Undertake Project Work : 671730


Review the simulated business documentation, including policies and procedures, in the document ‘Max Lionel
Realty.docx’. Review templates contained in the document ‘Project planning templates.docx’ for possible use or
adaptation in completing
project requirements.
Review the scenario information provided in Appendix 1.
Receive details from Operations General Manager (the assessor) of your project team, cost, skills, and suggested
project deliverables and timeframes.
Determine project scope. Dev
elop appropriate initiation and scope documents for discussion with Operations
General Manager(the assessor).
Determine additional documentation required to determine project and develop deliverables.
Define project stakeholders. Determine how you will eng
age and manage stakeholders to achieve project
objectives. Develop communication and stakeholder management plans for discussion.
Consider scenario information and organisational structure to determine stakeholders and stakeholder
personal responsibilities and reporting requirements.
Determine relationship of project to other projects, systems, business operations, strategic aims of organisation,
and external legislative requirements.
Determine resources and access to resources. Co
nsult with Operations General Manager (the assessor) to clarify if
Determine project management tools, such as software (e.g. Microsoft Word, MS Excel, and MS Project) and
templates, etc.
You may use software tools or use or adapt the temp
lates provided.
Using an appropriate project management tool, develop your project plan
(version 1). Include:
Undertake p
roject work
Innovation and Business Industry Skills Council Ltd, 1
Edition Version 1, 2015
work breakdown structure: stages of development or of task completion(Design, Develop, Implement,
Evaluate); opportunities for (peer and stakehol
der) review and feedback; coordination of roles and sharing
of responsibility for deliverables; dependencies
roles and responsibilities for each team member
resourcing requirements.
Develop a risk management plan for your project (version 1) for
discussion. Include consideration of WHS risk
management. Identify, assess and suggest treatment of at least three additional risks, including financial risk.
Record risks on a risk register and complete a risk assessment document for each risk.
may use software tools or use or adapt the templates provided.
Develop a budget (version 1) for the project.
You may use software tools or use or adapt the template provided.
Meet with Operations General Manager (the assessor) to discuss:
additional documentation required to determine project and develop deliverables.
project stakeholders
personal responsibilities
relationship of project to other projects, systems, strategic aims of organisation
resources and access to resources
portfolio of documents:
project initiation and scope documents
project plan (version 1)
risk management plan (version 1)
budget (version 1).
Ask for feedback from your Operations General Manager (the assessor) on your version1 drafts and ensure
ng of any additional project issues or changes to project parameters.
Meet with your project team to:
negotiate roles and responsibilities
Agree on version 2 of documents for approval by Operations General Manager (the assessor):
project plan (version 2)
isk management plan (version 2)
budget (version 2).
Incorporate Operations General Manager (the assessor) feedback into planning project:
Undertake p
roject work
Innovation and Business Industry Skills Council Ltd, 1
Edition Version 1, 2015
The meeting will be observed by your assessor. Follow your communication plan or agree to a time
and date.
meeting with your team, be:
accommodating and conscious of varying skill levels, interests, backgrounds
submit documentation as per specifications below

Subject Overview


A project is temporary in that it has a defined beginning and end in time, and therefore defined scope and resources. A project is unique in that it is not a routine operation, but a specific set of operations designed to accomplish a goal. So a project team often includes people who don’t usually work together – sometimes from different organizations and across multiple geographies.


The development of software for an improved business process, the construction of a building or bridge, the relief effort after a natural disaster, the expansion of sales into a new geographic market — all are projects. And all must be expertly managed to deliver the on-time, on-budget results, learning and integration that organizations needs.

Project management, then, is the application of knowledge, skills and techniques to execute projects effectively and efficiently. It’s a strategic competency for organizations, enabling them to tie project results to business goals — and thus, better compete in their markets.


It began to emerge as a distinct profession in the mid-20th century. Project management processes fall into five phases:



  • Initiating
  • Planning
  • Executing
  • Monitoring and Controlling
  • Closing


This subject introduces the basic knowledge of project management, describes the performance outcomes, skills and knowledge required to undertake a straightforward a project. It addresses the management of projects, including developing a project plan, administering and monitoring the project, finalising the project, and reviewing the project to identify lessons learned for application to future projects. Many practical tools, models, and templates that are utilized in project management will be introduced too. Such as Work Breakdown Structure, Responsibility Assessment Matrix, Gantt Chart, Failure Model Effect Analysis, Budgeting and Variance Analysis, and so forth…








Element 1. Define project

Performance criteria   

1.1 Access project scope and other relevant documentation


What is a project?

A project is usually defined as a set of distinct processes and tasks and runs for a set period of time, and delivers academic, business or technical objectives. According to the Project Management Institute, “a project is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result” Therefore, a key feature of projects, as opposed to operations, is that they have distinct beginnings and ends.


Why do businesses conduct projects?  Some of the reasons include:

  • Market demand for a quality product or service (New product Research and Development)
  • Technological advances (Use latest software or systems)
  • Solving a business need (Office reallocation or seasons big recruitment)
  • Request from a customer (Reduce processing time)
  • Ensure new laws and regulations can be complied with (Update or revise organizational policies and procedures)
  • Response to competition (New promotional campaign)

What is project management?

There are numerous definitions of project management. Definitions may differ depending on whether the focus is on organisational change management or on the delivery of products goals or outcomes. Project management is a formalised and structured method of managing change in a rigorous manner to meet these outcomes. According to the Project management institute, ‘project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements’.


  • Project management concentrates on using knowledge and skills to achieve specific outcomes to be accomplished by a certain time, to a clear quality standard and within a given level of resources or budget.


  • Wherever you work, the chances are that you will need to understand the language and concepts of project management and to apply the skills you will learn in this course of


What is project scope?

It is the summation of all the deliverables required as part of the project including products, services and results. It outlines what the project is expected to achieve, by when, as well as what is NOT expected. It is a key part of every project plan and a clearly scoped project ensures that the project stays focused.

Key Concepts of a Project Scope

  • Scope planning contains different levels according to the complicity of the project.
  • The scope baseline consists of the project scope statement, project milestones, key deliverables, boundaries (Inclusions and Exclusions), and organizational requirements.
  • All stakeholders must understand the scope baseline to minimize scope creep during project execution.


The Project Scope pertains to the work necessary to deliver a product. Requirements and deliverables define the project scope, and it is critical that the stakeholder is in agreement with the information discussed in the proposed plan.


What are Project Deliverables?


The fundamental objective of a project is to deliver something new.

It is not always easy to distinguish between aims (goals), objectives and deliverables. If the project is to create new products/services or modify existing ones, then the list of deliverable items may be as simple as a set of part or product numbers


  • Any measurable, tangible, verifiable item that must be produced to complete the project. Often used more narrowly in reference to an external deliverable, which is a deliverable that is subject to approval by the project
  • Deliverables include intermediate products or services that are necessary for achieving the project’s final results. Deliverables are always measurable because they can be counted or observed in some way.



Apart from Project deliverables, other documents below need to accessed by project team and closely monitored, Details of those documents will be discussed in other elements  :


  • Project resources
  • Quality standards for project
  • Timeframes for project.





Performance Criteria

1.2 Define project stakeholders



“Stakeholder management is critical to the success of every project in every organization I have ever worked with. By engaging the right people in the right way in your project, you can make a big difference to its success… and to your career.”

