of the individuals. Security has two different prospective one is social constructivists and another is realism prospective. As per the social constructivists security is a concept of maintain social and political balance within the society for betterment of individuals value and enhance cultural tradition effectively (Deudney & Matthew, 1999).  The challenges and vulnerabilities are quite effectively managed by the reliable security approaches and there are mainly two type of approaches are available one is traditional approach and another is wide approach. The traditional approach is primarily applicable for the concern of national security system and it has significant importance for the military sectors and one the other hand, the wide approach combined work for the traditional and ne security threat and environmental challenges with the help of suitable theory and technological innovation strategies.

Human security

Human security is one of the most significant concepts that directly influenced the concepts of environmental security because it is associated with the standardizing of individuals life style for the future enhancement (Doyle & Risely, 2008).  After ending of the cold war the human security, become the significant agenda for the nations.  Currently, the individuals supported the concept of human security, which become the priority of the state. The human freedom and fulfillment is achieved with the help of human security and the threats reduction is innovatively done with the help of effective policy and schemes, which helps in establishing better platform for the individuals as well as the nation to achieve the environment sustainability.   There are mainly two types of human security approach is present within the system one is “freedom of fear and “freedom of want”, the freedom of fear is limited to the protection of individuals and maintain each individual safety rights effectively and the other approach do not support the enhancement of lives (Drezner & Camm, 1999). For this, the other alternative approach has been established but the regulatory authorities to make the process more precise and effective.  The future need and current situation handling are the major approach which helps in maintaining throughout and future security of lives that become a major and integral part of human security.

Environment security

The origin of environment security is one of the most significant parts in this particular context and rapid technological advances results in development. The concept of security is now associated with the quality of life and environmental security is one of the most significant initiatives that have to taken by the regulatory authorities and the reliable cooperation should be made by the community members in order to achieve the sustainability of environment security. The environment security gradually becomes an important issue, which provides critical impact to the climate change and ecosystem instability (Eckersley, 1996).  The contemporary threats increases the world population and green house gas emission and glacial ice melts are the major threats of global warming which can be a disaster for the humanity. Therefore, the reliable understanding regarding the need of environment security is clearly spotted and a casual relationship between climate change, natural sources and human needs and societal impacts illustration is shown below.


Figure- Relationship between different environmental factors with human need and societal impacts

Source-  (Elliott, 2003)

Therefore, there is a significant relationship present among the above factors and, therefore it is essential to consider those factors while taking any particular initiative for the development or betterment of the environment.

Historical Background to the Concept of Environmental Security

In this chapter a brief history of the environmental security will be outlined.  It is not the case that the concept of environmental security has been with us for a very long amount of time as we assume due to the current debates on environment. It can be said that the development has been noted since the Cold War created the order of bipolar world (Baldwin, 2013). For the studies and policies on security, the contributions of the Cold War were named as “vertigo”. The concept of security and thinking about new ways of being secure started to become irrelevant and unimportant with the end of the Cold War. There was a growing concern for the environment among the people in developed countries led to the development of newer issues in the agenda of security (Dejana, 2013). It is being feared that the environmental security concept along with the integration of the security concerns at the national level and environmental issues could potentially be seen as novel or somewhat contradictive.

During the end of the Cold War, the move was towards an environmental approach to security in natural way. Therefore, since 1919, the concept of security has been the major concern for the International Relations. Insecurity exists naturally and timelessly within the international (McNelis and Schweitzer, 2001).

This development with the growing environmental consciousness of people in developed countries drove a mainstream call for newer issues to enter the security agenda(Tvaronavičienė and Lankauskienė, 2011).

According to the information gathered regarding the history of this concept, the entry of environmental security into the debate has been a controversial topic with several conflicting arguments. Even though these theories contradict each other, the one common ground they all stand upon is that the Cold War definitely had an impact on this (Elliott, 2015).

Historically speaking, even though the issues regarding the environment have been in the agenda of the international, it never acquired the form we see it in these days. For instance, in the 1940s, the agenda comprised of population and resources while in the 1970s, oil and resources were the major concerns in the agenda. Nowadays, our concern is all on the weather change which is man-made and the question of security which is raised on it. Furthermore, the general public has been reawakened by this.

The emergence of the concept of environmental security historically is not yet clear, and there are several controversies regarding the same. The common thing to be agreed upon all providers of theories that the end of the Cold War created an opportunity for new threats to the security which could have made their way to the International Relations and which would have occurred anyway, even without the presence of a Cold war (“Euro environmental group pays penalty for software infringement”, 1997).

Nonetheless, an attempt can be made to sum up the emergence of environmental security along with the history in three concise points(Corrigendum, 2015). They are:

  • The developed countries were experiencing agrowth in environmentalism was after the 1960’s along with
  • Attempting to challenge the practice and meaning of security from an environmental viewpoint.
  • The end of the Cold War brought changes into the bipolar world.

The institution of Environmental Security have very precisely said, “The relation between the environment and the security of humans and nature has been the object of much research and the subject of many publications in recent decades, but it is only recently becoming an important focus of international environmental policy.”


Different approaches to the Concept of Environmental Security

Several meanings of environmental security have come into being due to the ambiguity of both the words security and environment. Hence, describing it through some key interpretations is the best idea. The table shows the fact:

Ecological security Natural environment Human activity Ecosystems
Common security Nation state Environmental change Global / regional
Environmental violence Nation state War National
National security Nation state Environmental change National
Greening defence Armed forces Green / peace groups Organizational
Human security Individuals Environmental change Local


Ecological security is defined as the impact of the activities of humans on the environment. This signifies that the ecological processes and the ecosystems ought to be secured which in turn emphasizes that human activity is considered to be a threat to the ecological security. Being a mere part of the environment, humans are secured (Ferng, 2014).

Common security very well explains the second interpretation in the table. It denotes that the borders are overshadowed by the impact the environmental problems have on us to a common case, for instance the depletion of ozone layer or the rapid changes in climate. Nevertheless, the case here says that these repercussions have the potential to harm us equally rather than saying that we all are equally responsible for the circumstances(Hofmann and Lehmann, 2007).

The other four interpretations could be explained later since they are more likely to raise controversies and it is preferable that they are defined in an elaborate matter.

Insecurity and human security

Security can be applied to various things whose values are diametrically opposite to insecurity and also represent to a wide range of risks(Tang and Dong, 2011). Therefore, owing to this statement, the environment is denoted as an object for security since the changes in the environment that we see every day pose as major security risks.

If an approach to the security of the environments that focuses on the security of human beings, it is imperative that nation states along with their security policies are taken into account. The ways of fortifying the human security need to attain a higher level even though individuals the center of attention regarding human security (Tvaronavičienė, Grybaitė and Tunčikienė, 2013).

Securitization and the Copenhagen School

Spectrum of securitization

Non-politicized Politicized Securitized
Issues ignored by the state and the ones which are not being talked about in the public debates Issues which are part of public policy i.e. are the political system manages them Issue which is structured as a security question through an act of securitization


An issue is defined as non-politicized the public debates do not include it among their topics and even the state ignores them. The issue is called politicized when the so called normal political system manages it. It ends up at the spectra at the securitized end when the issue requires emergency actions beyond the state’s normality approaches (Hallin, 2014).


Environmental Change and its Impacts

Environmental changes provided enormous impact to our society starting from the rising in temperature and increase in disease rate due to the changes of climate because on adequate atmosphere resulting in  increasing the overall infection rapidly. Most importantly, the standard quality of life is diminishing with increasing environmental disaster. However, with the help of innovative environmental initiatives such as green building development, renewable energy source use helps in betterment of the atmosphere as well as to the society (Gueldry, 2012).  There are multiple definitions of sustainable development that have been used in the transformation of the urban areas around the world. In the below given table various definitions have been provided which are used according to the type of transformation that is needed to be carried and on the basis of the perspectives of different individuals. Development has no other alternatives and it is evident from various studies that, sustainable development is not only about the architecture or lifestyle but it’s about the aspects and opportunities of life, which will open several opportunities for development and the nation would be able to make a good knock internationally with greater profitability in business economics (Haefner, 2013). There is major concern among the researchers and the modern urban planners to shift from the current approach of the urban development, but there is a confusion regarding the approach they should follow to attain the sustainable development of the urban areas. While some of the writers follow a more broad approach which includes the flow of the natural, economic and electrodes resources there are certain authors who are more specific in their approach (Jakab, 2011). However, the effective approach of planning and control should be carried out in order to achieve the sustainable development and the capabilities of planning, and enhancement of quality of life will be available with the help of rapid transition of economy and better employment opportunity with sustainable development.



The various options and alternatives that the players of the situations of opportunity have are described as the field of options. The concept of the situations of opportunity is based on the fact that there is a need for drastic measures for the sustainable development of the urban areas and these measures cannot be obtained only by adopting incremental changes. It also says that there are certain limitations to rationalism (Johnston, 2012). Thus, it is widely accepted that the best period for the transformation of the city is when there is low inertia to the transformation process. A qualitative research methodology was taken for initial; approach to the data collection methods. In order to address the main research questions of determining the perspectives of the parents, generalized semi structured interview questionnaires were designed to address the parents and extract the empirical data. The qualitative approach is not limited to the documentation of the daily life activities of the parents but analysis of the data to find out what rationale lied beneath which governed their perspectives and way of thinking (Klein-Banai & Theis, 2011). The qualitative method is quite error free owing to the fact that it does not incorporate numbers or scientific data rather it focuses on the textures of life and using tools of to evaluate the lifestyle of the parents group in context.

Energy is the major urban development approach, which can be beneficial for both social and economical infrastructure. There are several meanings of the sustainability transitions which generally overlap each other. Sustainability transition also signifies the transition of the different patterns of sustainability.  There is a recent academic trend to research the sustainability transition. These research topics are generally based on the conceptual level or they are based on the technological level (Lawrence & Robinson, 2014).  According to the authors, sustainable transition may be explained in terms of the radical new technologies which has been used for the replacement of the consumption with the reuse and recycling. It may be further explained as the redirection of the investment in the social sectors in order to suffice the requirement of the humans and support the development of the communities. The conflicts between the energy policy and social policy are also illustrated in this context which provide major impact to the overall sustainability.

The focus for this methodology was towards learning what the parents thought about their ward’s internet usage patterns and habits.  When the growth and development of the buildings of the urban areas are looked upon from the perspective of history, there are certain moments in time which are more important as compared to others. The concept of the Situations of Opportunity is basically based on such moments in history (Lenzen & Murray, 2001).  In this report the author advices to study situations from two different perspectives of urbanization, i.e.metabolism and management. The management of the process of urbanization is related to complex inter-relationship between three different factors which are urban structures, framework of institutions and the way of life of the citizen. The metabolism is related to the various environmental impacts. the study provides a clear and concise idea regarding the sustainability in terms of environment management used by the individuals and we had concentrated on the factors that will enhance the student professional lifestyles innovatively with the help of appropriate approach. The total structure of curriculum designs and development is within the range of belief of these four ideologies of which two has been elaborated in this document (Mackenzie, Messinger & Smith, 2008). There are mainly four identified beliefs of curriculum development ideologies that are commonly found among imminent scholars of the relevant field, the above two were studied and found worth a critique. Each has its strengths and weaknesses that need further research to evaluate. The other two ideologies are Electrodes reconstruction ideology and learner centered ideology, each having their strengths and weaknesses. Among the strengths and weakness the above two ideologies could be used for the academic and professional development of the student, as they involves in development of electrodes identity and tried to provide reliable understanding regarding the practical and professional lifestyle of their surroundings (MAGNO, 1997).


The environment security is one of the most significant factor is that has to be done in an innovative way to maintain the balance of nature and to secure the future of humanity. However, the reliable knowledge regarding the green environment development has been carried out in this particular study and on the other hand, the appropriate theory is illustrated which helps in understanding the needs of the implementation of a particular theory to a particular situation.  Green environment  is adopted by the developed countries as they use many of the other alternatives to increase the overall sustainability (Matthew, 2010). The primary purpose of the society is to facilitate the life style and he significant resources belong to the government of the society basically for the purpose of facilitating the delivery of public facilities and services to the different individuals of the society. These significant resources will help the government to gather up the covering-limits to the insured person in order to help them accessing the public technological facility and contributing the sum of amount from their behalf. Therefore, these resources are considered to be significant enough for the government as well as for the people within the community to maintain their inalienable rights to access of technological devices and  services and treatments in the smooth and hassle-free manner. The technologic evolution bringing the positive productivity to the services is viable enough allocate these resources to the respective fields. The particular weapon is identified to be the employment of armed compulsion against the disarmed victims. The overall thing is a nightmare infernal machine which is designed to annihilate the morality (Medved, 2006). This particular system arose out of simpler and more rustic form in less affluent time where both the benefits and cost were of a much more private sort than now. This particular concept is no longer adequate for the current society.

