Climate Change and Global Warming-108389

Present a general summary of the principal lines of evidence for anthropogenically-enhanced Greenhouse warming.  When did enhanced Greenhouse warming commence?  In your essay, comment on the reliability and validity of the evidence. 

Academic Journal Article must be recent.

Marking Criteria

The degree, to which the question is addressed, substantiated by reasoned argument, and the level of critical thought displayed. 

Evidence of wide reading on the subject.  A more detailed marking rubric will be distributed.

Please send me the journal articles

Many thanks.

 Climate Change and Global Warming



The climate of the earth is known to be changing drastically throughout the years and there have been many cycles of retreat and advances in the glacial atmospheres and the sudden fall of the ice age marked the new beginning of the modern climate era of the human civilizations (Allison, Ian (2010). Hence these changes in the climatic conditions gave rise to the different variations in the Earth’s orbit making the energy of the solar system different in the way our planet is receiving it. Therefore the widespread changes that are seen in the temperatures of the surface make the ocean and the atmosphere free together with the evidence of the changes that take part in the system of the climate and also conclude that the greenhouse gas force is the main cause of global warming. Hence this combined evidence is much stronger than the evidence that is available from the changes that are being observed in only the temperature of the global surface. Thus it is seen that the observed warming is more significantly relative to the rates of the variability of the internal climate which helps in estimating both the climate reconstructions and also the instrumental data (Anthony, K. R. N et al (2008). This widespread nature of the warming lessens the possible results of the warming due to the internal variability. This association of the content of the energy with the observed warming of the atmosphere is very small when compared to the energy content of the ocean. Also in addition the Earth shows evidence for warming in many boreholes as well and this is very feasible for the near surface that could have occurred because of a reduction in the content of heat from a different system of component.  Therefore the evidence seems to be more inconsistent with the land or ocean that is the source of the global warming at the surface of the Earth and these changes also cannot help completely in explaining the reason of the warming in the troposphere without an increase in the greenhouse gases (Bernstein et al (2008).

The increases in the amount of carbon dioxide and the other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere enhance the effects of the greenhouse. This happens because there emissions that are produced everyday therefore creating a huge imbalance that enhances the greenhouse effect thus is making it stronger because they occur naturally in the atmosphere that result in keeping the Earth warm as the additional amounts of these different gases lead to more heat being caught on the planet (Coumou et al (2012). Hence this extra heat that is being produced is the main cause of global warming and also resulting in the changes in the earth’s weather patterns. The effect of greenhouse is the key factor that plays a role in keeping our Earth warm and also maintains its temperature so that the planet is warm so as to sustain and develop life on Earth (Church et al (2011).

There are many questions that have raised regarding the enhancement of the effects of the greenhouse as many believed that it is not a simple issue but involves a slow process of evidence to be accumulated with the support of the various predictions that help in the improvement as well as an increase of the levels of confidence that lead to the progress of the uncertainties that are caused by the climatic conditions.  These uncertainties always help in predicting the level of confidence that might also lead to difficulties in the future prediction of climate changes.  Therefore on this basis of analysis it can be concluded that the detection of the effect of greenhouse gas can reduce the emissions of other gases if the climate sensitivity is low at the range of the model predictions. And this can lead to a correct detection of the effect of the enhanced greenhouse effect (Comiso, J.C., and D.K. Hall (2014).  Hence in order to carry out this detection of the enhanced greenhouse effect within a particular frame of time it is necessary to continue the development of the models and also make sure that both the climatic conditions must exist along with the factors that are being maintained to improve the changes in the climate. Hence on this basis of limited observations it is seen that global warming usually occurs frequently over the past 30-50 years and however this is because of the limited coverage of these short time period of the data available. So it is very difficult to say whether these trends might continue or if there may be longer period of fluctuations that are not seen in the data (Hansen, J et al (2009). Therefore it is believed that these data do not question a man’s role in the cause of global warming although it is true that the increase in the amount of the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere leads to an increase in the enhanced greenhouse effect which results in global warming. It is also uncertain whether global warming is because of the increase in carbon dioxide concentration as the oceans also contain thousands of times more carbon dioxide than the atmosphere and can release significant quantities of carbon dioxide if they are warmed by the radiations of the sun and in turn can lead to global warming (Flannigan et al (2009).



It can be concluded that global warming usually effects few parts of the globe in a negative way but may also benefit others in a different manner (Le Quéré, C., et al (2012). Thus compared to the changes of the climate that have taken place in the history of the Earth it is seen that a rise of a few degrees is a small fluctuation which will not lead to a complete melting of the polar caps because the Earth has a stable environmental system with many built-in feedback systems to maintain a uniform climate. Also because there are strong theories based on the enhanced greenhouse warming there is a significant change in the potential effects of the climate that may be caused due to the increase in the levels of concentration in the greenhouse gases (McMillan, M., et al (2014). However the global warming is the same with the results of the predictions of the greenhouse gas effects and also a number of factors also can be contributed to this warming. Thus because of these uncertainties the detection of the enhanced greenhouse effect has also contributed to the global warming in the past years (Pechony, O., and D. T. Shindell (2010).



Allison, Ian. The science of climate change: questions and answers. Canberra: Australian Academy of Science, 2010.

Anthony, K. R. N., D. I. Kline, G. Diaz-Pulido, S. Dove, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. “Ocean Acidification Causes Bleaching And Productivity Loss In Coral Reef Builders.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, no. 45 (2008)

Bernstein, Lenny, R. K. Pachauri, and Andy Reisinger. Climate change 2007: synthesis report. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC, 2008.

Coumou, Dim, and Stefan Rahmstorf.”A decade of weather extremes.” Nature Climate Change 2, no. 7 (2012): 491–496.

Church, John A., and Neil J. White. “Sea-Level Rise from the Late 19th to the Early 21st Century.” Surveys in Geophysics 32, no. 4-5 (2011)

Comiso, J.C., and D.K. Hall. “Climate trends in the Arctic as observed from space.”WIREs Climate Change (2014)

Flannigan, Mike D., Meg A. Krawchuk, William J. De Groot, B. Mike Wotton, and Lynn M. Gowman.”Implications of changing climate for global wildland fire.” International Journal of Wildland Fire 18, no. 5 (2009)

“Global temperatures.” U.K. Met Office. (accessed August 13, 2014).

Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, M. Sato, and K. Lo.”Global Surface Temperature Change.”Reviews of Geophysics 48, no. 4 (2010)

Le Quéré, C., A. K. Jain, M. R. Raupach, J. Schwinger, S. Sitch, B. D. Stocker, N. Viovy, S. Zaehle, C. Huntingford “The global carbon budget 1959–2011.” Earth System Science Data Discussions5, no. 2 (2012)

McMillan, M., A. Shepherd, A. Sundal, K. Briggs, A. Muir, A. Ridout, A. Hogg, and D. Wingham. “Increased ice losses from Antarctica detected by CryoSat-2.” Geophys. Res. Lett. (2014)

Pechony, O., and D. T. Shindell. “Driving Forces Of Global Wildfires Over The Past Millennium And The Forthcoming Century.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, no. 45 (2010)