As you become more successful in your career, the actions you take and the projects you run will affect more and more people. The more people you affect, the more likely it is that your actions will impact people who have power and influence over your projects. These people could be strong supporters of your work – or they could block it.


Stakeholder Management is an important discipline that successful people use to win support from others. It helps them ensure that their projects succeed where others fail. Stakeholder Analysis is the technique used to identify the key people who have to be won over.


Your boss Shareholders Government
Senior executives Alliance partners Trades associations
Your coworkers Suppliers The press
Your team Lenders Interest groups
Customers Analysts The public
Prospective customers Future recruits The community
Your family


Anyone from the table above could be your project stakeholders, and they are either directly or indirectly involved in your project. The project will have certain level of impacts ON / BY the stakeholders.

There are a number of roles directly associated with project management

  • Project owner – initiator/financer of project
  • Project sponsor – executive responsible for the project (often the owner)
  • Project manager – manages the project’s implementation
  • Project team – undertake tasks involved in the project
  • Project specialists (Outsourcing team members)
  • Funding bodies (Investors)
  • Customers (Could be funding bodies too)
  • Suppliers
  • Government and Industrial associations


Extra readings on Stakeholder management



Performance Criteria

1.3 Seek clarification from delegating authority of issues related to project and project parameters



Even “Super-You” needs help and support. There is no shame in asking for assistance. Push aside the pride and show respect for the talent others can bring to the table. And, remember that there is no such thing as a single-handed success: When you include and acknowledge all those in your corner, you propel yourself, your teammates and your supporters to greater heights. Therefore, as a Project Manager, you should choose the right moment, delegate the right tasks to the right people, so that team members’ knowledge and skills could fully utilized, their confidence and motivation level could rise and their true potential could be discovered.


On the other hand, if you are taking tasks from top management, clients or funding bodies, it is crucial to clarify what exactly the objectives are, what outcomes they expect, any deadlines, any resources available, report lines and so forth… in other words, it is important to ensure you and your team has mutual understanding of Project Parameters. Several key questions to help determine the information required for a project:


  • What are the expected outcomes?
  • Does the outcome relate to the organisation’s broader goal?
  • How does my team relate to the project? What skills, experience and knowledge does my team have?
  • Who is the project sponsor?
  • Do I have a copy of the business case?
  • What is the timeframe within which the project must be completed?
  • Does the project have to meet any specified quality standards?


Extra readings on Workplace delegation:




Performance Criteria

1.4 Identify limits of own responsibility and reporting requirements

Large group projects typically involve complex interactions between multiple team members. Experience tells us that establishing roles and responsibilities helps eliminate confusion as the project progresses. Creating and maintaining a responsibility matrix defines the tasks, roles and accountability. To do this efficiently:

  1. Assign team members to the project. Assess each person’s skills and knowledge. Encourage team members to volunteer for stretch assignments to broaden their experience.
  2. Download atemplate or define your own format. For example, create a spreadsheet and list the project tasks in the first column. Label the second column as “Responsible.” Label the third column as “Accountable.” Label the fourth column as “Consulted” and the fifth as “Informed.” Put the names of people in the cells. Alternatively, label the columns with each person’s name and use colours to indicate the level of responsibility for each task. Designate only one person to be accountable for each task.
  3. Establish roles for each project meeting. Each team typically includes a project manager, team leader, meeting facilitator, meeting scribe and team members. Using this model, each team member knows their role at each project team meeting. When expectations are clear, work proceeds more smoothly!
  4. Add new tasks and roles as the project proceeds. By keeping track of the skills and knowledge acquired by each team member, the project manager can assign new tasks and responsibilities more efficiently and fairly.
  5. Delegate tasks to team members who have the right training to complete the work. If team members lack skills, provide courses, workshops or self-paced alternatives to get them up to speed.
  6. Save your file in a location that all team members can access and refer to over the course of the project. By clarifying expectations, you can minimize conflicts and improve communication between team members.


Source: http://voices.yahoo.com/defining-team-roles-responsibilities-group-projects-11962457.html


Extra readings on RASCI responsibility matrix



Performance Criteria

1.5 Clarify relationship of project to other projects and to the organisation’s objectives



As project managers, we sometimes get caught in the heat of the project management “moment” and lose sight of the fact that projects are part of a larger initiative. The objective of this article is to remind project managers of the important role they have in bringing a company’s organizational strategy to fruition.

How many times as a project manager have you been tempted to say the following:


“Where did this project come from?”

“Should I stop working on this project and start on this one?”

“Why are we doing this project?”

“We don’t have the resources to do this project!”


One of the reasons project managers worry so much is because they tend to accept the projects assigned to them and don’t take the time to understand how the project aligns with the company’s organizational strategy. It is certainly appropriate to assume that “There must be a need for this project if someone is willing to pay for it.” However, the project manager must recognize that this approach may not take into account what is truly in the best interest of the client or company.


Organizational strategy alone is a rather broad topic. By its very nature organizational strategy can apply to all business functions—Finance, Human Resources, Marketing, and Operations being some of the most important to the project manager. This article focuses specifically on the technical project manager and introduces a practical approach to help the project manager to effectively align projects to a company’s organizational strategy.


Focus on Strategy from Project Start

Now for the million dollar question: How does a project manager recognize if a project aligns with the company’s organizational strategy? Instead of “how”, perhaps it is better to ask “at what point” does a project manager recognize their project aligns or may not align with a company’s organizational strategy? The short answer is—anytime during the pre-planning stage.

In most cases the Requirements Document or other similar business requirements document would be the first piece of documentation a project manager should consult to analyze the request. Full knowledge of business requirements, along with input from available SMEs (Subject Matter Experts), will help the project manager understand from the very beginning if the approach is best for the company.


Basic understanding of how to ensure successful alignment between the company’s organizational strategy and the project:

  • Recognize the Strategic Value of the Project
  • Inform the Client of Potential Value Gained or Lost
  • Ensure Success Through Participation


Recognize the Strategic Value of the Project

Project managers need to remind themselves that every project must contribute value and is designed to meet the future needs of its clients. The key word is “value.” From a management standpoint, it is essential to be able to relate the value of the project to the organization’s strategy in both quantitative and qualitative terms. I believe everyone would agree that the most successful companies have an organizational strategy. Unfortunately, few project managers take the time to understand the value linkage between the organizational strategy and their projects.

Inform Clients of Potential Value Gained or Lost

It is important that the project manager helps the client to recognize the risks associated in selecting one alternative over another. You may even find that the client has, in his or her mind, already selected the cheapest alternative. When informing a client about risks it is imperative to be quick and competent in your response. This can be done in three easy steps:


  • Brainstorm– Schedule a 30-minute brainstorm session with no more than two SME’s (Subject Matter Experts).
  • Understand– Clearly understand the technical aspects of all options. Open a document on the computer and draft (in business terms) a clear response to the client.
  • Respond– After you have gathered your thoughts, it is best to arrange a meeting with the client and invite no more than one SME (to make the client feel important yet not threatened) to present your response.


It is important to use common sense when speaking to the client and avoid using words such as “in the best interest of the company” or “the best choice for long-term goals and objectives.” Most clients are professionals in their field and they will always feel there is a real business need to their request. The key is to give the client the perception that you are working together with them to address this business need.


