Voices of Protest-2298267

The period of African American demonstrations from 1910 till 1922 is discussed in this part of the book. This chapter’s central focus is communicating. African Americans developed a number of strategies, both vocal and implicit, such as organising groups and holding rallies, to aid in the regulation of racial prejudice in the US. It demonstrates how protesting artwork can effect transformation. The National Association for Advancement of Coloured People’s (NAACP) operations are covered in the first section entitled “Progressive Voices”.

The NAACP along with various human liberties activists had high hopes for Woodrow Wilson throughout the 1912 vote, but their hopes were dashed when Wilson proved to be no different from other liberals in the southern region. Wilson then revealed his real colours by turning down the NAACP’s proposal to establish a “national panel on the African American issue.” Wilson decided to concentrate on other matters, such as financial improvements, that did not hold significance for African Americans.

The resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan opens the “Violent Times” part. Following World War I, the United States people’ feelings of nationalism increased, leading to the formation of racist organisations. After returning to the southern region in 1915, the Klan terrorised Blacks until becoming a nationwide organisation in the course of the 1920s. The hostility between races began to increase as a consequence of the Klan intimidating Black people as well as the authorities not standing by them, which led to the outbreak of the so-called Red Summer. Over 30 racial uprisings broke out in the summertime of 1919; the one in Chicago riot, that disrupted the stability of society for a week and a half, was the biggest among them all riots.

The chapter “Civil Rights Vanguard” opens with a series of black massacres that persisted despite the NAACP’s best efforts to halt them. The NAACP organised seminars, produced posters, and funded anti-lynching demonstrations, however their efforts were never sufficient. The NAACP attempted to bring the matter before the judiciary, however southern senators’ mob control effectively obstructed the resolution that would have put an end to the massacres.

Numerous Black people moved to the the northwest and western regions in search of fairness as well as improved prospects, as discussed in the part titled “Protesting with Their Feet”. This movement occurred since numerous Black individuals desired greater opportunities for them as well as their loved ones, It did not happen due to the influence of an authority figure. Around 1.5 lakh individuals from the Caribbean arrived in the US between 1899 and 1937 in search of greater possibilities.

Racial discrimination has an effect on intercultural feminist movements, as discussed in the part titled “New Negro Women”. This led to a surge in the number of black females voting, but even after the 19th Amendment was ratified and women were granted the right to cast their ballots, such females faced the same challenges as males. Throughout the emigration period, leaders (black women) sought to increase the number of ballots cast by women as well as to ensure that their opinions were recognised during polls.

Chapter 16: The Arts of Home and Abroad

It discusses African Americans’ utilisation of artistic endeavours to build bridges with other racial groups and with one other. “Coming of age” represents the central focus of this part of the book since significant developments during this period helped to push black history towards the next generation. Black history was significantly influenced by the emerging wave of artisans as well as artistic endeavours that emerged from this focus for black individuals. There are various parts in this chapter that discuss how African American culture and society was influenced by various arts.

Mamie Smith is introduced at the beginning of the first part, “Recorded Music and Radio”. First identifiable black woman to put out an album for a major label was Mamie Smith. Its release demonstrated the power of black consumption while opening doors for additional female vocalists such as Bessie Smith, as well as Ida Cox. White corporations culminated making enormous money from the “race record” industry. Harry Pace, a businessman, founded Black Swan Records in 1920 with the goal of distributing songs which would foster interpersonal relationships. The reviewers found his firm to be ideal, and eventually, white record labels forced Black Swan Studios to escape market.

The growth and development of jazz compositions is covered in Section 2, “Jazz Roots and Routes”. The entrance of the the northern recording business as well as the influx of artists coming from the southern region combined to establish jazz. When performer Louis Armstrong became part of Flether Henderson’s ensemble in 1924, he revolutionised the world of big-band jazz by introducing his aggressive creativity as well as sense of rhythms to the playing field.

The third section is named “Motion Pictures” and opens with D.W. Griffith’s 1915 image Birth of a Nation. Due to its racism, this movie incited controversy within the African American population. As a result, the initial black movie studio was established in 1916, and aspiring movie makers began producing black replicas of established Hollywood categories. These films, dubbed “race films,” were produced in response to multiple demands from the black community. Oscar Micheaux produced Within Our Gates in 1920 as a social commentary in reaction to the movie Birth of a Nation. Hallelujah, an entirely black artistic, was made in 1929 by King Vidor, a white cinematographer.

The commencement of the portion labelled “Harlem Renaissance” introduces the Tenderloin, a neighbourhood in Manhattan home to sixty thousand Black people. A different iconic location for Blacks in America to socialise and do business together has been the Marshall Hotel. Black writers and dramatist had the opportunity to become well-known with the support of social justice organisations like the NAACP. Every form of artwork is propagation, according to W.E.B. DuBois, who also believed that artistic endeavours ought to challenge racial prejudices. The genuine significance of black artistic endeavour became a topic of much debate among African American writers as well as the white media. The debates result in the creation of racial distinction in artistic endeavours. According to African American author Victoria Earle Matthews, the field of race literary writings has evolved independently of the literature of the United States.

Chapter 17: The New Deal Era

This part of the book provides an overview of the 1933–1941 New Deal Era, during which the presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt instituted policies aimed at reviving the federal administration and ensuring that all Americans were safe. The administration’s introduction of the New Deal programmes gave Black people an impression of faith in their political system, which is the main focus of this part of the book. There are seven parts in this chapter that detail the New Deal Era’s occurrences.

The Great Depression is introduced, along with its repercussions, in the initial part. The financial disparity among the wealthy and the less fortunate grew during the latter part of the 1920s. The divide between the wealthy and the impoverished kept getting wider without anyone noticing. Herbert Hoover, president of the United States, even neglected to mention the status of economic conditions in his March 4, 1929, inauguration speech. Abruptly, the ensuing October 1929 stock industry disaster occurred six months afterwards. The nation as a whole suffered from the collapse. Thirteen million individuals had lost their work by 1933 as a result of the long-lasting crisis. Due to the economic collapse, finance institutions and businesses closed, leading numerous African Americans to relocate in search of better financial opportunities elsewhere in the nation.

Many African Americans left the southern areas due to excessive cultivation as well as falling pricing. Renters and sharecropping farmers saw their situation worsened by the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933, since landlords were allowed to cultivate fewer acres as there was simply less available for their usage. The black bourgeois classes was negatively impacted by the paucity of black labourers. During the Great Depression, blacks made numerous attempts to find employment, but businesses were shutting.

Blacks began to lose faith in the congressional Republicans in the section labelled “Political Resurgence” due to their readiness to distance themselves from the black community. African Americans did not begin to feel confident in their governing abilities till Oscar DePriest was elected to serve in the Parliament in 1928. He was the very first African American person from the northern region.With his victory in the following presidency vote, Franklin Delano Roosevelt foresaw the Democratic Party’s rise to dominance. African Americans grew increasingly politically active and strongly favoured the President.

President Roosevelt frequently consulted his black experts in the “Black Cabinet” department for advice. Black people began to work in the federal workforce when they were hired as racial counsellors and employees. Other Black people benefited from the freshly recruited consultants’ assistance and government employment. New initiatives such as the Civil Conservation Corp. were established amid the 2nd phase of the revolutionary New Deal era. Throughout the period known as the Great Depression, these programmes helped African Americans rebuild their communities.