Therefore, the world with the weaker logic is considered to be the ultimate weapon against the society which is a terrible one. On the other hand, a totally contrary opinion can be observed where he had mentioned that the consequences of the technologic advances are causing different types of concerns to the present society. Transformation and transitions has been used as terms to define the changes in the structures (Morel & Linkov, 2006). This term generally depicts the changes in the changes of the structures of urban areas with respect to demographic, social and economic and spatial perspectives. When the rapidly industrializing cities are described in these literatures then the word growth is generally used to depict the change process in place of transformation or transition. The concept of the urban development basically originated from the political economy point of view (Mostafavi & Doherty, 2010). To describe the context of rapid transformation in the urban structures the concept of urban transformation in terms of the global links in between different cities are explained.





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War in Sierra Leone


Institution Date



Sierra Leone has experience devastating civil between 1991 and 2002. The war began when revolutionary group which was supported by military forces of Charles Taylor (Former president of Liberia), intervened in an attempt to institute military coup against the government of Joseph Momoh (Bangura, 2004). This resulted in civil war that lasted for about 11 years. The war left about 50, 000 people dead and other severe effects such as poverty and hartred among communities within the country. The war ended in 2002 when Britain and heavey United Nations Peace Keeping missions intervened.

I have chosen this country to show how the resources of a country can be main cause of war especially when a few people want to benefit from such resources in expense of others. Sierra Leone is endowed with rich resources with diamond being one major resource as well as other resources. The rebel groups that were fighting had occupied the gems of such resources. They had taken control of large parts of eastern and southern of Sierra Leone where alluvial diamonds were in plenty. The term “blood diamonds” is associated with illegal diamonds trade to fund rebel groups and conflicts. The foreigners would buy these diamonds from rebel group data cheaper price thereby empowering rebels to continue perpetuating conflicts in the country.

Since the civil war ended in 2002, the country has experienced high economic growth rate and peaceful atmosphere. The country is having a fast growing economy and is one of fast growing countries in Africa. For example in 2013 the country experienced a growth rate of 5.5%. It is therefore interesting that we focus on this country to see how it has been able to overcome the effects of the long-lasted civil war and other social, economic and political challenges to achieve such high growth rate.

An analysis of conflict through the ideas of Frantz Fanon in The Wretched of the Earth

The book The Wretched of The Earth was originally published in 1961 having been written by Frantz Fanon. The book as a bit controversial to scholars as it is confusing on how to pin point the safe ideas from the author’s radical thinking about the whole theory of decolonization of Africans (Fanon, 2004). When reading the chapter of violence in this book, what comes into my mind is how I can comprehend the troubling facets of his work rather than the question of embracing them. in other words, many people would simply put his disregard his ideas as dangerous and simply relegate them to the dustbin. However, it is important to give them careful consideration before deciding anything else.

The book was written during the climax of Algerian War which was characterized by blood conflicts between the Algerians who were colonized and the French who were colonizers. Both sides tourtured one another and violence was the order of the day. It is estimated that a about one million people died in Algeria as a result of this war (Bates, 2008). Further, 5,000 people died in France.

Frantz Fanon during this time was a psychiatrist. He was dealing with psychological and emotional issues affecting the torturers and their victims. He had also served as a veteran during World War II serving Algeria fighting alongside French army. In his military service he experienced a personal view of racism. African (black) soldiers were discriminated by their white counterparts. The black African soldiers were not allowed to wear French uniform.

One major though about violence by Fanon is that there should be no middle ground in struggle for independence. He insisted that during this struggle it should be all about “them or us”. In other words, there should be no compromise in ending this struggle. His ideas were bought by Algerian nationalists who despised any integration with France, including an option for self government as such a government would still be attached to France.

Fanon’s rejection for a middle ground or conciliation possible is guided by his acceptance of violence as the only way of gaining independence against the whites. In supporting his view of advocating for violence, Fanon describes the extent to which colonized and colonized were so different. The colonists were enjoying every good thing including roads, water, medical health, schools, etc. The colonized on the other hand, were oppressed, discriminated and given low wages by colonizers. He continues to say that the colonizers live in fear of being replaced by colonized while the colonized live with envy to aspire to replace the colonizers.

The opposition between the colonizer and the colonized is therefore another thing that leads Fanon to advocate for violence. In fact, Fanon describes the colonial government as using the language of violence in dealing with colonized people. In other words, it is as if Fanon is trying to urge the colonized to apply the equal measures against the colonizer. Fanon describes violence as the only possible form of communication that should exist between the colonized and colonizers. That is, colonizer speaks to the local natives through violence and the natives should give feedback through violence.

Fanon’s ideas and Sierra Leone war

One of main cause of war in Sierra Leone was diamonds and other minerals present in that country. It is argued that the extraction of diamonds was initially in hands of ruling class. The mining licenses were given to ruling family and their loyal supporters. There were therefore unequal benefits reaped from the extraction of the resource (Collier & Hoeffler 2004). This led to growing frustration among the communities in Sierra Leone especially those who were excluded from the benefits. There was animosity and hatred between the beneficiary of diamonds and those who had been excluded from enjoying the benefits of diamonds. In fact, the ruling government encouraged smuggling of diamond.

This result to revolt by rebel groups who were expressing frustration and anger for un-equal benefit of such resources. The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) with support of special forces of Charles Taylor attempted to overthrow the ruling government in Sierra Leone in March 1991(Keen, 2005). Later, the RUF took control of large parts of eastern and southern of Sierra Leone which were rich in alluvial diamond(Keen, 2005). They trade these diamonds with arms from Charles Taylor’s government in Liberia.

Fanon’s ideas for violence can also be seen in this scenario. In Sierra Leone as explained above, the ruling government exploiting majority of people and enjoying the benefits of mineral resources with its family members and loyal supporters. This resulted in hatred among population which resulted into civil war. In other words, violence here is seen as a means to express dissatisfaction among the subjects. The government was also responding with violence to those rebel groups such as RUF. The fight was a bloody one with about 50, 000 people left dead at the end of the war.

My view on Frantz Fanon Ideas of Violence in The Wretched of the Earth

I see Fanon’s ideas as radical, dangerous and outdated and inapplicable in today’s world. Fanon expressed very radical opinions on how to handle and respond to injustices. In expressing dissatisfaction, Fanon purely advocated for violence against the oppressor. He does not buy the idea of dialogue, negotiation, reconciliation or mediation.

When violence is taken as the only means of solving grievances, there is a big problem in that some things are overlooked and misguided. Violence brings more problems because both sides lose. People die on both sides and the effects of war are felt even by many generations to come. Even though Sierra Leone is stable right now with peaceful atmosphere, the effects of the war are still evident. People live with fear and suspicion of one another. They are not in a position to unite fully for the sake of development of the country. People have the attitude that government official are corrupt. In fact, many politicians ascending to power or aspiring for any political seat do so with a mindset that public resources are there to be stolen and therefore they strive to get and maintain the chance to steal as more resources as possible for themselves.

Again, violence is an outdated means of solving problems. During the Fanon’s times democracy and especially in Africa was unfamiliar thing. Today there are international organizations such as United Nations, and other groups that advocate for democracy. People are encouraged to use the right means to lodge or express their complaints and views about the political systems of governance. Engaging in violence in today’s world is uncivilized act that should be opposed with strongest terms possible.

Violence deters economic development and brings all progress of people to a stop. When there is war, children cannot go to school, business cannot thrive as investors will pull way their business ot other parts, etc. People will also not engage with economic activities such as farming as they live with fear of being attacked. During violence, again women are raped and property destroyed.

In conclusion, Fanon’s ideas can only be applicable when all other means of solving grievances prove futile. Fanon was an extremist in expressing their views. It is no wonder that this book was written when he was struggling with leukemia and was about to die (Macey, 2000). It could therefore be assumed that he hurriedly expressed opinions that were based on emotions without having time to carefully consider them using logic.


Fanon, F. (2004). The Wretched of the Earth. Translated by Richard Philcox. New York: Grove.

Macey, D. (2000). Frantz Fanon: A Biography. New York: Picador.

Bates, RH (2008). When things fell apart: state failure in late-century Africa, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Bangura, Y. (2004). ‘The political and cultural dynamics of the Sierra Leone War’, in I Abdullah (ed.) Between democracy and terror: the Sierra Leone Civil War, UNISA Press, Pretoria.

Collier, P & Hoeffler, A (2004). ‘Greed and grievance in civil war’, Oxford Economic Papers, vol. 56, pp.563-595.

Davies, R. (1996). ‘The Sierra Leone situation: the spill-over of the Liberian civil war into Sierra Leone: peace-making and peace-keeping possibilities,” report, UN Institute for Training and Research/International Peace Academy, New York.

Denov, M. (2010). Child solders: Sierra Leone’s Revolutionary United Front, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Fearon, JD. (2005). ‘Primary commodity exports and civil war’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 483-507.

Fanthorpe, R. (2001). ‘Neither Citizen nor Subject? ‘Lumpen’ Agency and the Legacy of Native Administration in Sierra Leone’, African Affairs, vol. 100, issue 400, pp.363-386.

Gberie, L. (2005). A dirty war in West Africa: The RUF and the destruction of Sierra Leone, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Kamara, I. (2000). The Permanent Representative of Sierra Leone to the United Nations (UN), His speech in the UN Security Council (2000), cited in LA Times, ‘U.N. imposes ban on Sierra Leone diamonds’, http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jul/06/news/mn-48544 [accessed May 15 2012].

Kaplan, RD. (1994). ‘The coming anarchy: how scarcity, crime, overpopulation and disease are rapidly destroying the social fabric of our planet’, Atlantic Monthly. 2001, The coming anarchy: shattering the dreams of the post Cold War, Vintage Books, New York.

Karimu, J (1995). Government budget and economic and financial policies for the financial year 1995/1996, Government of Sierra Leone, Freetown.

Keen, D. (2005). Conflict & collusion in Sierra Leone. Oxford: Currey [u.a..

The Development of the Foreign Policy of Egypt


Although a number of constraints were present, the foreign policy of Egypt underwent a significant evolution that was formed by the diverse beliefs and perceptions of the president of the country at that time and also due to the changes taking place in the restraints and opportunities of the situation in the country. Under the rule of Nasser, the basis of the ideology of the regime and the core of its acceptability was radical nationalism. Therefore, Nasser tried to bring to an end the inheritance of extended political subordination to Western colonialism and he also tried to restore the Arab-Islamic identity of Egypt that has been diluted as a result of nearly a century of westernization (Karawan, 2005). At the same time, he also launched efforts for the independent national economic development of the country. The major aim of the foreign policy adopted by massive was to substitute the Western dominance of the Arab nations with headship from Egypt over a non-aligned Arab world and in this way to forestall the security threats and at the same time, to increase the significance of Egypt as the head of the concert of kindered states.


The foreign policy adopted by Nasser appeared to be a qualified success until 1967. Very adeptly, Nasser used the changes that were taking place in the balance of power worldwide at that time, including the local beginning of the Western expansionism and the challenge posed by Soviet Union to Western supremacy. Similarly, he took notice of the national awakening among the Arabs and used it to win a succession of noteworthy nationalist triumphs (Kinne, 2005). The withdrawal of British from Egypt that was sought for long, and the reversal of the security agreements, through which the Western world tried to use the Arabs to counter the Soviets and the effective nationalization of Suez canal as well as the disaster of French-British-Israeli invasion in 1956 placed Egypt as the leader of Arab nationalist drive and this caused in a significant withdrawal of the influence that the Western world had over the Middle East (Khashan, 1997 p158). The foreign policy adopted by Nasser also had some economic and political benefits within the country. The major component of the legitimacy of the regime of massive was the Arab regulation of Nasser. He was considered to lead the Arab world and due to this reason, Egypt succeeded in getting significant foreign assistance from the West as well as from the East (Lesch, 1991 p30).


The success achieved by Nasser was only in relation with the failure on the part of the earlier Arab leaders and his policies at increasing costs. At the same time, the other regimes from the Arab world were not ready to accept the Egyptian hegemony. Although many they were on a defensive but these regimes tried to thwart the efforts made by Nasser for imposing a consensus regarding foreign policy on the Arab nations. But the efforts that were made to project the influence of Egypt over the Arab world had drained the resources of the country (Melman, 1986 p33). Particularly the intervention of Egypt for the purpose of supporting the Republican Revolution that took place in North Yeman (1962-70) proved to be very costly for Egypt. Generally, it can be said that the Egypt under Nasser could not become the Prussia of the Arab world but it is clear that Egypt had played a key role in the rise of a state system in the Arab world that was independent from foreign control.