Ensure Success Through Participation

The project manager must actively engage the client and create an environment where the client is a key participant in the decision making. Far too often the project team and IT staff and will go behind closed doors, have little or no interaction with the client, and then return to the client with the supposed perfect solution.

In order to effectively align projects with the company’s organizational strategy, it is critical to create an open and honest dialogue. Make sure the client knows you want to include them in determining the approach which best aligns with the company’s organizational strategy. For example, explain that you held a 30-minute brainstorming session with the SMEs to obtain a clear understanding of all technical options and the pros and cons of each option. Remember to speak in business terms that will make sense to everyone listening to the conversation.

Some may argue that the crucial factor to ensure the success of integrating organizational strategy with projects lies in the company’s ability to create a process that is open and transparent. As project managers, we have a similar responsibility to create an environment with our client that is open and honest.


Make Strategy Your Concern

The outcome of effectively recognizing, brainstorming, understanding and responding to client requests results in:

  • Clearer organizational focus
  • Best use of scarce organizational resources such as people, equipment, and capital
  • Improved communications across projects and departments.


No matter what tools you use as a project manager, it is essential to be competent and well informed when working with the client to ensure successful alignment between the company’s organizational strategy and the project.


To sum up, how to relate project to organizational objectives, you and your team should :

  • Ensure the expected project outcomes contribute to the organizational goals
  • Ensure the project objectives do not create any conflicts among other departments or projects
  • Understanding how your project fits in with other completed, current or upcoming projects or activities within the organisation
  • Communicate the benefits, importance and relevance of the project to the staff involved
  • Share resources or work with other project managers to share experiences, learn from each other, give encouragement and assistance














Performance Criteria

1.6 Determine and access available resources to undertake project


In general, business resources refer to four main categories:

  • Human Resources (Staff who work within the organisation and experts who can contribute to the business)
  • Capital (Initial investment, funds, equipments, buildings, offices)
  • Raw materials (Materials that directly being transferred to the final product, essentially within manufacture business)
  • Information (Information that organization needs to plan, control and review its activities)


Below are the brief tips of Estimating and access resources:

  • How much the organisation wants to allocate to the project?
  • What the project goals and time frames suggest?
  • The total budget estimate and your resource allocation responsibilities within this budget
  • The reason or background of the project should be clearly understood by all stakeholders, so the right resources can be allocated to the project



Extra reading on Person/Non Person resources estimation:


Further details of implementing and controlling resources within the project will be discussed in Element 3.









Element 2. Develop project plan

Once the project has been initiated, objectives are clear and agreed and options have been evaluated the project can be planned.

Early in the inception of the project a Business Case might be required before the project is approved. It is good practice to include a preliminary or high-level Project Plan in the Business Case. The planning tools described in this section may be applied at high level or they may be used to plan the project in detail once approval has been given to proceed with the detailed planning of the project.

Detailed planning requires increased commitment of resources. Therefore there is a logical approval GO-NO GO decision at the end of the Initiation Phase before the commencement of the Planning Phase.


Performance criteria

2.1 Develop the project plan in line with the project parameters


The Project Plan is the basis for monitoring and controlling the project. All changes to the project must be recorded against the project plan. In other words, the project plan is the guidance throughout the entire project period and this master document must be followed by all personnel involved in the project.   It is a key communication and decision-making document.



Why plan a project?

  • Enables scarce (lack of) resources to be shared
  • Helps delegate tasks more effectively
  • Project team members are focused and gain satisfaction, motivation
  • Project team members are dedicated to the goals of the project
  • The length of time allowed for each activity
  • Budget for materials and labour
  • Details what needs to be done and how it should be done
  • Who is responsible for completing each task
  • The resources required to complete project tasks
  • The standard of work required for each task


The Project Plan literally brings together the:

  • Scope Definition
  • Timeframe for the project and each deliverable
  • Organisational, team roles and responsibilities
  • Resources allocation
  • Budget
  • Risk management / control
  • Quality Processes
  • Communication Strategy
  • Procurement Strategy

Extra readings on project plan items:




From Milestones to sub-tasks (What needs to be done?)

A work breakdown structure (WBS) is a model of the work to be performed in a project organized in a hierarchical structure. The WBS is an important tool which helps you keep an overview of the project, a breakdown of the tasks that need to be completed for the project’s goals to be achieved.

  • It forms the basis for organization and coordination in the project.
  • It shows the amount of work, the time required, and the costs involved in the project

The work breakdown structure is the operative basis for the further steps in project planning, for example, cost planning, scheduling, capacity planning as well as project controlling.

The project structure can be represented according to different criteria:

  • Phases (logic-oriented)
  • By function (function-oriented)
  • By object (object-oriented)


Sample WBS provided below…



Source: http://msproject2010primer.com/cracking-the-microsoft-project-2010-wbs-code/

Source: https://www.workbreakdownstructure.com/how-to-make-a-work-breakdown-structure.php

Matchware ® (WBS Software) 30 days free trial available on:


Assign right tasks to right people   (Who is doing what?)

Responsibility Assessment Matrix (RAM) is also called Responsibility Allocation Matrix, or Responsibility Matrix. The purpose of the document is to identify early on which departmental roles or individuals will be assigned to complete certain categories of activities (tasks). Next, define the extent of responsibility and the relationships among groups (Involvement). Complete this matrix in the early planning stages before your commit to more detailed resourcing or scheduling. In other words,

  • RAM determines
    • Skills and capabilities of each team member
    • Current and future workloads of project team members
    • What would be a fair and appropriate allocation of duties
    • Who is responsible for completing the activity
    • The names of specialists who need to be consulted at various stages
    • Managers who need to be involved to give approvals
    • Clients who need to be notified when certain phases of the project are completed


Tips for setting up a RAM, (for large projects, a separate document should be developed for each milestone or sub-project)

Ø  List the major activities in the project based on WBS (in the matrix rows)

Ø  List the stakeholder group (in the matrix columns)

Ø  Specify the involvement level, authority role, and responsibility of each stakeholder by codifying the responsibility matrix

Ø  Incorporate the responsibility matrix into the project rules (the original version of the responsibility matrix and all future changes in it must be approved by project stakeholders)

There are various ways to create RAM based on project and tasks requirements, and also need to take into consideration of organizational policies and procedures


Sample of RAM

  Responsibility Assessment Matrix
WBS / Positions PM: David SPO: Sarah PC1: Lisa PC2: Michael
Key Task 1 A I R S P R     P       P      
Sub-task 1 I       A                      
Sub-task 2                                
Key Task 2                                
Sub-task 1                                
Key Task 1                                
Sub-task 1                                
Sub-task 2                                
A: Accountable Holds ultimate responsibility for the task
P: Participant Actively participate tasks and involve in implementation
I: Input Bring in ideas / thoughts for the task, low level contribution
R: Review Review tasks output and adjustment
S: Sign-off Authorise the task completion or further requirements


Performance Criteria

2.2 Identify and access appropriate project-management tools



In the late 1800s, Polish engineer Karol Adamiecki developed a visual work flow chart that he called a “harmonogram.” In around 1910, Henry Gantt, a management consultant and engineer, took Adamiecki’s concept to the next stage. His chart was designed to help manufacturing supervisors see whether their work was on, ahead of, or behind schedule, and it formed the foundation of the tool we use today.


The Gantt chart is one the most popular tools in managing project progress. A Gantt chart is developed as a horizontal graph or chart to review the progress of your project and track your performance. On the vertical axis, list each task in order; and on the horizontal axis, list the timeframe for the project.

Gantt chart (Who is doing what by when?)

  • Clearly state the commencement date and completion date of entire project
  • Clearly state the starting time and finishing time of each milestones, key tasks and sub-tasks
  • Demonstrate the relationship (sequence) among tasks
  • Indicate the progress of each task at a particular timeline
  • In case of delays, reset deadline and/or re-allocate resources


Sample Gantt Chart

Source: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/Gantt-Chart-Diagram-Example-1.htm


Free online Gantt chart creators available through the links below:





Brief notes on other project management tools

Cost schedule control system

Used to determine and monitor your costs for a project through evaluating, estimating, budgeting, monitoring, forecasting and reporting all the cost information for the project

Critical Path Method – (CPM)

  • Helps identify the sequence of tasks and timing that will be vital to successfully complete the project on time
  • Identify the activities or tasks that, if disrupted will have the most impact on your ability
  • Meet the project timeframe


 CPM(Critical path method) example

  • To develop a CPM, we need to identify the components of the schedule:
    • The longest path(s) throughout the schedule
    • The path(s) or task(s) with zero float (where zero float means that a path or task cannot be started later than the scheduled start date of each task on the path without delaying the project’s scheduled completion time
    • The task(s) or milestone driving the end date of the project (where the end date is the scheduled finish date of the project)
    • The shortest completion time of the project (where the project cannot be completed in any less time within the current schedule)


Lifecycle cost analysis

  • Method of project evaluation where all costs over the life of a project are considered to be important. It involves capturing, recording and computing all expenses associated with the project


PERT Charts (Program Evaluation Review Technique)

  • Used to schedule, organise and coordinate tasks within a project
  • Time consuming and complicated to produce and suited to long or complex projects


Key steps for PERT Chart


  • Identify the specific activities and milestones.
  • Determine the proper sequence of the activities
  • Construct a network diagram
  • Estimate the time required for each activity
  • Determine the critical path
  • Update the PERT chart as the project progresses


Logistics support analysis (LSA) – your LSA contacts are the people or processes you need to gain support.

  • It also:
    • Identifies and uses support systems
    • Influences or assists with project activities
    • Promotes early identification of potential support problems


Extra readings on Project Management tools




Performance Criteria

2.3 Formulate a risk-management plan for a project, including work health and safety (WHS)



In any project, things don’t always go as planned. Unexpected events can threaten your project outcomes. Therefore, a detailed risk management plan plays significant role in ensuring project being conducted properly and deliver the expected outcomes.

Source: ISO 31000 Risk Management Process

Risk management is the systematic identification, assessment and control of risks to business or project objectives. Risk management approaches, such as the methodology described in the recognised Australian standard for risk management, AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009, include the following phases (or similar) as applied to projects:

  1. Identify and characterise potential threats to the project.
  2. Determine the risk (i.e. analyse the probability and impact of these occurring).
  3. Evaluate the acceptability of the risk with respect to the project and business
  4. Identify strategies to manage the risk.
  5. Prioritise risk reduction measures based on a strategy.


What cause Risks in Project management?


External factors:

  • Political, Economic, Social/Culture, Technology (PEST)
  • Conflicting contractor priorities
  • Partnering relationship
  • Increasing (global) competition
  • Variable contractor/supplier performance

Internal factors:

  • Poor project definition
  • Unreliable task estimation
  • Fast tracking decision-making processes
  • Availability of management
  • Poor tracking capability
  • Lack of reporting procedures
  • Communication bottlenecks
  • Managerial incompetence
  • Undefined quality requirements
  • Fluctuating commitment
  • Limited resource availability
  • Low-level skill sets
  • Lack of accountability
  • Variable stakeholder expectations


Sample Risk events during project and the Impacts on project and stakeholders

Type of risk Impact
Project schedule Increased project time
Budgets/funding Increased cost
Personal issues Loss of key team member – not enough team members for the project
Quality Doesn’t meet standards
Key stakeholder consensus Conflicts and project delays
Scope changes Increased project time and cost
Project plan Increased project time and cost, impact on quality, poor direction and communication
PM methodology Increased project time and cost
Business risk Poor public image
Management risk Re-organisation resulting in loss of team members
Vendor issues Delivery delays
Legal issues Increased costs, poor public image
Political issues Poor public image
Environment risk Increased costs, delays to schedule, poor public image
Weather or natural disasters Schedule delays, delivery delays, increased costs
Technology risks Not available when needed
Project complexity Inexperience of project team
Project manager skills Inexperience of project manager
Team skills and abilities Inexperience of team members, lack of training


Other Risk management methods, such as FMEA, are widely used in modern business environment.

Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) was one of the first systematic techniques for failure analysis. It was developed by reliability engineers in the 1950s to study problems that might arise from malfunctions of military systems. An FMEA is often the first step of a system reliability study. It involves reviewing as many components, assemblies, and subsystems as possible to identify failure modes, and their causes and effects.  FMEA is used to structure Mitigation for Risk reduction based on either failure (mode) effect severity reduction or based on lowering the probability of failure or both.


FMEA is a systematic, proactive method for evaluating a process to identify where and how it might fail and to assess the relative impact of different failures, in order to identify the parts of the processes that are most in need of change. FMEA includes review of the following:

  • Failure modes (What could go wrong?)
  • Failure effects (What would be the consequences of each failure?)
  • Failure causes (Why would the failure happen?)
  • Failure detection (How difficult it can be detected?)


Simple method to identify Risk Priority Number (RPN)

RPN  = Probability Occurrence X Consequence Severity X Likelihood of detection

Key steps in Risk management plan:

  • Identifying possible risks
  • Defining risks in terms of potential impact and extent
  • Developing contingency plans that detail how each risk will be prevented and/or controlled
  • Acting on plans and monitoring outcomes


Five steps to controlling risks that you and your team need to identify:

  • Prevent the risk from happening
  • Reduce the probability of risk occurring
  • Transfer the impact of the risk to third party so there is minimal impact on your project ( penalty clauses in contracts you provide to subcontractors so financial loss is transferred)
  • Use contingency and corrective plans
  • Accept that some risk will exist and will need to be monitored throughout the project


Extra readings on WHS risk management



Performance Criteria

2.4 Develop and approve project budget



The project budget is the estimate of the costs of the project. These costs will likely include labour, materials, and other related expenses. The project budget is often broken down into specific tasks, with amounts assigned to each task. Budgets are an essential part of good financial management and are used to estimate your income and expenses over a certain amount of time. Developing accurate budgets will help your organisation to provide better services, successfully apply for grants and meet your financial reporting obligations.

Most organisations develop a budget that covers all of their income and expenditure for the financial year. This budget will be based on your organisations planned activities for the year developed by the management committee and staff. The budget for the organisation will need to be approved by the management committee and should be developed by someone with a good understanding of book-keeping.

Although the budget for the organisation will include projects that you want to run, you might also need to develop a budget for each project. This will be essential if you are applying for funding but it is also useful if you want to compare the budget with the actual income and expenditure for the project. You may also decide to develop budgets for different parts of your organisation. If you have paid staff, they may develop these budgets before they are approved by the organisation.