But this position also has its own responsibilities which included, most importantly the defense of the Arab world and also the responsibility to become a champion of the Palestinian and Arab cause against Israel. As a result of these responsibilities, which created a huge economic burden and security risks for Egypt, eventually Nasser had to fight the disastrous war with Israel in June 1967. In this regard it can be said that Nasser did not want the war but he let the situations to bring the war to his doorstep when he was caught unprepared (Mylroie, 1989 p51). The challenge posed by Nasser to the Western interests in the region made him the target of accumulated resentment in the West at the same time, there were many who believed him to be a Soviet client and as a result, needed to be brought down. It also needs to be mentioned that during this time, the Syrian-Palestinian challenge by the increasing for Israel and it threatened to provoke an attack by Israel on Syria (Purcell, 1973 p28). Although the military balance was unfavorable at that time, as the leader of the Arab world, Nasser felt the need to deter Israel by rallying its forces on the southern front. But this move allowed Israel to have a ‘first strike’ against Egypt. In this way, the hurried collapse of the Army of Egypt in this war reveals how the foreign policy of Egypt under Nasser had exceeded its capabilities. The result of this was was that Israel succeeded in occupying the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt. The nationalist foreign policy with the help of which, Nasser succeeded in bringing out of the Western domination of Egypt, also acted as a trap that entrenched the presence of a new foreign power in Egypt (Rodman, 1991 p81).

The response of Nasser to this crisis can be described as twofold. While accepting the plans that were forwarded by the US secretary of state William P. Rogers, he gave a signal regarding the readiness of Egypt for peacefully settling the Arab-Israel conflict. The meaning of this readiness was accepting Israel and also to acknowledge the role played by the US as the major power broker in the region (Aftandilian, 2009). As Nasser was convinced that the Sinai Peninsula could not be recovered by diplomacy alone and at the same time, due to the reason that he was skeptical of the intentions of the US, he launched efforts to overhaul and expand the Armed Forces of Egypt and during the War of Attrition (1969-70) he contested the control of Israel over the Sinai Peninsula. But the defeat shattered the self-confidence of Egypt in 1967 and the increasing belief that offensive weapons will not be supplied by the Soviet Union for recovering Sinai with the help of military and also as a result of the conviction that Israel will be kept strong enough by the United States for reversing any such recovery, resulted in convincing a major part of the political elite of Egypt that the US “had the cards” for solving the crisis and as a result, Cairo will have to come to terms with the United States (Ayubi, 1991).

Under the circumstances, when Sadat assumed power he was prepared for a diplomatic dialogue with the West, to find a political resolution to this crisis and for a negotiated agreement, even if it was partial only. He tried for peace sponsored by the United States, under the belief that only those who had provided the means of occupation to the Israelis also had the means of ending it. In this way, when the Soviet advisers were expelled from Egypt in 1972, it was seen as a part of the efforts being made to bring the US favor (Bender, ed. 1987). At the same time, Sadat also made a strategic alliance with conservative oil states of the Arab world, who were headed by the Saudi Arab and their influence in Washington along with their money power and the potential of using the oil weapon, were considered as the significant factors in creating Egyptian leverage with Israel.

Therefore when it became clear that the interests of Egypt will continue to be ignored until all the Egyptians showed that they can fight and succeeding in upsetting the status quo that was very comfortable for Israel and the US, Sadat started seriously considering war as an option available to Egypt (Brown, ed. 2001). However instead of waging a war for recapturing Sinai, it was decided by him that they should have a strictly limited one by establishing a bridgehead on the eastern bank of the Suez Canal as a part of the efforts to break the grip of Israel over the area and also to open the way for negotiations. It was calculated by Sadat that in case of such a limited war, the Arab world will be rallied around Egypt and as a result, the oil weapon will also come into play, which will challenge the reliance of Israel on security through territorial expansion and at the same time, such as strategy will also pave the way for diplomatic intervention by the United States that can force is right for accepting a peaceful settlement (Cleveland, 2004). However the price paid for the peace brokered by the US would almost certainly be an end to the anti-imperialist and nationalist policy adopted by the Egypt in the past.


As a result of the 1973 war, the status quo was indeed upset and it ended with the presence of the armed forces of Egypt in Sinai. However, as a result of the fact that the armed forces of Israel succeeded in penetrating the west bank of the Suez Canal, it became crucial for Sadat to have a disengagement of forces that was sponsored by the United States. Therefore, Sinai I removed the forces of Israel from the West Bank but while defusing the crisis created by the board, it also reduced the Arab leverage in bargaining the overall withdrawal by Israel (Clinton, ed. 2007). Therefore when subsequently Sadat allowed the relations of Egypt with Soviet Union and Syria to deteriorate and in this way, reducing the viability of war as an option available to Egypt, Sadat became dependent on American diplomacy to such an extent that he had very little choice but to accept the second partial and a separate agreement Sinai II according to which, although for the territory was recovered by Egypt but it was only allowed to have a token military presence in Sinai. In this way, the Arab leverage was undermined to such an extent that the negotiations related with comprehensive peace have to be stalled (Gallhofer, Irmtraud and Saris, 1996). By this time, Sadat had become frustrated and with the hope to win the support of the world and also to weaken the hardliners in Israel, he went on his trip to Jerusalem. Even if Israel was not ready to give any concessions to Syria or Palestine, it might became ready to relinquish Sinai in return of a separate peace under which, Egypt opted out of the power balance that existed between Arabs and Israel (Hinnebusch and Ehteshami, eds. 2002).


The negotiations at Camp David and later on regarding a peace treaty, it was found by Sadat how much is new diplomatic currency can purchase. The result was the departure of Israel from Sinai and at the most the reduction of control of Egypt on the West Bank but there could be no Palestinian state. In this way, by 1979 finally Egypt achieved peace. However due to the reason that the separate peace has taken away any incentive for his right to settle on other fronts, Egypt was cut off from the rest of the Arab world and at the same time, it also forfeited its leadership of the Arab world and also the aid which Egypt received as a result of this position (Kassem, 2004).

Sadat also broke its links with the Soviets and the Arab world simultaneously and ever more required United States for mediating with Israel and also for providing arms and filling the gap. The result was that under Sadat, Egypt moved closer than ever before to an US alliance. Especially subsequent to the fall of the Shah of Iran, it appeared that Sadat openly assumed the role of guarding the interests of America in the region (Keppel, 2002). Therefore, joint military maneuvers took place, facilities were given to the Armed Forces of the United States and the troops of Egypt were deployed to prop up conservative regimes like Zaire. It appeared that Sadat was under the belief that the US support for Israel derived from its role in protecting the US interests in this region and if Egypt can take over this role, then it will also become eligible for similar support and aid and at the same time, the significance of Israel will also decline in Washington (Laqueur and Rubin, eds. 2001). Under the circumstances, once the Egypt that had fought for expelling the Western effect from the Arab world was now welcoming it back. The key challenge faced by the foreign policy of Mubarak was the resolution of the inconsistency that existed between the standards of nationalism that was recognized under Nasser and the combination of US and Israeli connections and the separation from the Arab world that was caused as a result of the policies adopted by Sadat (Lorenz, 1990). Therefore, Mubarak had to spend nearly a decade for making any considerable progress in this regard but the legacy of Sadat proved to be quite durable.

The result was that the dependence of Egypt on United States proved to be irreversible, in terms of arms, food for maintaining social peace and particularly the oiling earnings plummeted. Under the circumstances, Mubarak was forced to maintain the Israeli connection even if there was not much progress in achieving a widespread peace or towards the recognition of Palestine. Under these circumstances, Mubarak decided to remain passive during the Israel the invasion of Lebanon in 1982, which came as a key setback to the Arab world. This was made probable mainly as a result that Israel no longer required to position considerable forces on the southern front due to the Camp David Accords (Machiavelli, 1991). As a result of this invasion and the raids conducted by Israel on Iraq in 1981 and on Tunis in 1986 revealed how as a result of the policies adopted by Sadat, the Arab world was open to Israeli power as it has never been. However, Mubarak tried to recover some of the independence regarding foreign policy. For example, he rejected the US pressure in late 1985 and early 86 for a joint action against Libya. Similarly, he also restored diplomatic relations of Egypt with Moscow. In the same way, he also had some leverage over the US as by now the United States had invested a great deal in Egypt and it had gained so much from the policies adopted by Sadat, like defusing the threat of Arab-Israel war and the rollback of the influence of the radicals and the Soviet Union in the Arab world therefore now cannot afford to alienate the regime in Egypt (McLaurin, Peretz, and Snider. 1982).


On the other hand, the continuous connection between Israel and America deepened the crisis of nationalist legitimacy in Egypt. It was mainly considered in Egypt that Israel had betrayed the peace when it rejected the Palestinian rights, its raids on Iraq, Lebanon and Tunis and the Israeli attempts to retain the Sinai enclave of Taba. For example, the deep resentment that was present in Egypt regarding the Israeli policy was revealed by the way when the Egyptians made sulayman Khatir, a local police man who had killed Israeli tourists in 1985, a local hero. In the same way, resentment was present in Egypt regarding its economic dependence on the United States. The US forcing down of the Egyptian airplane after the incident of Achille Lauro was also considered as a nationwide affront and as a result, the first nationalist street turbulences took place after many years. However, this sentiment cannot take the shape of a mass movement that could have forced a change in the foreign policy of Egypt despite demands by the leaders of opposition and isolated attacks on Israeli and the US officers by the disgruntled Nasserist officers. But in this regard it needs to be mentioned that there were only a few governments in the world who have been burdened with such a disliked foreign policy.

However, the regime was saved as a result of astute diplomacy of Mubarak and also due to the mistakes of his rivals as a result of which he succeeded in achieving a gradual reintegration of Egypt in the Arab world minus any harm to the links between Egypt and Israel. The first break in the isolation of Egypt arrived when Yasir Arafat had a quarrel with Syria which allowed Egypt to provide protection and take on the patronage over the Palestinian resistance. As the oil states of the Arab world were fearful of Tehran and spread of Shiite Islamic activism, started to look towards Egypt for achieving a counterbalance. In this way, Mubarak was successful in showing the usefulness of Egypt to the Arabs and move off of isolation. These efforts were crowned by the readmission of Egypt to the League of Arab States in 1989.

The policies adopted by Nasser, ranging from Arab nationalism to the public sector and food subsidies, resulted in durable interests and the standards of legitimacy. On the other hand, under Sadat, Egypt put up itself to the dominant forces that were present in the environment of the regime. Therefore in case of the “post-populist” regime of Sadat, the social reforms, charisma and the leadership over the Arab world that was achieved by Nasser gave way to their opposites. However, the policies adopted by Sadat allowed Egypt to adapt to new conditions and altering the goals and the style of presidential power and also the liberalization of political structure. The fact that most of the work of Sadat had survived under Mubarak suggests that he was more successful as compared to Nasser and had partially institutionalized his work in a great political structure, a web of constraints against considerable changes and an alliance with dominant social forces.


Aftandilian, Gregory L. (2009) Egypt’s Bid for Arab Leadership. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1993. Art, Robert J. and Robert Jervis, eds. International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues. New York: Pearson Longman

Ayubi, Shaheen. (1991) Nasser and Sadat: Decision Making and Foreign Policy. Wakefield, NH: Longwood Academic

Bender, Gerald J, ed. (1987) International Affairs in Africa, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications

Brown, L. Carl, ed. (2001) Diplomacy in the Middle East: The International Relations of Regional and Outside Powers. London: I.B. Tauris

Cleveland, William L. (2004) A History of the Modern Middle East, Boulder, CO: Westview Press

Clinton, W. David, ed. (2007) The Realist Tradition and Contemporary International Relations. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press

Gallhofer, Irmtraud N. and Willem E. Saris (1996) Foreign Policy Decision-Making: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Political Argumentation. London: Praeger

Hinnebusch, Raymond and Anoushiravan Ehteshami, eds. (2002) The Foreign Policies of Middle East States. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers

Karawan, Ibrahim. (2005) “Foreign Policy Restructuring: Egypt’s Disengagement from the Arab-Israeli Conflict Revisited.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 18, no. 3: 325-338.

Kassem, Maye. (2004) Egyptian Politics: The Dynamics of Authoritarian Rule. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers

Keppel, Gilles. (2002) Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press

Khashan, Hilal. (1997) “The New Arab Cold War.” World Affairs 159, no. 4: 158-159.

Kinne, Brandon J. (2005) “Decision Making in Autocratic Regimes: A Poliheuristic Perspective.” International Studies Perspectives 6, no. 1 February: 114-128.

Laqueur, Walter and Barry Rubin, eds. (2001) The Israel-Arab Reader. New York: Penguin Books

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Lorenz, Joseph P. (1990) Egypt and the Arabs: Foreign Policy and the Search for National Identity. Boulder, CO: Westview Press

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McLaurin, R.D., Don Peretz, and Lewis W. Snider (1982) Middle East Foreign Policy: Issues and Processes. New York: Praeger

Melman, Yossi. (1986) “Domestic Factors and Foreign Policy in the Arab-Israeli Conflict” Washington Quarterly 9, no. 3: 33-42

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Purcell, Susan Kaufman. (1973) “Decision-Making in an Authoritarian Regime: Theoretical Implications from a Mexican Case Study.” World Politics 26, no. 1 (October 1973): 28-54.