Budget process:

Estimating income and expenditure

Whether you are developing a budget for your organisation or a project, you will need to identify the probable sources of your income, where your expenditure is most likely to occur and an estimate for each of these amounts. It is also a good idea to estimate when you will receive income and when you will have expenses to ensure that you will be able to make payments when they are needed.

For the organisation as a whole, income might include membership fees, payments for services, bank interest, grants, donations and other types of fundraising. For individual projects, you might be relying on one or more grants and/or sponsorship from other people or organisations.

One way of estimating your organisations income for next year is to look at what was received in the previous year and decide if this is likely to increase or decrease and by what amount.

You will also need to determine the areas where the organisation will have expenses. The larger items will usually include salaries and wages, rent, phone, electricity/gas, stationery, postage, insurance, photocopying and other expenses. Your organisation may also need to include amounts for items that might be needed, such as staff payments including long service leave.

There are particular rules about how organisations budget for more expensive items such as computers and if you are unsure about this, you should seek professional advice.


The amounts that were spent in the previous year can help you to determine your organisation’s budget expenditure for the next year. You will then need to decide if these amounts need to be adjusted for increases in costs or additional expenses. Wherever possible, you should also ask for one or more quotes for budget items.

Individual projects may have expenses across some or all of the same areas as your organisation. When you are developing a budget for a project, some of your costs will involve staff time and a proportion of the organisations costs such as electricity and rent. You will probably also have other costs such as paying other people to work on the project, catering, travel, venue or equipment hire and other items.

If you are applying for funding from a funding body, you may only able to include certain expenses, so you will need to check before completing your application.

Unless the budgeted income for your organisation and projects equals or is greater than your budgeted expenditure, you will have financial problems and should not approve the budget.


Extra readings on Budgeting methods







Performance Criteria

2.5 Consult team members and take their views into account in planning the project


Lack of clear roles and responsibilities with respect to the work of the team often causes confusion, frustration and duplication of efforts within teams. Clarity of roles is often assumed, yet not clarified. Effective teams clarify their roles at significant times such as organizational change, new member(s) entering the team, team member(s) leaving the team, new projects, etc. and these roles are captured in a clear and concise role statement. As the project manager, it is your responsibility to ensure team members know what is expected of them, have a thorough understanding of the scope of the project and are clear about how the team will operate.

A roles and responsibilities matrix is used to capture the results of the discussion by assigning codes to a roles-responsibility matrix using the P-A-R-I-S coding system identified below.

  • P = Perform (primary responsibility to initiate action and/or carry out task.)
  • A = Approve (must be reviewed by the role occupant who has the option to approve or veto.)
  • R = Review (the role occupant must review. Feedback and/or contribution are expected.)
  • I = Inform (the role occupant must be informed but does not have direct influence.)
  • S = Support (the role occupant provides logistical support and/or resources for action/task.)

PS: It is very similar as RAM legends introduced in “Develop Project Plan”. They both can be used in clarifying project responsibilities.

  • A: Accountable – Holds ultimate responsibility for the task
  • P: Participant – Actively participate tasks and involve in implementation
  • I: Input – Bring in ideas / thoughts for the task, low level contribution
  • R: Review – Review tasks output and adjustment
  • S: Sign-off – Authorize the task completion or further requirements

Some tips to help team members to clarify their roles and responsibilities


  • Is this a new or existing team?
  • Is this a temporary or permanent team? (Project vs. Functional)
  • Who is the sponsor of the team?
  • Describe the team objective and the metrics that will be used (e.g. timeframe, budget, specifications).
  • How does this team fit within the organization?
    • How will the team communicate? (set up meetings if necessary?)
    • What resources are needed? (are they available? who will get them?)
  • Team members (full time/part time).
  • Role/Skills/Development Path/Motivated by.


  • Choose meeting time and location (when will it least impact productivity)?
    • Send meeting notification, include agenda.
  • Ask each team member to describe their role.
    • Why is this role important to the project?
    • What is the measure of success?
  • Ensure that everyone agrees on their own and the role of other team members.
    • Write roles and responsibilities on board.
    • Review communication protocol.
    • Review actions (deadlines and commitments).
  • Encourage camaraderie/collaboration.


Be available for support!

Performance Criteria

2.6 Finalise project plan and gain necessary approvals to commence project according to documented plan


Before you start implementing your project, make sure that you communicate the plan to relevant stakeholders and that you are given the necessary approval for the project to go ahead. This may include:

  • Submitting reports/presentations to management or other stakeholders
  • Conducting a project approval meeting.

The key to project approval meetings is to be ready with options and alternatives for finishing earlier, spending less money and using alternative resources. Good project managers are eager to change the plan to fit senior management needs and preferences as long as the scope, budget and duration are feasible. Remember, trade-offs are important!

Ensure what you have created meets the shareholders’ needs:

  • Have I prepared the plan in accordance with stakeholder expectations, organisational standards and relevant industry regulations?
  • Is the plan in a format that is accessible to stakeholders?
  • Who is responsible for granting approval to the project plan?
  • Does the plan contain all the information needed by those responsible to sign-off on it?
  • What processes need to be followed for the plan to be approved?


When to gain approval:

  • Prepare and make a presentation for stakeholders
  • Consult specialists within your organisation about project planning procedures
  • Attend a panel interview where several stakeholders ask you questions about the plan
  • Submit completed documents to your sponsor and discuss in detail every aspect of the plan
  • Attend meetings with individual stakeholders to discuss different aspects of the plan in detail
  • Make yourself available to answer queries by telephone, email or in person

Element 3. Administer and monitor project

It is important that project managers are able to manage their team and activities through meetings, communicating, supporting, and helping with decisions (but not making them for people who can make them for themselves).

One of the big challenges for a project manager is deciding how much independence to give for each specific task. Stringent parameters and lots of checking are necessary for team members who like clear instructions, but this approach may result in the kiss of death to experienced, entrepreneurial and creative people. For the latter, they tend to prefer a wider brief, more freedom, and less checking.

Manage people by the results they get – not how they get them. It is important for project managers to differentiate in personality and working styles in their team.

Misunderstanding personal styles can get in the way of team cooperation (that’s why their role here is to enable and translate). Face-to-face meetings, when you can bring team members together, are generally the best way to avoid issues and relationships becoming too personalised and emotional. It is important to constantly communicate the progress and successes of the project regularly to everyone.

Give the people in your team the recognition, particularly when someone high up expresses satisfaction, while trying not to accept plaudits yourself. Conversely, a good project manager must be able to stand up and take the blame for anything that goes wrong – and be sure to never ‘dump’ problems or stresses on anyone in the project team. As project manager, any problem is always ultimately down to you anyway.

Use empathy and conflict handling techniques, and look out for signs of stress and manage it accordingly. A happy, positive team with a basic plan will outperform a miserable team with a brilliant plan every time.





Performance Criteria

3.1 Take action to ensure project team members are clear about their responsibilities and the project requirements

3.2 Provide support for project team members, especially with regard to specific needs, to ensure that the quality of the expected outcomes of the project and documented time lines are met



You may want to commence implementation with a meeting to ‘kick-off’ the project and reiterate the project details with the team.