Rodman, Peter W. (1991) “Middle East Diplomacy After the Gulf War.” Foreign Affairs 70, no. 2 18


Table of Contents







References List



Public opinion plays a pivotal role in the decision making process of the government in almost every nation. Democracy begins with people, works for people and ends with people. Countries which believes in democracy will acknowledge the importance of the opinion of the its mass. General public is the foundation of polity in any nation and thus any important issue pertaining to the nation needs the opinion of the people. The views, ideas, perception and bent of mind of people consists opinion and thus it is more than important for the government to consider these opinion while taking any decision. In this particular study, the importance of public opinion of UK in context to reformation of education system is discussed.

Now, based on the public polls the state authority have to decide as to which is the prime issue that the nation is facing at present which need immediate attention. Therefore, it has been observed from the poll that education reform has been given more stress by the common mass. It has been observed that countries are following the old education approach and thus the students are not enhancing their skills. Therefore, an urgent reformation of the education system is the need of the hour. In this context the study discusses the main reasons for which the education reformation is required. The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), need certain reformations in order to help students to learn and achieve better.

Certain important reasons related to the reformation of the education system is discussed in the study. Apart from this, the study also discusses the importance of the opinion of the general public in the reformation of the education policies and the system as a whole. In the context of education reform, the important stakeholders whose opinions are to be considered by the state authority is discussed in the study. Education reformation refers to the changes that are to be incorporated in the teaching methodology as well as in the administrative processes. This will help in improving the overall productivity of the education system. Therefore, this study discusses the urgency of education reform for the upliftment of the society as a whole. Along with this the study also focuses on the importance of public opinion in this context. The role, advantages and disadvantages of the opinion of general public in reformation of education is discussed. The impact of public polls on the reformation of UK education system is also elaborated in the study. Public opinion of UK and all its variables pertaining to The General Certificate of Secondary Education is broadly discussed in the study.


The necessity of education reform in UK

According to Crespi (2011), almost in every country an old education system was being followed. As because the public poll indicated an immediate reformation in the education system, the government had to revise and reform its policies of education. Following the same education policies paved the way for stagnancy and less quality. It has been observed that under the old education system, the teachers was not delivering quality education to the students. Davison (2015) stated that teachers and professors plays a pivotal role in shaping the futures of the students and students are the future of the nation. Therefore, it is important that teachers deliver excellent education to their students. Education is directly related to inculcating ethics, the sense of morality and empathy in students and education is an important issues at present times.

According to Gallup (2012), education is directly related to teachers, therefore government has emphasized on improving the productivity of the teachers. The revamped policies of the government has been related to teachers. Now, under the new education policies, interaction between students and teacher are given more interest. The pattern of study that both the teachers and students approve has been incorporated in the syllabus. The teachers are encouraged more and more on taking up research and other curricular activities along with taking regular classes.

The performance of the teachers is assessed and based on this performances they are rewarded. In India, the government stressed more on transforming the infrastructure of the education system. This implies that, educational institution across the nation is aimed to have Wi-Fi connection. Then again, classrooms are converted into smart classrooms. Automation of libraries, electronic learning and online personnel learning are certain priorities of the education reform. Guile (2009) stated that the reform also focuses on enhancing the communication skill of students.

According to Hollander (2013), when teachers will teach students other values of life apart from the bookish knowledge, students will be able to develop their personality and learn self-efficacy. However, in the european countries, like, UK, the government conducted a survey to identify the loopholes in their education system especially in The General Certificate of Secondary Education. Based on the survey that depicted the opinion of the stakeholders of the educational institution certain decisions were made. The government decided on establishing clear standards. Multiple measure are considered for analyzing the student’s performance. The government also pondered on innovation that will help to reach out to all students. The performances of the teachers and professors are also been measured and they are rewarded in both monetary and nonmonetary rewards.  Bridging school with home in order to enhance students educational achievements.

The government of UK has contemplated on collaborating high salaries of the teachers with supportive leadership in order to retain good teachers delivering education under the The General Certificate of Secondary Education. This will also provide  zeal to the teachers to perform even better. Apart from this, the government has also emphasized on reforming the mode of teaching. Under the reformed policies, teacher are required to teach students on modern information-based technology as it will add to the achievements of the students. Hence, all these together will directly contribute in the development of the societies in the nation. Therefore Lasswell Harold (2011) commented that education reform is more than necessary for uplifting not only the students but the whole nation.

The importance of public opinion in education reform

According to Berelson, Bernard & Morris Janowitz (2010), public opinion represents the aggregate of the individual beliefs, bent of minds, views and ideas. Countries, like UK where democracy is prevalent, public opinion is quintessential. Cantril & Hadley (2009) stated that the notion of democracy believes in working for the best interest of the general public. Therefore, their opinion is imperative in taking any decision regarding state affair. In a democratic country, the opinion of the public through polls or votes decides the future of the whole nation and represents its democratic values. Glynn & Carroll (2015) stated that the opinion of the public forms a crux of any legislative policies in a democratic country. Thus, publis is the actual source power of any democratic nation and public opinion is the foundation of any decision of the state.

In this context, Hennessy, Bernard  (2011) explained that education reform is an important issue at the present juncture. Education is always one of the major priorities in any nation and thus reviewing the policies pertaining to it is important. Along with policy revision new policies should be formulated and incorporated if necessary. Reformation is obvious in order to improvise in quality and standard.

Accordingly to Lippmann Walter (2014), public opinion on this issue is highly considerable. This is because the views of the general public are the key determinant of the required reforms. Price, Vincent (2009) stated that year after year same education policies are being followed this has made the education system stagnant in many countries. With the upgradation of the education system across globe, all the nations should try to keep pace with new education system and thus education reform is needed.  However, to devise new legislation and to formulate new policies the concerned authority have to take in consideration the opinion so the public. In this context, parents, teachers, students, educators, entrepreneurs and other stakeholders shall pass their opinion on the issues. This is because these people are the most important pillars of the education system of any country. According to Amanada (2014), the government can follow two ways of considering the opinion of the general public. The government can either consider the opinion of the stakeholders prior to the formulation of the policies.

Apart from this, it has been reported that in  The General Certificate of Secondary Education of UK, the government displays the drafted policies on the websites of the education department and stakeholders can submit their opinions there. In whatever way it may be the government has to keep in view the opinions of the stakeholders while reforming the education system. Bogart(2011) opined that Different countries has different approaches to prioritizing the state issues. It has been reported that due to strong public opinion the government had to consider the issue of education reform as the top most issues. Coombs (2015) stated that in case of Britain, public polls decide the urgency of any issue. Therefore, in this context  the public poll indicated the importance of immediate education reform as it consisted of the 12% of the total poll on various issues of the state. This drove the government to contemplate on the issue of education reform immediately. Hence, Cortright, David & Amitabh Mattoo(2010) opined that the opinion of the public is significant in bringing the reformation of education system across globe.

The conflicting opinions on the context

According to Mandella (2014), opinions are individual views and perception and thus differ from others. Thus, it is not mandatory that opinions always match and thus it paves way for the conflict of opinions. There have been mixed opinion on the education reform across countries. All the stakeholders differ in opinions and thus created differences in the public poll. The clash of opinion is not only among the stakeholders but also between the government and the stakeholders.

In education reformation of UK, it has observed that parents have expressed different opinions in The General Certificate of Secondary Education. It has been observed that parents are demanding a degree of options in education. They are more inclined on the education be backed by charter schools.

In certain cases they have agreed with the government decision of education reforms. Like, the parents have supported the convention that students should not be promoted to the next class if he or she fails to meet with the passing criteria. In this scenario, they shall not be given any degree or diploma, the parents agreed to this. However, the parents are not certain relating the salaries of the teacher and their performance to the test score of the students. They have expressed a different opinion in this context. Then again the parents have opined that the policies have stressed less on improving the quality of education rather it has emphasized on strategies to retain teachers. The parents argued that the educational institutions are overcrowded and lack discipline and thus students are lagging behind in terms of achievement.

Michelle (2009) argued that the teachers has expressed a different opinion on reforming the education policies. They have stressed more on the gradation system or testing scores. It has been observed that teachers are demanding an improvisation of the gradation system. This implies that students scores should be assessed on monthly basis as it will help them to identify the areas which needs more concentration. Assessment of scores annually or quarterly is less beneficial to the students in comparison with monthly assessment of scores.

However, certain countries, like UK has conducted survey in order to gain an insight about the overall opinion of the parents whose children are studying under the The General Certificate of Secondary Education. Price (2011) explained that the poll indicated variance of opinions. This is because, about 41 percent of poll favoured the government new education policies. Then again 69 percent of the poll opined their children’s education to be excellent had gave good marks to the teachers for helping their children to score good marks. However, 36 percent of the poll opined their children’s educational achievement to be low and teacher’s performance to be also not upto the mark. This shows that the government education policies is not completely inefficient neither it is highly efficient in meeting the demands of the general public. Anyhow this polls helps the government to contemplate on which issue to be addressed first. According to Shapiro (2011), opinions are always conflicting nature and more people obviously more opinions and conflicts. It is to be decided which opinion to be considered and utilized in reforming the education system.

The pros and cons of public opinion

According to Sheatsley (2016), public opinion is invaluable in reforming the education policies. It has been proved to be very advantageous to the government across nation in identifying the areas of improvement and devising strategies accordingly. However, Sheehan, Kim (2009) argued that it has certain disadvantages also which are to be considered. UK Public opinion or polls have certain advantage which is, a majority of opinion can be gained through polls. This helps the government to gain an understanding of the perceptions and views of general public at a time and it is also cost-effective. Then the second advantage of public opinion provides good informations which are almost accurate. This is because the surveys are conducted among the mass of people, and they are a source of good information. The third advantage is that facts help people to change their bent of mind. This implies that when surveys are conducted, different people get exposed to the opinion of others and these helps them in identifying their thinking errors and change their perceptions.

The fourth advantage of public opinion is that it is affordable. The government do not need to incur much cost in conducting surveys. The compilation of all the collected data are also quite easy. However, Kapur, Devesh (2009) argued that this is contradictory as in certain countries there is no provision of public polls rather the government has to depend on elections which is not that cost effective but it is  important.

Anyhow, with above discussed advantages, there are certain disadvantages of public opinion. Toch, Hans  (2010) explained the the first disadvantage of public opinion is that the outcome of the polls can affect other in a negative way. The results of the public polls are released in real-time that can be harmful to others. As opinion differs it might happen that a portion of the population can be offended by the opinion of others. The second disadvantage of public opinion is that in certain cases the results are not accurate. Certain surveys consists of questions that have a only “Yes” or “No” options. Thus, informations based on these survey are not that informative and accurate. The third disadvantage is that polls and opinion is confined to particular sample size. Winick (2014) stated that this implies that surveys or elections are conducted to a particular sample size and thus it cannot represent the whole population. Informations based on these samples is limited and is less informative. The last disadvantage of the public opinion is that the results of the polls and election is tampered and manipulated.

According to Wood Richardson (2016), the government of any nation conduct these polls and elections to get genuine opinions of the mass however, at certain cases it has been noted that the results of the polls or elections are altered with false answers. This misguides the government and hence they are unable to take necessary decision to address the state issues. Therefore along with enjoying the benefits of public polls and opinions the state authority also has to face the disadvantages.

The impact of public opinion on education reform

According to Worcester (2009), public opinions plays an integral part in reforming the education policies of a nation. The general public is the foundation of any country and thus their views, ideas and perception are invaluable to a state authority. The UK authority is largely dependent on the opinion of its mass while revising and reforming its policies. Education being one of the most important aspect of the growth of the society it is important that the government pays special attention to it in improving the quality of its education system so that it helps the teacher to enhance their productivity and also helps students to improve their overall skills. As an impact of the public opinion, the government had to reform its education policies.

In order to improve the overall quality of the education system, the reforms were segregated. The first reform is curriculum reform, this entails the reformation of the existing curriculums of the education system. In comparison with the old curriculum the new curriculum is more student centered, it focuses on learnings that will benefit the student rather than irrelevant learnings. This reformation also focused on making the learning paths more flexible for the students. The skills and merits of the students is recognized and they are encouraged to move ahead. Now the second reform is governance reform, this focuses on the autonomy of universities, strategic partnerships. Partnership with enterprises helps in assuring the quality of the education. This reform aimed at improving the standard of education and thus delivering excellent education to the students. The third and most important is that of funding reform, this reform aims at funding more on the education of a nation to incorporate modern teaching techniques in the existing education system. Along with this the reform implies the linking of university income with its performance. Then again it aims at encouraging equity in the whole education system, no one should be deprived of education. All students could access the education and get efficient learning. This reforms also provides loan facilities to students for higher education.

Yankelovich (2015) opined that these education reforms has helped countries to improve their education system. It has been observed that following this reforms the nations has gained more efficiency in their education systems. The parents and students are happy and satisfied and the students are seen to be more skillful than before. This is because in comparison with the old education system, the students are more indulged in the modern learning styles. They are more inquisitive in learning new things and all these have attributed to their enhanced skills. Along with the parents and students, the educators and teachers are also happy as they could enjoy the benefit of the reforms. Thus, due to public opinion the government could identify its pitfalls in the education and resolve them accordingly.This proves that public opinion is indeed important in every nation.