An effective start-up meeting will ensure that all project team members have an understanding of:

  • The project objectives
  • Scope and constraints
  • Roles and responsibilities in the project
  • Work plan (deliverables and milestones)
  • Tracking their project time
  • Finding project documentation

They should have a good handle on the details but may need to be refocused since considerable time may have passed between planning and implementation.

People have spent their lives studying the dynamics of team interactions, how teams form and develop, and the skills needed for team members to be successful. When thought about from this perspective, it is hard to fathom how leaders can ever master these complexities.

On the other hand, people have been working in groups for a very long time, and so while complex, there are things people to do work together better, and so there are things that we as leaders can do to support those efforts

Expect and encourage teamwork.


It is difficult to expect people to come together as effective teams if there isn’t a clear and definitive expectation of the importance of that. It may seem obvious to you, but you probably know what assuming can do… if you want great teams, start by making your expectations clear. Then make sure you are encouraging teamwork through your conversations, feedback, recognition and rewards systems and more. Expectations are great, but your daily actions will show how important teamwork is to you and your organization.

Source: http://blog.kevineikenberry.com/leadership/six-ways-leaders-can-support-team-success/

Be committed to team success and help grow the commitment of others.


The best teams are committed to their success and to each other. Are you committed to both of those things? As the leader of a team you are also part of the team, too.  Yes your role is different, but are you all in for the team? If you aren’t, how can you expect them to be? While being committed yourself is important, you must recognize the importance of this commitment and engagement and encourage it in others as well. This may require conversations, coaching and even conflict resolution, but doing the things that help teams become more committed to the work and each other will pay huge dividends in results.


Create a team vision and help people personalize it.


A team can be committed and “get along” and do great work, but if they aren’t moving in a direction that is the desired direction for overall organizational success, they are less effective than they could be. Whether you set the goals or involve them in setting them, no team can succeed without them. Goals alone aren’t enough however. We must help people connect their personal work to the goals of the team and the vision of the organization. Our role as leaders is to help make that happen.


Focus on relationships and encourage others to do the same.


Often leaders make the mistake that if people get to know each other, they will get along better and most, if not all, team problems will melt like the Wicked Witch of the West. While many consultants make a living based on this basic premise, it is short sighted and incomplete. That said, relationships among team members matter and will aid in team development and success. If you want highly successful teams, be a relationship builder and allow time and space for team members to build relationships while they accomplish tasks.


Be available to help and let your team grow independent of you.


Your team will need you, you are committed and are excited and believe in the goals of the team.  You must have time and invest time in your team. And . . . you must leave them alone. Don’t micromanage them. People grow and learn with help, but you can’t do things for them. Give them space, opportunity and be patient. Finding this balance may be a challenge, but remember that as they learn and grow you are leveraging that learning for the lifetime of the team.


Be supportive and encourage team members to support each other.


Be supportive both of the team as a whole, which we have already talked about in several ways, but also of the individuals on the team. Remember that a team is made up of individuals, and when you support them you are building their confidence and creating positive attitudes. Since you know that confidence and a positive attitude and energy will improve individual (and team) results, it is important that you not only do this, but help people do the same for each other. Creating this upward spiral or support and encouragement will grow your team’s results as fast as almost any other thing, and it starts with you.


Pick something on this list and get started, and I recommend you start with the thing you feel least comfortable with, then make a plan to integrate all of these actions into your ongoing team leadership approach. You will create tremendous team results and learn a lot for yourself too.

Plans will only be effective if the project team members are consulted and the benefits of their views, opinions and experiences are sought and used in the planning phrase

  • New skills can be discovered
  • Establish a culture of co-operation
  • Keep in touch with all members (project newsletter or email)
  • Discuss timelines (realistic or unrealistic)
  • Discuss resources allocated (are they sufficient)
  • Manage consultation with team

Support team members, use different techniques

  • Supervision involves holding informal or formal discussions with team members to track their progress: monitor the output of individuals or groups within the team and track individual or group progress against set goals and objectives
  • Mentoring includes gaining an understanding of team members’ own aspirations and goals and assigning tasks and challenges that help them achieve their objectives. You may appoint a more experienced person to provide guidance to another team member on an ongoing basis.
  • Coaching essentially means working with each individual to help them reach their full potential, which is of benefit to the team member as well as the project. Coaching involves determining areas of weakness or skills gaps; helping to improve skills and supporting team member efforts to learn new techniques and work practices

Performance Criteria

3.3 Establish and maintain required record-keeping systems throughout the project


A certain amount of record keeping and core documentation is required in any project. We have attempted to keep the proposed documentation to the minimum essential in order to define and manage the project and measure its success.

Well-managed records will not only help you manage a project, they will help you and/or others the next time round. Many projects are repeated or have certain aspects that have been done or researched before. Well organised and accessible records allow people to review what has gone before and either avoid pitfalls or see how to get out of them. Many managers new to project management may be asking ‘How much time will be devoted to filling in forms or records. The real question however is ‘How important are the forms and records?’

Most of the key documents associated with your project will:

  • be referred to repeatedly during the course of the project
  • need updating periodically

This includes the Business Case, Project Plan, Risk and Issue logs and possibly many other documents. The possibility for error by having different versions of documents ‘floating about’ a project’s team members and management is too high not to address it with a little formality. Even in today’s electronic environment, many people prefer to read documents on paper and they will be printed out in multiple copies, put in desk drawers or filing cabinets and pulled out again at some point whether the latest version or not.

It is important therefore to apply some Information and Records Management techniques to all project documentation, to ensure that there is an authoritative source of the latest version and that the master of each document is kept safely.

In a large project it is probably best to ensure that someone within the team has special responsibility for version control, storage of master copies of documents etc. In a small project, the Project Manager may be able to fulfill this role. In an organisation running many projects or programmes, this function can be handled by a dedicated Support Office, with staff who will handle the files, logs and records for multiple projects or programmes.

Performance criteria

3.4 Implement and monitor plans for managing project finances, resources and quality


Monitoring the budget

After you have developed your budget and it has been approved, you will need to ensure that your income does not exceed your expenditure. Even if your budget was realistic, you might have unexpected costs or earn less income than planned. To avoid serious financial difficulties, it is important to monitor your budget regularly to make sure that it is still accurate.

The management committee is responsible for monitoring the organisations finances by checking the financial reports provided by the Treasurer. These reports should show the monthly income and expenditure as well as amounts for the year to date. You will also have responsibilities under the Associations Incorporation Act to provide certain financial information at the end of each financial year.

Project income and expenditure will be included as part of the organisations financial reports but will also need to be monitored separately. Financial reports for the project may be prepared by staff but will need to be checked by a manager or the management committee. If the project is being funded by another organisation, they will usually expect financial reports during or at the end of the project.

If there are differences between the organisations budget and actual amounts, you will need to understand the reason why this has occurred and look at ways to either cut down on your expenses or earn more income. If there are changes to your project budget, you will probably be expected to let the funding body know as soon as possible and it might affect the conditions of your grant.

Developing realistic budgets can help your organisation to run effective short-term projects and continue to deliver services into the long-term future.