From the above discussion a conclusion can be drawn that public opinion holds an important part in decision making of a nation. It is the public whose views and perceptions are to be considered in identifying the important issues of a state. Depending upon their opinions, the state authorities have to set priorities of the issues and address them accordingly. This research has shed light on the importance of public opinion on education reform. This is quite an important concern at the present juncture. From the above discussion it can be understood that reformation of the existing education system is consequential in order to enhance the quality of education of The General Certificate of Secondary Education.

From the research it can be observed that education system was more into completion of syllabus and irrelevant curriculum and students were recognized by their test scores. However, due to public opinion, the government reformed the education system. The reformed education policies focused more on gaining practical knowledge. It emphasized more on interaction between students and teachers. The research has also highlighted that due to reformation of education, the productivity of the teachers has also enhanced. They are more motivated in delivering better education to their students. The education reforms have paved the way for transformation of old classrooms into digitalized classrooms.

However, along with these advantages, the research has also discussed certain disadvantages of public opinion or public polls. Public opinion can sometimes create nuisance in certain cases as opinions of others may affect a certain population. Opinions in most of the times pave the way for conflicts and create dilemma for the government in decision making. Apart from this, the research has also discussed a major drawback of public poll or election is that the results are tampered. This is indeed detrimental for a nation as based on these results incorrect decisions might be taken by the government.

Therefore, it can be concluded that public opinion has both its pros and cons which have to be considered by the state authority of every nation. The government have to conduct polls and elections in such a way that it do not create any outrage among the general public as a result of other’s opinion. Then again, the government have to be very minute while evaluating the information gathered from these polls. It is not necessary that all the polls will interpret the proper and correct information, hence, the government have to conduct in such a manner that they could gather relevant and proper data. UK Public polls are restricted to a particular sample size, therefore the government have to broaden its sample size so that they can gather opinion of a larger population. This will help the government in the decision making process as they will have information of mass thus they will able to take decision that will help them to address the issues better. The reformed education policies of the government are quite effective however, the governments still have to monitor and revise those policies if necessary.

References List


Berelson, Bernard & Morris Janowitz (2010).Reader In Public Opinion And Communication. New York: Free Press.

Cantril, Hadley (2009). Gauging Public Opinion. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Glynn, Carroll J (2015). Public Opinion. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.

Hennessy, Bernard C (2011). Public Opinion. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub. Co.

Lippmann, Walter (2014). Public Opinion. New York: Free Press.

Price, Vincent (2009). Public Opinion. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.


Amanada. K . (2014).“British Institute Of Public Opinion”. Public Opinion Quarterly 4.1 (2), pp-77-82.

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Cortright, David & Amitabh Mattoo. (2010). “Elite Public Opinion And Nuclear Weapons Policy In India”.Asian Survey 36(6), pp-545-560.

Crespi, L. (2011). “Public Opinion and The Education Reform”. Public Opinion Quarterly 35(3) ,pp-475-476.

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Guile, A.E. (2009). “Science education And European Public Opinion”. Electronics and Power 22(4) ,pp-311-325

HOLLANDER, S. (2013) “PUBLIC OPINION AND SOCIAL CHANGE”. Public Opinion Quarterly 37(3), pp-428-436.

Kapur, Devesh. (2009) “Public Opinion And Indian Foreign Policy”. India Review 8(3) pp-286-305.

Lasswell, Harold D. (2011) “The Impact Of Public Opinion Research On Our Society”. Public Opinion Quarterly 21.1, Anniversary Issue Devoted to Twenty Years of Public Opinion Research 33(6), pp-119-220

Mandella. N. (2014) “Public Opinion Inside The U.S.S.R.”. Public Opinion Quarterly 11(1), pp-5-25. Web.

Michelle. W. (2009) “PUBLIC OPINION QUARTERLY READER SURVEY”. Public Opinion Quarterly 12(2), pp-371-379.

PRICE. B. (2011) “MAINTAINING A HEALTHY PUBLIC OPINION”. Public Opinion Quarterly 9(2), pp.140-144.

Shapiro, R. Y. (2011) “Public Opinion And American Democracy”. Public Opinion Quarterly 75(5), pp.982-1017.

Sheatsley, P. B. (2016) “PUBLIC OPINION RESEARCH AS A PUBLIC OPINION ISSUE”. Public Opinion Quarterly 33(3). Pp.465-467.

Sheehan, Kim. (2009) “How Public Opinion Polls Define And Circumscribe Online Privacy”. First Monday 9(7), pp.25-36.

Toch, Hans H. (2010) “Public Opinion: Know And Know-How.”. PsycCRITIQUES.  2(1), pp.52-62.

Winick, C. (2014)  “PUBLIC OPINION OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES”. Public Opinion Quarterly 29(6), pp-450-452.

Wood, Richardson. (2016) “The Relation Of Opinion To Community Growth”. Public Opinion Quarterly 12 (18), pp.1105-1115

Worcester, R. M. (2009). “WHY DO WE DO WHAT WE DO?”. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 9(1), pp.2-16.

Yankelovich D. (2015) “MOBILIZING PUBLIC OPINION”. Public Opinion Quarterly 35(3), pp.449-450.


Egypt Foreign Policy- a case study of Unity between Syria and Egypt

Student’s name:

University name:

Author’s note:


Introduction: 2

Discussion: 3

Conclusion: 10

Reference list: 11


It was in the year 1950 that a charismatic man made his entrance in the political scenario of Egypt and Syria. The man emerged from the Egyptian civilization. He declared the independence of his nation from the clutches of the British. He was the one who called for Arab unity. Within a few years he was declared the President of the whole ‘United Arab Republic’. His dream was to fulfill the dream of the Arabs worldwide. The movement raised by the person for the Unification of the states was what is known as Pan-Arabism. Egypt’s foreign policies are based on the geo-political scenario. Egypt lies between two major continents and is a link between them. The waterways like the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean are the principle waterways of connecting the country with other regions of the world. Asia is also connected with the land bridge of Egypt. These are the factors that lead Egypt to enforce its power in the regions of Syria.

The research is based on the concept of Pan-Arabism and its implementation on the people of the participant countries. The two major countries to be discussed here that put the main impact of the collaboration are Syria and Egypt, the most important regions of the Pan Arabic nation. The newly developed states remained in the topic of concern for a very long time. However, the ideological factors of the two or other nations in collaboration made it difficult for the nation to strive. The collaboration was expected to bring prosperity and development for the nation. However, the scenario proved something else for the world. Political strategy as set out by Nasser providing proper justice to the engagement of the various regions helped it to attract more countries towards Egypt. In fact, in shaping the geo political role of places like Africa, Egypt plays a great role. Egypt is the third world camp and is in fact the leader of neutralism and non-alignment policies.


The ideology that espouse to unite the countries of West Asia and North Africa, covering the areas from the Arabian Sea to the Atlantic Ocean, the region referred to as the Arab World is called Pan-Arabism or simply Arabism. This simply asserts that the whole region is connected to Arab World and Arab Nationalism. Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein was the second President of Egypt. He was the one who led the overthrow of monarchy and introduced a far reaching land reform. Gamal’s fame and popularity in both Arab world and Egypt was sky high. The cities under the pan-Arab unity in the leadership of the President increased during his time. Other factors that shaped the foreign policies of Egypt are its distinct quality and nature of heritage. The Egyptians have their own heritage and own geography, that makes them different from the other Middle East countries (Von Maltzahn, 2015). In fact, it is the largest Arab speaking country. It was the main region for the base of Egyptian civilization. Egypt’s identity as an Arab-Islamic country is the leader of the Arab world. With the conception of keeping Egypt as the leader of the Arab World, it leads as the home ruler. The Arab leader practices a prestigious position in terms of the leaders.

The main pan-Arab ideology was to end the prejudices against the ethnic minorities in the Arab world such as the Berbers. At the time of World War I, Egypt was one of the most populous parts of the world. However, the main Arab component was missing to some extent. Nasser started a series of socialist modernization reforms in Egypt and other regions. In the year 1963, there was a setback in the pan-Arabism cause; however, the followers of Nasser gained huge power in many of the Arab countries. This also resulted in the embroiling in the North-Yemen Civil war. In the year 1967, after Israel defeated Egypt, Nasser resigned. In the year 1941, Nasser was posted for military jobs at Khartoum in Sudan. Sudan was a part of Egypt at that time. Gamal was one of the instructors in the ‘Cairo Royal Military’.

Soon returning from Sudan to Egypt, Nasser was encountered with Husni-al-Za;im. His support along with the Syrian people helped to encourage Nasser’s passion towards the revolutionary pursuits. Several allegations were also made against Nasser that was completely denied by him (Von Maltzahn, 2015). The factors such as the historical events, foreign policies, military strengths and the diplomatic expertise as well are the major reasons of military strength in influencing the world’s decision and formulating the Egypt foreign policies..

Abdullah of Jordan had the dreams of uniting Syria, Jordan and Palestine under his leadership. He dreams of calling it a greater Syria. Although the concept of pan-Arabism began at the time of the World War 1, no such significant results were seen at that time. There was a complete absence of the concept of nationalism in Egypt (Tur, 2016). It was only in the nineteenth century that an economic, political and cultural development takes place. Leaders like Abdullah and Nasser were the important people in framing an ultimate policy for the country. Again, there were continuous pressure on the political persons and the unity of Egypt, Syria and Iraq became a matter of concern.

Huge rebellion and various predictable and unpredictable situations lead to a transition in the situation of Egypt. The lessons received from the uprising of the Arab World showed the steady way of reform. For about 50 years, the media was owned by the ruling Ba’ath party of Egypt. The presidents in fact came under utter liberal action when the private media firms were allowed to operate in the country. Soon after huge revolutions, contribution towards the unification of many Arab countries was made. The ‘United Arab Republic’ was one of the attempts made by the government. However, the unity that was intended to make between Egypt and Syria did not live for long, but it was short lived union from the political front. It was only under the leadership of the president Gamal Abdel Nasser that such attempts were made. The country that time was a part of the United Arab States in confederation with Northern Yemen. However, the relationship was dissolved within 1961 with the Republic (El- Sahhar et al., 2013).

The sentiment of Pan-Arab was very strong in Syria and Nasser was the most admirable hero of the nation. The Suez War in the year 1956 made him more popular and in fact, he got support from the Arab world as well. The ‘Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party’ was the centric party that played the most important part in the unification of such events. Pointed out by Irby & Mangles (2014), when there was sign of unification of Syria and Arab world, the Western countries became concern about the matter. A great concern regarding the clash of the ideology of the communist party and other parties came to existence. Nasser was awfully against the practice of the communist party and wanted the party to get out of the country without much delay. Gheita et al., (2014) opined that, the communist party was the main threat towards the country. However, the strength of the party was gaining value and that made Nasser feared of establishing their power in the country. In fact, the strength of the party was continuously increasing and there was a continuous increase in the internal crisis of the party and the political scenario of the country as well.

During that period of chaos and confusion, Syria had a democratic form of government. The political pressure of the Arab world was witnessed in the formation of the parliament after overthrowing Abdil-al-Shisakli from the governmental post (Seeberg, 2013). The unity of Syria and Arab was quiet encouraged and recommendations were even made for the quick merging of the countries. Again, there arouse confusion and a worried situation was created. It was seemed that the unity will create more chaos. As commented by Yalcin (2016), the collaboration of two countries were termed as evil collaboration. However, a protocol was signed between the two countries that promoted Nasser to be the president of the newly made country. Reading Taylor (2014), made it understood that Nasser would follow the Ba’ath’s union party for controlling Syria. The main intension was to share an equal power between the mergers. In fact, a new constitution was made with almost 600 members where 400 of them belonged to Egypt and 200 were from Syria. This was the first stir that leads to the utter conflict later. There was a complete misbalance in shaping the political scenario. The parliament should not be framed in that way. Some kind of prominence was given to the Syrians but that was not satisfying enough to end the improper balanced situation of the parliament. As pointed out by Schaebler (2013), thirteen of the major positions of the parliament were held by the Egypt people. In almost every important field like Petroleum authority or matters related to the oversea issues were looked by the Egyptian members only. Thus, it was a clear indication that there might be a collaboration of the two countries or two nations but there is very less scope for the new member in the Arab world.

Not much time was spent; rebellion reforms were seen from the side of Syria. There were issues when Syrians were made slightly distant from the political conditions of the country. In fact, some situation aroused when it was seen that the Syrian Bedouin were bribed by the Egyptians and compelled them to become loyal to Nasser. The ‘One party system’ was also not liked by majority of the population. It was in fact commented that, Nasser was not able to tackle the various problems in Syria and rejected the union of the government (Phipils, 2014). The gross national profit of Egypt was growing at that instance with a rise of almost 5%. Nasser took the advantage of the situation and made it a scope to flatter his own leadership and power. All these activities were hugely highlighted from the side of the government. There was a great shift in the economy of the country from the public sector to the private sector after the establishment of these reforms. The famous and prosperous cotton trade of Asia saw a complete drift and issues in the import and export of the goods were seen (Kedourie & Haim, 2015). Thus, a backlash was seen in the economic and the trade relation with Egypt and other countries. It was again established during the reign of Nasser that the banks went nationalized.

The factors that facilitate the foreign relationship of Arab and Syria were that Syria was one of the Kings in the supplier of oil and fuel. Again, the country was also the shelter provider of Jordanians. Egypt was itself considered as a hostile place and was full of terror. From the view point of Cleveland (2015), it was the Western countries that created a situation like this and defamed the state structure of Egypt. In the mean time, Jordan and Egypt agreed on signed treaty for establishing a unified military. Moreover, the budget of the military would also be shared where 80% is to be provided by Egypt and the rest by Jordan. Thus, troops were exchanged from both the countries based on this understanding. Aftermath the situation, with this declaration of Nasser, a new government was witnessed in the Arab region. All these were the fundamental reasons behind laying the path of the Arab nationalism.

By the year 1958, Iraq also became a part of the Arab region. As proposed by the government of the country, the unification of Egypt, Syria and Iraq was also considered to be a welcome perspective from the side of the government. New economic reforms were made during Nasser’s regime (Balfour, 2013). Nasser encouraged the feeling of Nationalism among the people of Egypt and Syria. Not only from the economic from, but support were also seen from the social perspective as well. Social rules and justice were designed same for all without considering the original national aspect of any individual (Thompson, 2015). Changes in the economic and social conditions such as lowering the interest rate of the farmers dramatically, lowering the income tax on low earning people were some of the issues that got high attention of the public. The collaboration of the three countries into one nation gave birth to a new flag and it was in fact called as the ‘Arab Liberation Flag’ the flag had three starts that indicated the presence and unification of the three countries. This flag in fact remained for the national flag of Iraq until 2007.

The main reasons behind the failure of establishing a good relationship with Syria came from Nasser’s end. From the view point of Booth (2014), Nasser was responsible for stabilizing the economic and the social aspect of Syria. However, it was not the actual scenario that was seen after a due course of time. In fact, the collaboration was never healthy and Syria became a puppet in the hand of Egypt. The full control of the country was left in the hand of Egypt. This was the main reason behind the confrontation with the people of Syria and the Arab world. People were full of rage and soon they were concerned about their status and reputation and demanded for their own right (Ayata, 2015).

With the unification of the Arab states of Syria and Egypt, resulted in the generation of a huge number of people belonging to the same religion Muslim. The culture of the state revolved around the culture of the Muslim community (Kissinger, 2015). Crisis situation arose when there was a drift in the religion when there was a segregation of the two sects of Muslims; the Shia Muslim and the Sunni Muslim. The two sects were comfortably alright for a long period of time, but a deliberate confusion and utter conflicts started between the two sects. The situation is more like that of the Roman Catholic Christians and the Jews. Arab world has the whole lot of resources like oil and natural resources. Saudi Arabia is one of the richest countries in the supply of oil and thus, it has established itself as the petro supplier country of the World (Keukeleire & Delreux, 2014). These countries also rank among the richest countries of the world. However, Yemen is counted as one of the poor countries and is in fact lies in the strata where the poor people do not get enough food for themselves. The country also suffers from the crisis of water and other resources. Culturally, people of the Arab Nation are extremely leaned towards following the Arab culture. They celebrate several festivals. They have their own heritage and support their leader without much conflict (Ghorbani & Tooti, 2015).

The unity between the countries might have brought prosperity in the economic and the social factors of the two countries but this move had completely shattered the scope of Syria to get a personal identity. Its national identity was degrading and was almost at the verge of ending. There was no independence left for the Syrians to participate or present their view in any of the political or social decision. There was also high increase in the privatization of various sectors. The rich and powerful industrialists and business persons became the centre of control for the newly formed nation (Hook & Spanier, 2015). The power of these private owners increased a lot and there arises a situation where these private sectors were valued more than the government or the public sector. This was again a concern for the common people because these situations are more economic centric and that became one of the major concerns for the people. These situations automatically gave rise to reconsider the situation of the allies and think of other ways out. As per the authoritarian rule, Smith (2013) is of the opinion that people are mostly forced with the decision of leadership. People must have the freedom to choose their own government. For the same reason, these countries are going through internal conflicts such as colonization, revolution, democratization and even civil wars in the country.


Even after such a long time, for at least seventy years after the chaos and conflicts, the Arab world or the Middle East is still a partially divided country. Places like Palestine, Iraq, Egypt, Yemen, and Libya always remain under conflict situations. Conflicts between each state and even conflict as a together nation keep going on. This has become a matter of concern for the world. World economy is highly depended on these countries as they are the major suppliers of oil and fuels. Politically and socially as well the nations are connected to each other. However, the Arab world is in the search of peace that has always been an issue for the region. The major rivals of the country like Western Iraq, Saudi Arab and never to forget the Western countries are the major countries of concern.

The foreign policies used by Egypt are pulled down to several ideals of anti imperialism as well as non alignment of the country with other regions. The main intension of Egypt’s policy is to establish itself as an independent country. However, the scope of achieving the same objective might prove to be great challenge for the country. The administration and the governmental policies are the major factors that play the most important factor in shaping the geo political scenario of a country. Egypt, Syria and the other regions included in the Arab World plays a significant role in achieving a place in the world politics. There are major issues in these regions that results in several negative conditions and hamper the world peace. These are the factors that are the issues of major concern that needs focus of the world leaders to solve these crises.

Reference list:

Ayata, B. (2015). Turkish foreign policy in a changing Arab world: rise and fall of a regional actor?. Journal of European Integration, 37(1), 95-112.

Balfour, R. (2013). Human rights and democracy in EU foreign policy: the cases of Ukraine and Egypt (Vol. 82). Routledge.

Booth, K. (2014). Navies and Foreign Policy (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.

Cleveland, W. L. (2015). The Making of an Arab Nationalist: Ottomanism and Arabism in the Life and Thought of Sati’al-Husri. Princeton University Press.

El-Sahhar, K. F., Emara, K. S., & Ali, W. A. (2013). Comparative Systematic Studies of Astragalus in Flora of Arab Republic of Egypt and Syrian Arab Republic: Plant Morphology, SEM of Lamina Surface and SDS-PAGE of Proteins. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 9(6), 271-286.

Gheita, T. A., Kenawy, S. A. B., El Sisi, R. W., Gheita, H. A., & Khalil, H. (2014). Subclinical reduced G6PD activity in rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren’s Syndrome patients: Relation to clinical characteristics, disease activity and metabolic syndrome. Modern Rheumatology, 24(4), 612-617.


Hook, S. W., & Spanier, J. (2015). American foreign policy since World War II. Cq Press.

Irby, C. L., & Mangles, J. (2014). Travels in Egypt and Nubia, Syria, and Asia Minor, during the years 1817 and 1818. Cambridge University Press.

Kedourie, E., & Haim, S. G. (Eds.). (2015). Zionism and Arabism in Palestine and Israel (RLE Israel and Palestine). Routledge.

Keukeleire, S., & Delreux, T. (2014). The foreign policy of the European Union. Palgrave Macmillan.

Kissinger, H. (2015). Crisis: the anatomy of two major foreign policy crises. Simon and Schuster.

Lawson, F. H. (2015). Pan‐Arabism. The Encyclopedia of Political Thought.

Phillips, C. (2012). Team Arab: al‐Jazeera and the flagging of everyday Arabism during the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Nations and Nationalism, 18(3), 504-526.

Phillips, C. (2014). The Arabism Debate and the Arab Uprisings.Mediterranean Politics, 19(1), 141-144.

Schaebler, B. (2013). Constructing an Identity between Arabism and Islam: The Druzes in Syria. The Muslim World, 103(1), 62-79.

Seeberg, P. (2013). The Arab Uprisings and the EU’s Migration Policies—The Cases of Egypt, Libya, and Syria. Democracy and security, 9(1-2), 157-176.

Smith, K. E. (2013). European Union foreign policy in a changing world. John Wiley & Sons.

Stein, E. (2012). Beyond Arabism vs. sovereignty: relocating ideas in the international relations of the Middle East. Review of International Studies,38(04), 881-905.

Taylor, W. C. (2014). Military Responses to the Arab Uprisings and the Future of Civil-military Relations in the Middle East: Analysis from Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and Syria. Palgrave Macmillan.

Thompson, W. S. (2015). Ghana’s Foreign Policy, 1957-1966: Diplomacy Ideology, and the New State. Princeton University Press.

Tür, Ö. (2016). Turkey-Syria Relations: Between Enmity and Amity. Routledge.

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National security theory and geo-politics

Name of the student

Name of the University

Author’s note



ISIS or Islamic State in Iraq and Syria has become a threat for EU. The increase number of EU citizens in joining the ISIS has made the affect to act in adverse way. EU or European Union is established to safeguard they political, social and economic security of the people. The explosive of the terror has become so violent that it would create an emergency for the people of the Europe. EU needs to take measures to stop the fear of terrorism that is increasing in the world. ISIS establishes to create Muslim regions throughout the world (Khan & Estrada, 2015). The main security crises, which arise in the country, are because of two main reasons the increasing rate of recruitment and the increasing number of refuges in Europe. There are many other reasons discussed which let to rise for the negativity in EU though main reason are these two. European Union is taking measures so to control and protect the terrorism from Europe. But those measures should be more quick and efficient. The detailed study has made on the impact of European Union as a negative impact would create a fear for European Union (Smith 2013).

ISIS or Islamic State in Iraq and Syria is the terrorist group that took responsibility to brutally attack countries. The group is led by Abu- Bakr al-Baghdadi.  The violence of the group is extending from time to time, which includes amputation, Stoning and even crucifying individuals. ISIS wants to set up the world which as Islamic state. European countries or EU is the international organization, which comprise of 28 countries, which governs the social, economic, and security policies of the countries (Johnson et al., 2015). The threat of ISIS has made an alarm for all the European state. ISIS started to recruit a growing number of young men and women of Europe. The study shows us that European Union is mobilize and Paris attack increase the mobilization but this couldn’t change things. ISIS has become a serious threat to European Union. ISIS conquered a large land in Syria and Iraq. The reaction of European Union in the military attacks in Iraq was somewhere late and the reaction did not go beyond the group’s terrorist acts. The foreign minister of European Union explained human tragedy which is caused by ISIS has made the Iraq to close their borders for refugees. This became one the most tragic incident of Middle East especially when the neighboring country of Syria was in that crisis. These create a serious crisis of members of the European Union (Wallace et al., 2015).

The main purpose of ISIS is to establish an independent group of Islam’s throughout the world. The group establishes in 2004 as Al Qaeda in Iraq. ISIS started brutal methods to gain their power over the territory.  Both of the group emerged from the wars, Al Qaeda emerged from the war against the Russian troupes in Afghanistan and ISIS from the fight against American troupes in Iraq. Their aim is to attack and create violence against the non-Muslims. There is huge difference between the two groups. ISIS considered themselves as militant group rather than terrorist and they are capable of conquer more parts than Al Qaeda. ISIS is a self-funding group while Al Qaeda has a government that puts taxes and sells oils in several regions for their funding (Khan & Estrada, 2015). The ideologies of Muslims create debates between the citizens of the countries. The main problem is that many foreign people are marching towards Europe for their establishment of their life and their security. The masses are afraid that Muslims will become violent or terrorist will come to Europe for their establishment. Millions of refugees are establishing in Europe as it provides security and safety of their life. The major portion comes from Syria. European Union was much unprepared about the issue of the refugees. The refuges allowed entering into the European Continent made arise of numerous issues of disagreements. Europe already has an immense negative experience about the immigrants of Muslims (Shapovalov et al., 2013).

There are many reasons, which support the idea for the reasons of Europe to become the ground zero for the Islamic terrorism. Europe can be considered a place which has setting the stage for the establishment of ISIS. The violence started in Brussels in when soldier of French linked the Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria in opening the fire oat the Museum in Brussels and gunshot three people. Across Europe more than hundred people was killed and millions of the people of the EU has terrorized (Khan, 2015). ISIS claimed the responsibility for the bombings of Brussels though many of the previous attacks, which are supposed to have inspired because of ISIS. ISIS has going to spread terrorism from operating from its region to target foreigners abroad. Another base is the recruitment base in Europe of ISIS terrorist. If we go to a study on Belgium them then it comes that more than 400 people of Belgium left the country to join ISIS. Again, on France people have travelled to Iraq and Syria to join ISIS. While France and Belgium are the countries, which can considered as the breeding ground for the development of the terrorism of Islam. Both the countries have the most disturbed neighborhood of the continent. The other reason, which supports the ground, is that Europe continuation in the crisis of refugees.  Europe has not only become a ground for the recruiting the EU citizens but also it acts as an advantage of the geopolitical situations. The biggest story of Europe is its refugee crisis as million people flee from the Middle East war (Ferenczi et al., 2016). Now, this refugee crisis made an option for the ISIS to create a war between the Islam and the West. The system of European Union and their decision c=are responsible for the giving them ISIS the chance for terrorism. The declaration of Polish and Bulgarian Prime Minister for not accepting the Christian refugees it gives ISIS to assemblage more zealots for its cause. Another cause of EU, which let the ISIS chance for exploring the terrorism, is fracturing the unity of European. The given study shows that quite amount of citizens of Germany and French have already wants to follow the path of Britain for leaving of EU. ISIS taken the opportunity to destabilize the continent and EU creates the enormous opportunities for them (Janssen, 2016).