Managing Quality

We have previously mentioned Time, Resources and Quality as key factors in project management. Assessing performance in terms of time and resources is relatively easy but quality is harder to define and measure. A high quality project may be one whose outputs:

  • Meet the specification
  • Meet stakeholder requirements

Or alternatively one whose outputs:

  • Are fit for purpose
  • Satisfy the stakeholders

These don’t all mean the same thing. The chances of the initial specification being correct or indeed of the stakeholders being able to adequately articulate their real needs are slight. We warned earlier of the dangers of hitting the targets but missing the point. Managing quality is about keeping an eye on the bigger picture and aiming for outputs that are in line with the second definition.


Elements of managing quality within a project include:

  • A formal project management framework
  • Adoption of recognised standards where they exist
  • User Acceptance procedures
  • Impartial evaluation

Many projects have some form of external quality assurance role built into the project structure. This could be external to the organisation e.g. a third party consultant or simply external to the project. Ideally such an assessor should be impartial and have experience of project management. Remember this person is only evaluating quality the Project Manager is responsible for quality.

Acceptance Criteria

For each phase of the project you are likely to need to define acceptance criteria that allow you to determine whether the deliverables have been produced to an acceptable standard.

There could be many elements to the acceptance criteria and it is likely that there will be required quality standards for many sub-products in addition to the final project outcome. As an example, a project to streamline a business process may have as sub-products: a set of paper forms for capturing data, a computerised information system with requirements for each data entry screen and a set of report outputs.


Acceptance criteria can take many forms, but a few examples could be:

  • target date
  • functions required
  • performance levels
  • capacity
  • downtime/availability
  • running cost
  • security levels
  • level of skill required to operate

User Acceptance Testing

In many projects, particularly those that involve system implementation or process review, the assessment of product quality can be made via a formal User Acceptance Test (UAT). A formal UAT involves defining a ‘script’ that gives an end-to-end test of the business process or system. UAT is usually an iterative process rather than a one-off as users work through the script and document any errors or issues. When all the issues are resolved the test is formally signed-off. When implementing a system the UAT scripts are likely to be largely based on the test scripts used to select the system in the first place..

Defined and measurable acceptance criteria and formal sign-off procedures, based on fitness for purpose, are important if you are to avoid the scope-creep associated with users trying to introduce ‘nice-to-have’ features at the last minute. Involvement in UAT also helps to give users a feeling of ownership and to manage their expectations of the project.

Performance Criteria

3.5 Complete and forward project reports as required to stakeholders



It is the time to complete project reports and communicate progress with stakeholders. Project report is an essential document to keep stakeholders up-to-date, in regards to:

  • Project objectives
  • Project scope
  • Key milestones and deliverables
  • Timeline/Schedule
  • Budget
  • Resource allocation
  • Risk management plan
  • Project progress
  • And any major changes need to inform all stakeholder


For example: Status reports

A status report is often a one- to two-page document that provides an overview progress on a project. The format normally incorporates the following three sections.

  1. What we did last period.
  2. What we’re doing next period.
  3. Issues we’re working on now.

The report is formatted to allow stakeholders and team members to quickly assess a project’s status, progress, and key current activities.

Many project managers use special software (such as MS Project) to track progress on project tasks as well as for project reporting

Different methods to communicate project report with stakeholders:

  • Face to face informal communication
  • Meetings, Tele-conference
  • Formal briefings
  • Emails, Newsletters
  • Manuals and informal project documents
  • Project blogs


Performance criteria

3.6 Undertake risk management as required to ensure project outcomes are met



Based on the risk management plan formulated at project planning stage, we are now able to undertake risk management to ensure the plan has been thoroughly followed, risk events have been correctly assessed and mitigation plans are properly conducted.

In order to effectively manage risk it is important that each risk is allocated to an identified owner. This should be someone within the project team whose responsibility it is to keep an eye on the situation and ensure that the necessary mitigating actions are actually carried out. Responses to the initial risk assessment may include:

  • Risk Transfer – move the risk to someone more able to deal with it e.g. contract out the supply and support of the hardware infrastructure
  • Risk Deferral – alter the plan to move some activities to a later date when the risk might be lessened e.g. wait till a statutory change has ‘bedded-in’ before changing a related process
  • Risk Reduction – Either reduce the probability of the risk occurring or lessen the impact e.g. increase staffing resource on the project
  • Risk Acceptance – Sometimes there’s not a lot you can do other than accept the risk and ensure that contingency plans are in place
  • Risk Avoidance – Eliminate the possibility of the risk occurring e.g. use alternative resources or technologies

Prepare the team to implement the risk management plan.

  • Through regular review and assessment of risk


It is important to ensure risk management plans remain current and become a regular aspect of the performance reporting and review of a project, with responsibility for particular risk mitigation activities assigned to individuals who are accountable to the programme or project owner

  • Throughout the course of implementation


Risks identification should continue to occur to take account of changing circumstances so the risk plan should identify who is responsible for its maintenance and at what points it will be reviewed.


Managing risk is an ongoing process. The nature of the risks you are facing will alter as the project progresses e.g. staff recruitment may be a big issue at the start of a project whereas staff retention is the issue as the project draws near to an end. At the very minimum you should review your risk assessment and management plan at each stage boundary before moving into the next stage of the project.


Performance criteria

3.7 Achieve project deliverables


Project implementation involves coordinating people, resources, integrating, performing, controlling and monitoring the activities of the project plan, ensuring that the deliverables are produced as outputs of the processes, performed in accordance with the project plan.

The project manager is accountable for achieving the project outcomes:


  • On time
  • Under budget
  • To agreed specifications



Therefore, a critical aspect of managing projects is to ensure that project activities are properly executed and controlled. Items to manage therefore include:


  • Time
  • Costs
  • Communication


Project monitoring is a process. It needs to be done regularly and consistently. Setting the boundaries of the monitoring process is critical from the outset of your projects. Plan how you will monitor progress right along with how you will accomplish the work. Set the process in motion and keep it moving from the beginning.


Element 4. Finalise project

A project has a beginning (Project Start-up) a middle (the iterative loop of Planning, Managing, Controlling, Reporting and Re-planning) and an end (Project Closure). This may be stating the obvious but we can probably all think of projects that have either gone on since time immemorial or simply faded away. Without senior management involvement there is no one to pull the plug on resources. Such projects enter a downward spiral in that they are seen to be a farce and soon everyone apart from the Project Manager (who feels they must carry on because they haven’t been told to bring the project to a close) stops engaging with it or taking an active part. Turning up to a meeting that no one else attends is not the way to find out a project has finished…

And to ensure the success of the project and the value of lessons learnt, project closure involves three processes: commissioning, handover and project evaluation. Project closure should be planned.

  • The users/customers have formally accepted all outcomes
  • Operational procedures are in place
  • The handover to operational staff has been completed
  • Documentation and reference material is in place
  • Any further actions and recommendations are documented and disseminated
  • The results are disseminated to relevant people
  • There are no loose ends

Project closure can be a very hectic time when reporting is on a daily (or even more frequent) basis and the manager is working at a much lower level of detail than previously (probably with itemised check-lists) to ensure that all loose ends are tied up but planning for this phase must commence much earlier on.