The action as well as positions of the leaders of Europe shows that most of them were about the fact that they were aware about the fact of the terrorist attack in Europe. There is ample number of evidence, which shows the fact, that there are many dimensions that are posted to European Union by ISIS (Laub & Masters, 2014). The first point, which supports the situation, is that ISIS influence, which made a serious, blew to the global war of West and on terror.  ISIS is getting support from many terrorist groups for their uprising. Secondly, it continues to threat West through their direct attack. Thirdly, joining of European members in ISI would make rise of terrorism in various countries of Europe. The instability of Iraq would make an effect on the global market of to a great extent as this would make a rise of crude oils of Iraq (Montoya & Hofstetter, 2014).

The recruitment of ISIS has become a threat to the social stability of EU. The estimates of International Centre after the study of radicalization and sources of other media state the fact that thousands of ISIS recruits are from European citizens. The countries of France, UK, Germany, Denmark and Netherland are the countries where the recruitment ratio of ISIS is highest (International Business Times UK, 2016). ISIS gains profitability because of the political enlistment because of the unclear ideologies in respect to the countries of EU countries. A considerable amount of European Countries gains military network and could establish their power and influence after returning to Europe.  ISIS shows effectiveness in organization which shows the ability for the use of technologies in the process and media campaign. ISIS convinces the Muslims of West to join them for their struggle between Islam and West (Aspinwall & Greenwood, 2013).

The European Union or EU has concern for the Terror that ISIS is distributing throughout the countries. The European Union has two concerns. Firstly returning the terrorists of ISIS would identify the activities in Europe while evading the exposure. As, European born ISIS could in a easy way negotiate the passport of continent of EU. Secondly, the war would make a rise of refuges in Europe. The terror strains in moving the ISIS terrorist with the refuges. It is obvious if ISIS would continue the terrorism then it would make the result would be devasting both for the Europeans and for the refugees (Beetham & Lord, .2014). The rapid growth of the ISIS makes an increasing on the challenge of both political and social security for European Union. EU constantly makes a security plan for safeguarding plan. But, the concern for each country has unique and different plan which makes a difficult a difficulty to make a uniform plan. if we taker example of Germany with other countries then it will be more clear about their differences in respect of uniform plan. As Germany liked to get a thorough examination for the documents and passports of all the visitors but other countries did not support the idea as it’s a time taking approach. Ireland enacted a law against terrorism, which levy ten years of terrorism against the individual for promoting terrorism (Bremmer, 2016).

The European leaders and security officials need to adapt steps against the threat of the ISIS. The ISIS success in Libya have made its clear about the invasion of Europe would be their next step. The threat of ISIS has become a great concern for the European officials. The European Union can extend their approach through the introduction of more strict laws which would increase the cooperation of security. Though not only this would enough but EU and NATO both need to take more severe steps. The presence of ISIS in Libya and northern EU countries need help through managing the flow of refugees in the Mediterranean and to make necessary steps for cresting a barrier for ISIS to enter in the North America. The security officials of EU need to monitor the internal radicals and reach Muslims minority populations (Keukeleire & Delreux, 2014).

European citizens who join ISIS are generally immigrants who come from Africa and Asia. Though the main factor lies is that they were educated in the schools of Europe and grown up in the ambience of democratic Liberace. The facts raise question for the future security of Europe. But, if we dissolve the question of security the first which comes is that the efficiency and the integration of religious and ethnic minorities of the Western Europe (Locke, 2015). Europe is a country which maintains a high level of non-discrimination and the liberties in religious facts. On the contrary the country which has the highest number of tolerance and inclusions makes highest in number in the recruitment of the ISIS.  The citizens of the European Union are afraid for accusing of discrimination and the fear damaged the policies to a great extent. The report says that EU is under security emergency as they wants to use chemical or nuclear weapons against the attack of Britain. The citizens of European Union joining in ISIS made an alarm for the security force of EU. The reason varies from individual to individual. The study shows and discussed, that social and political reason is the main reason behind the recruitment of EU citizens to join ISIS. Many complex problems, which exist predominate the recruitment part of the ISIS. The study suggests that the citizens of European Union has doubled in their recruitment part has doubled comparing it with previous year. Now to solve the problem EU need to take steps against the growth of ISIS otherwise the growths of ISIS will unstoppable (Laayouni et al., 2014).

European Union has taken some steps for fighting against the terrorism attack of ISIS. The effect of ISIS causes threat for the European Union. There are thousands of attacks, which carried out in the member states of EU. The terrorism has caused numerous kidnaps and killed numerous citizens of EU.  The threats need to be addressed in both national as well as international level. The EU made an strategy for giving security to its members through jointly fighting against terrorism and innovating best possible strategies against ISIS. The strategy focused on providing prevents, protect, respond and pursue. EU makes main motive to identify and tackle the incidents, which contributes in radicalization and taking steps against individuals to join the ISIS.  They revised their strategy for protection to protect it from ISIS. They adopted a series of guidelines to protect the citizens of EU. The second priority is to protect the EU citizens from the terrorism. They implemented plans to protect from external borders, to improve the security in transport, creating protection against strategic target and reduction of the critical infrastructure. EU increases its protection through regulation the use of name of the passenger name record name for the enforcement of law. EU engaged in safeguarding the developments of other countries to counter the EU strategy in terrorism (Curran, 2015).


EU has taken many measures to prevent ISIS from terrorism but those measures or development is not enough to counter the fear and security threat that arise because of the presence of ISIS. The impact of EU has made a strong fear among its citizens. The inefficiency of EU to deal with the matter made a rise the situation of increase in the recruitment of EU citizens in ISIS. This made the situation of security force of EU in terror. The ISIS has made a negative impact on the citizens on the EU. EU serves as a security service of those citizens. The ineffectiveness of EU got c ear from the incidents. EU need to adopt more measures for safeguarding the all its citizens. The negative impact, which came because of the terror of EU, was large. The impact affect directly to the security of the citizens of EU. EU’s roles in anti ISIS coalition gives a threat on its security and creates a risk to act against it. Though, EU’s engagement of military in the Middle East often gets overlooked. Before assessing any nature of the risk EU’s security must carefully success the nature of it. EU has not contributed a prominent role in the struggle against ISIS in Iraq and in Syria but they should take steps to fight against terrorism. The security of the European Union is linked with the development not only to Europe but to other neighboring countries so the strategy of EU for taking best steps against anti-terrorism has become more important (Hagon, 2015).

Reference list:

Johnson, R., Mueller, J., Henry, S., Akkaya, N., Ross, D. B., Matteson, R., & Li, J. (2015). Forensic Psychological Perspectives in Deterring the Impact of Acts of Terrorism from ISIS and Khorasan: An Antiterrorism.

Khan, A., & Estrada, M. A. R. (2015). The effects of terrorism on economic performance: the case of Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Quality & Quantity, 1-17.

Wallace, H., Pollack, M. A., & Young, A. R. (Eds.). (2015). Policy-making in the European Union. Oxford University Press, USA.

Smith, K. E. (2013). European Union foreign policy in a changing world. John Wiley & Sons.

Khan, A., & Estrada, M. A. R. (2015). The effects of terrorism on economic performance: the case of Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Quality & Quantity, 1-17.

Shapovalov, R. V., Beezhold, W., Dimitrov, V. I., & Spielman, R. B. (2013). Adaptation of the ISIS induction-cell driver to a low-impedance x-pinch driver. In Proc. North America Particle Accelerator Conference (p. 1424).

Khan, A. A. (2015). The Limits of European Union Law: Terrorism, Statelessness and Deprivation of Citizenship. Statelessness and Deprivation of Citizenship (May 28, 2015)

Ferenczi, N., Marshall, T. C., Lefringhausen, K., & Bejanyan, K. (2016). Associations of insecure attachment with extreme pro-group actions: The mediating role of perceived marginalisation. Personality and Individual Differences91, 84-88..

Janssen, D. (2016). The European Commission’s influence in supporting health systems: meeting the healthcare needs of an ageing European population.

Hagon, C. (2015). ISIS, Terrorism, and Europe: An International Security Perspective – IMG GlobalSecur – BlogIMG GlobalSecur – Blog. Retrieved 14 May 2016, from http://www.imgsecurity.net/isis-terrorism-and-europe-an-international-security-perspective/

Laub, Z., & Masters, J. (2014). Islamic State in Iraq and Greater Syria. The Council on Foreign Relations. June12.

Montoya, J. W., & Hofstetter, F. (2014). ISIL’s Utilization of Multimedia to Fulfill Their Quest of Creating a New Islamic State.

International Business Times UK. (2016). Us security chief warns open EU helps Isis militants plot attacks. [online] Available at: http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/us-security-chief-james-clapper-warns-open-eu-borders-allow-isis-terror-cells-thrive-1556906 [Accessed 14 May 2016].

Aspinwall, M., & Greenwood, J. (2013). Collective action in the European Union: interests and the new politics of associability. Routledge.

Bremmer, I. (2016). These 5 Facts Explain Why Europe Is Ground Zero for Terrorism. TIME.com. Retrieved 14 May 2016, from http://time.com/4268579/brussels-attacks-islamist-terrorism-isis/

Beetham, D., & Lord, C. (2014). Legitimacy and the European Union. Routledge.

Keukeleire, S., & Delreux, T. (2014). The foreign policy of the European Union. Palgrave Macmillan.

Laayouni, H., Oosting, M., Luisi, P., Ioana, M., Alonso, S., Ricaño-Ponce, I., … & van der Meer, J. W. (2014). Convergent evolution in European and Rroma populations reveals pressure exerted by plague on Toll-like receptors.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences111(7), 2668-2673.

Curran, D. (2015). The European Union and the third pillar. In The responsibility to protect and the third pillar (pp. 146-170). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Locke, J. (2015). European Union and the United States Immigration Systems: Why Border States Should Not Be the Beasts of Burden, The.Ariz. J. Int’l & Comp. L.32, 877.

Syria crisis

Student’s name:

University name:

Author’s note:

Diplomatic recognition or international recognition is characterized as a political act which is unilateral that deals with domestic and international legal consequences. This helps a state to recognize or acknowledging the activity of another country or state. Recognition may be either de facto or de jure. On the other hand, according to Paust (2012), recognition may also be regarded as declaration given by the recognizing government or establishing an agreement of recognition, such as entering into a treaty with other state.

The national council of Syria or the National Syrian Council (SNC) that was established nearly after 6 or 7 months right after the rising in opposition to the regime of Assad that erupted in the year 2011 during the month of March, can be considered as the largest and strongest exile group in Syria until November 2012. After that, this group joined the “Broader National Coalition of Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces” (Morris, 2013).

During the earlier stages, the Syrian National Council was considered as a major point of reference to the other countries, which were lacking in terms of opposition. In April 1, 2012, more than hundred countries, which were within the “Friends of Syria group”, recognized the “Syrian National Council” as an organization, which is acting as an umbrella (Bhardwaj, 2012). The Syrian opposition parties are gathering under this umbrella. Although, the lack of trust internationally over the Syrian National Council because of its spills along with schisms and its incapability of uniting all the opposition parties under a common platform (Laïdi, 2012). Therefore, most of the countries as of now recognize the Syrian National Council as the legitimate representative not the sole representative.

In the year 2012, October 31st the Secretary of State of the United States declared from then onwards the United States will not consider Syrian National Council as the legitimate leader of the oppositions (Buckley, 2012). Thereby, the United States declared for a new opposition leadership that will represent the country more effectively as well as efficiently. The leadership will also represent those who are in the frontlines, fighting and dying for obtaining their freedom. After this rearrangement, meeting on November 7th, 2012 the Syrian National Council elected George Sabra as the representing president of the country.

The Syrian National Council was first established in Istanbul on 2nd October, 2012. This process mainly followed an earlier attempt to form an umbrella network under which the all the principle opposition groups will be accumulated. The National Coordination Body for Democratic Change was the previous organization that tried to establish this umbrella framework and was it established in June 2011. The “National Coalition” was declared in Doha during September 2011 however, at the later stage it failed to materialize (Sharp & Blanchard, 2013). Instead of the “National Coalition”, a coalitional group and individuals set up Syrian National Council. A number of signatories from Damascus Declaration, the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood and other political and non political organizations also joined in establishing the Syrian National Council. By the end of March 2012, the Syrian National Council claimed that it has amalgamated almost 90 percent of the opposition parties along with the movements (Salloukh, 2013). However, this claim of the Syrian National Council has been challenged by the “National coordination Body for Democratic Change” and some other organizations.

Impact of international recognition on the Syrian people after the civil war:    

However, Syrian National Council faced a number of problems while maintaining the internal unity and coordination. The most important challenges and issues that the Syrian National Council faced while maintaining the unity affected the international support of the Syrian economy. These factors are described one by one below,

The Islamist Factor:

Islamist constitutes a large portion of the Syrian National Council, along with the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood and a secondary Muslim bloc that is constituted by the “Group of 74” and the former brotherhood members also participated in the establishment of the Syrian National Council. The Muslim Brotherhood with the 310 seats quite evidently acquired the largest proportion of the Syrian National Council (Khoury, 2014). Due to this, some of the critics raised the question that this affects the decision-making activities as well as the policy-making activities of the Syrian National Council.

The Kurdish Issue:

This issue is again more important for the Syrian National Council. The relationship between the Kurdish opposition parties and Syrian National Council have been pressurized from outside. This is because the Syrian National Council along with the powerful Syrian Muslim Brotherhood has restricted Kurdish’s demand for federalism for granting autonomy of Kurdish within Syria (Khoury, 2014). The Kurdish people have accused the Syrian National Council for putting pressure from Turkey and raised allegation against the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood for suspecting hostility.

Armed Resistance and free Syrian Army:                    

The unity within the Syrian National Council was affected by the disagreements on how can one respond to increased violence within the regime added with the initial reluctance of the council in restraining its armed resistance (Khoury, 2014). In March 12, 2012, the Syrian National Council declared a more clear position demanding the protection of humanitarian activities as well as declaring a no fly zone over entire Syria.

However, despite of the implementation of these policy frameworks of the “Syrian National Council’s” relation with the Free Syrian army has deteriorated. After the “Friends of Syria” meeting of April 2012, in Istanbul it was announced that “Gulf cooperation Council” would channel funds through Syrian National Council for paying the salary of the Free Syrian Army, however, it has not improved the relation between these two (Salloukh, 2013).

In order to conclude it can be said that the after war recognition of the Syrian embassy remained unaltered as it was in the pre war situation. Therefore, the Syrian National Council was formed in order to represent the country and the situation of its residents in the international perspectives. Hence in this portfolio the entire scenario faced by the Syrian embassy regarding the international recognition has been discussed here. It more important for the country to develop its internal relations more effectively do that it can gain a broader advantage and recognition in the international sector.

The Syrian uprising was initiated as a reaction to the Arab Spring, which refers to a series of antigovernment protests across the Arab world. It was inspired by the fall of the Tunisian regime in the early section of 2011. The main reasons behind the conflict were the anger of the civilians over the unemployment status, corruption, decades of the dictatorship and the state violence under the most repressive regimes of the Middle East. Hezbollah is a powerful political and military organization which was mainly made of Shia Muslims in Lebanon (Davis, 2015). This organization supported the Syrian regime for protecting its dominant military position in Lebanon. The organization had the target of securing the supply lines via Syrian territory. The global power of the United States, Russia and European Union played a vital role in the civil war of Syria. They had the fear of the fact that the conflict could spill over the neighbor countries. The fear was about the creation of a big regional disaster. The most important groups played serious roles in the civil war were called as Jihadist Groups such as Al-Qaeda, Hezbollah and Alawites (Biswas et al., 2015).

The role of Syria’s economy also played a vital role in the Syrian civil war. In the year of 2010, the country earned more than 2 billion euros by exporting goods and commodities. The most important and valuable export product of the country is the oil. It used to produce 400000 barrels of oil per day before the civil war and after the war; they are able to produce near about half of the previous figure. The decrease in the oil production affected the economy of the country after 2011. At present, 60% of the Syrian people are living in the poverty level. The number of the people living in poverty level is almost double than the number in the prior time of the civil war (De Juan & Bank, 2015). The social structure of the country was also affected negatively by the civil war and many people get killed without any reasons. In 2011, China and Russia blocked a draft resolution by UN Security council. The draft resolution was about the non-binding peace plan. The first problem with the draft was regarding the formal resolution. The violence did not stop and the militants continue the killing of the civilians. In that year, hundreds of people were killed by with weapons by the militants in Houla.  Italy, Spain, Canada, Australia and UK expel senior Syrian diplomats in protest. In the last section of the year, the open Syrian army claimed that they have done two explosions at the military headquarters in Damascus. Syria-Turkish tensions increased when five civilians were killed in the Turkish border. Because of this incident, both the countries banned the aircraft of each other in their regions.

In the year of 2012, the Israeli jet attacks in the military research base near Damascus was accused by Syria. International donors helped by giving $1.5 billion for helping the civilians affected in the war. Still the situation was not improved and more than 10000 people flee to Turkey. China and Russia joined for blocking the critical resolutions of Syria at the UN Security Council. It had criticized that the prospect of strikes against Syria and said that the militant actions without the approval of UN will be illegal (Biswas et al., 2016). The voice of the Turkish government was one of the most important voices raised against the war situation of Syria and the voice of the Syrian president Assad. Assad had the willingness of joining the plan of UN. For many years, Saudi Arab was the rival of the Syrian government. They have said that legal means anything is possible to be used for stopping the bloodshed.

The weapons supply to the militants was one of the main reasons of the too bad situation in the war region of Syria. The weapons were supplied by mainly by Qatar. Qatar was influencing the civil war in Syria and by supplying the weapons to them. They have said that the weapons are required for protecting the people of Syria (BBC News, 2016). In Lebanon there were two groups people, one group was consist of the people who have supported the decisions taken by president Assad and the other group of people were against the decisions taken by the president. The country had suffered from an overdose of violation which included the bomb attacks and a huge amount of refugees (Ucak & Ulutas, 2015).

Consular and diplomatic relationship of Syria with other countries saw great ups and downs in regular phases of life. Recent scenario has been described as a civil war in the country. The reasons that lead to such situations are related to the situation of ‘Arab-Spring’. The consequences went for a longer period of time somehow from the mid March 2011 to April of the same year. The situation became so worse that it lead to an emergency situation. It has been debated by ‘The United Nations Security Council’ came out with several opinions regarding the degrading situation of the state. The council has shown deep concern and regret towards the continuous death of as many as hundreds of people. The continuous degradation of the country forced the human right commission to think about the matter and condemn on the issues related to the severity of the war. People have seen great reforms at a regular basis. As pointed out by Allison (2013), the political scenario was set up to meet the demands of clearing the legitimate aspiration and several other concerns related to the misbalance of the political situation.

Improper use of force against the common people without any further concern also leads to grievances towards the political scenario of the country as well. As stated by Christia (2013), the Security Council was appointed to take care of the situation that the country was facing. It was also stated that not only Syria but other countries like Russia, Brazil, China, Lebanon and others were also affected due to the crisis that lead to civil war in Syria. Although the Security Council was much concerned about the situation that lead to create a mishap worldwide yet the situation could not settled under specific requirement. The world was really disappointed with the situation. Grievances from all over the world were seen from the leaders of all powerful and developed nations. The diplomats were of the opinion of considering the situation and act accordingly in order to create a better situation in Syria and in the world as well.

The case was highlighted in the Criminal Court of Justice and big powers from China and Russia came over this situation to produce some kind of relief that the world was facing. Certain relief situations were proposed by other important and intervening states of the world. However, the Syrian government called for certain favors from the government. They requested to cease violence, to release those who were arbitrarily trapped during the civil war (Von Maltzahn, 2015). The council demanded for a peaceful and a guaranteed authority where they can spend their life without much concern and fear of living in the state. It was in fact forced to call out the Syrian military from the country and create a situation where people can stay without any concern.

From the view point of Stern & Ross (2013), it was from the Syrian Government faced great criticism from other nation states as swell due to their inefficiency to tackle the situation of the utter disgrace that resulted in civil war. Britain’s senior diplomat left his nation and went for a formal protest in Syria (Tokajian et al., 2016). Foreign Secretary, William Hague was also impelled with the violence of the state and the disgusted murder and criminal scenario that has been pertaining for such a longer period of time. The French government also announced his fury and heartening message towards the death of Mr. Assad. It was called as a folly murder (Rubinstein, 2015). High officials from all over the world from Italy, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Spain and other places came to the situation and showed their deep concern on the inefficiency of the Syrian government.

In contrary to these statements, it was pointed by the Syrian leader Mr. Annan from Damascus said that their government is focusing on creating a peaceful place and a space where people can live without any fear. In fact, Syrian Government denounced the fact that their country is facing any kind of problems regarding wars and distress (Chenoweth, 2012). It was opined that Syrian government does not want a bloodshed and divided state and for the same reason they are focusing on creating a better environment for the country. In a conference, he pledged to the citizen to co operate with the government and think of better solution to develop a healthy and peaceful scenario. However, even with such promises, there was no change in the scenario of the country and the heinous crimes of murder and suppression kept going on that automatically reduced the expectation of other states towards this country

Reference list:

Allison, R. (2013). Russia and Syria: explaining alignment with a regime in crisis. International Affairs89(4), 795-823.

BBC News. (2016). Syria crisis: Qatar handing embassy over to opposition – BBC News. Retrieved 16 May 2016, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-21442871

Bhardwaj, M. (2012). Development of Conflict in Arab Spring Libya and Syria: From Revolution to Civil War. Washington University International Review, 1, 76-96.

Biswas, S., Hadary, A., Aladdin, S., Rechnitzer, H., Kassis, S., Glikman, D., … & Miron, D. (2015). Infection Control Measures in an Israeli District Hospital Receiving Syrian Civil War Casualties Colonized with Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria. J Infect Non Infect Dis1(003).

Biswas, S., Waksman, I., Baron, S., Fuchs, D., Rechnitzer, H., Dally, N., … & Hadary, A. (2016). Analysis of the first 100 Patients from the Syrian Civil War treated in an Israeli district hospital. Annals of surgery263(1), 205-209.

Buckley, C. A. (2012). Learning from Libya, acting in Syria. Journal of Strategic Security, 5(2), 81.

Chenoweth, E. (2012). The Syrian Conflict is Already a Civil War. The Monkey Cage.

Christia, F. (2013). What Can Civil War Scholars Tell Us About the Syrian Conflict.”. The Political Science of Syria’s War, 8-10.

Davis, K. L. (2015). The Expanding Nature of the Syrian Civil War: From Poor Policy to Regional Conflict (Doctoral dissertation, Johns Hopkins University).

De Juan, A., & Bank, A. (2015). The Ba ‘athist blackout? Selective goods provision and political violence in the Syrian civil war. Journal of Peace Research52(1), 91-104.

Khoury, P. S. (2014). Syria and the French Mandate: The Politics of Arab Nationalism, 1920-1945. Princeton University Press.

Laïdi, Z. (2012). BRICS: Sovereignty power and weakness. International Politics, 49(5), 614-632.

Morris, J. (2013). Libya and Syria: R2P and the spectre of the swinging pendulum. International Affairs, 89(5), 1265-1283.

Noi, U. A. (2012). The Arab spring, its effects on the Kurds, and the approaches of Turkey, Iran, Syria, and Iraq on the Kurdish issue. Middle East Review of International Affairs, 16(2), 15-29.

Paust, J. J. (2012). Use of Military Force in Syria by Turkey, NATO, and the United State. U. Pa. J. Int’l L., 34, 431

Rubinstein, A. Z. (2015). Red Star on the Nile: The Soviet-Egyptian Influence Relationship since the June War. Princeton University Press.

Salloukh, B. F. (2013). The Arab uprisings and the geopolitics of the Middle East. The International Spectator, 48(2), 32-46.

Sharp, J. M., & Blanchard, C. M. (2013). ARMED CONFLICT IN SYRIA: US AND INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE*. Current Politics and Economics of the Middle East, 4(3), 403.

Stern, M., & Ross, D. (2013). The Role of Syria in Israeli-Turkish Relations.Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 115-128.

Tokajian, S., Eisen, J. A., Jospin, G., Hamze, M., Rafei, R., Salloum, T., … & Coil, D. A. (2016). Draft genome sequences of Acinetobacter baumannii strains harboring the blaNDM-1 gene isolated in Lebanon from civilians wounded during the Syrian civil war. Genome announcements4(1), e01678-15.

Ucak, M., & Ulutas, K. T. (2015). LOP06: Bone Allograft and Transposition Flap Reconstruction for a Gunshot Wound of Mandible in Syria Civil War.Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery136(2S), 437.

Von Maltzahn, N. (2015). The Syria-Iran axis: cultural diplomacy and international relations in the Middle East (Vol. 137). IB Tauris.