Performance Criteria

4.1 Complete financial record keeping associated with project and check for accuracy



Projects are about achieving certain goals using limited and predetermined resources within a set period of time. Financial records must be finalized to ensure that:

  • Financial data have been maintained in accordance with your project plans and according to any guidelines or standards you have been asked to follow
  • The data is in a state that will make it possible to accurately compare planned and actual expenditure
  • The data is accurate and supported by evidence such as invoices, remittance advices or log sheets of hours worked
  • Documents can be easily transferred or copied to departments within your organisation, in formats that are easily accessible, for auditing and checking as per your organisation’s standard financial practices.
  • All financial records are prepared and presented in accordance with legislative requirements

Checking financial records for accuracy

  • Internal audits

Whether conducted by yourself or your organisation’s accountant, audits are a means of verifying the accuracy and validity of financial records and ensuring that the records match actual expenditure.

  • External audits
    In some circumstances it is mandatory that financial records are audited by a certified public accountant external to the organisation to determine whether the records and reports are accurate and valid, comply with any relevant legislation and fairly represent the project’s operation and financial position.


Performance Criteria

4.2 Ensure transition of staff involved in project to new roles or reassignment to previous roles


Human Resource Issues

The tendency to escape before closure is completed is very high amongst members of the project team, contractors and suppliers!

The end of the project is also the start of routine use of the outcomes. The handover to staff who will carry out normal operations must also be planned so that those staff feel ownership of the project outcomes and are ready to champion them.

Where personnel have been seconded to a large project for a period of time there can be a significant adjustment period on return to their normal working environments. This can be due to the different pace. Projects can create exciting and intense work environments. Alternatively it can be due to anxiousness over the viability of returning to a previous position in the organisation and loss of contact with former colleagues and with the department.

When personnel are seconded on a full-time basis to a large project from elsewhere in the organisation it is important that they are permitted to maintain links with their functional unit, by attending regular meetings and staff functions.

Performance Criteria

4.3 Complete project documentation and obtain necessary sign-offs for concluding project


Once all remaining activities have been completed, and you are confident all project outcomes and deliverables have been achieved and the financial data associated with the project has been checked for accuracy, it is time for the project to be signed off and formally concluded. It will then be reviewed and analysed for future learning and continuous improvement purposes

Depending on the nature and scope of your project, you may need to obtain sign-off for the project from numerous individuals or groups such as clients, customers, funding bodies, management or project sponsors. Project managers need to identify the sign-off protocols and requirements during the planning phase.  If the organisation received funds for the project, you will have to submit a financial acquittal statement to show where the money was spent. This may require specific forms and procedures you need to follow such as having the finances independently audited


Element 5. Review project

Performance criteria

5.1 Review project outcomes and processes against the project scope and plan

5.2 Involve team members in the project review

5.3 Document lessons learned from the project and report within the organisation


In many cases the benefits (or unexpected problems) of a project can’t be assessed until the change has been in place for some time. The review process is therefore incomplete without a post project review and evaluation. This is required to check whether:

  • outcomes are those expected
  • projected benefits have occurred
  • operational working is as planned
  • costs are as expected

The Project Sponsor has overall responsibility for ensuring that the desired business benefits are achieved and it may be the Sponsor who leads the review, particularly if the Project Manager has gone on to other duties.

The review will also highlight any unanticipated issues and highlight any further changes required.Perhaps it will even provide the stimulus for your next project…

Sample Post project review form is available:



Knowledge Management

The final phase of the project provides the opportunity to capture and transfer project knowledge for use in future projects.

Evidence suggests that of the information captured on projects only a very small percentage is stored appropriately and even less converted to useful data to inform future projects.


Archiving Project Records
Once the project has been completed provision should be made to archive the files. Project information should be entered into an appropriate database. The establishment of centralised databases is particularly important for technical projects as information about the installation conditions in one technical area can seriously affect a project from another technical area. Quick and easy access to data about installations is essential if disasters are to be averted.


A ‘Lessons Learned’ report gathers all information that may be useful to other projects. It documents what went well and what went badly and why. It describes methods used to estimate, to plan, to manage and control the project and how effective/efficient they were. It contains any recommendations for future projects to either take up, or avoid, ways of working and should contain some measurement of how much effort was required to produce the various products or process changes.

The Issues and Risk logs will be of immense value in producing this report. A further technique is to interview various stakeholders and members of the Project Team, Project Board and User Group to ask for their opinions

















Another model to oversee project processes:

Source: http://www2.cit.cornell.edu/computer/robohelp/cpmm/PM-lifecycle-overall-small.htm


Sample Project Plan


Pacific Senior Health Officials Network
Nutrition Project


Project statement


To undertake a scoping study to identify the current food environment and context, programs, resources and communication practices in Pacific Island countries.


Relevant outcome/ partnership area/s


The project will inform the identification of possible niche areas of focus for the Pacific Senior Health Officials Network, with the aim of contributing to improved governance and a more strategic approach to the promotion of healthy eating.


The project has been funded under the Pacific Governance Support Program (PGSP) by the Australian Agency for International Development (AUSAID). The PGSP was established to provide funding for governance activities linking Australian Government Agencies directly with Pacific counterparts and supporting shared regional governance approaches.

Document Revision History


Version Date Prepared by Comments
1 28/07/05 L White  
2 13/10/05 L White Edited following project approval by PSHON

Project scope


The purpose of the project is to:

  • Establish collaborative relationships at project officer level to improve implementation of public health nutrition interventions in the Pacific.
  • Provide an area where the Pacific Senior Health Officials Network (PSHON) can best
    add value to public health nutrition in the region, contributing to good governance.
  • Examine the feasibility of developing regional communications strategy and resources for use in health promotion activities.

Key performance indicator/s

  • Countries participating in scoping study and providing relevant information and comments on draft report.
  • Report provided to PSHON.


Achievement of the project purpose should contribute to the following benefits:

  • More accessible network of public health nutritionists to share information and resources across the Pacific.
  • A clear indication of a beneficial role for the PSHON in public health nutrition.
  • A picture of the need for and/or suitability of a regional approach to nutrition promotion in the Pacific.


Adequate, nutritious food is fundamental to promote good health and help prevent disease. In the Pacific, the shift away from consumption of locally produced foods has been shown to increase obesity.

Poor nutrition comes at a significant cost – to individuals and to nations. In Australia, the financial burden of diet related heart disease, stroke and cancer was estimated in 2002 by the National Health and Medical Research Council to be about $6 billion per year.

The significant health risks include:

  • Type 2 diabetes
  • coronary heart disease
  • stroke; and
  • some cancers, just to name a few.

Yet, chronic disease due to poor diet is largely preventable. That’s why we need to promote healthy eating and physical activity, especially to young people, before their behaviours result in unhealthy weight or disease.

The Tonga Commitment to Promote Healthy Lifestyles and Supportive

nutrition. The Commitment states:

An obvious trend being experienced throughout the Pacific is the increasing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases, including diabetes:

  • Type 2 diabetes appears in Pacific Island countries at levels that exceed most other countries in the world.
  • Cardiovascular disease is the predominant cause of death in most Pacific Island
  • Obesity is so common in Pacific societies as to appear normal. Overweight and obesity have been recorded at levels that exceed 80% (males) and 90% (females) of the adult population, and is being increasingly recorded in children.
  • Up to 60% of the health budget in some countries of the Pacific is spent on overseas referrals of patients, often with chronic disease, particularly diabetes.

The evidence for prevention is overwhelming:

  • Lifestyle interventions can reduce the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in high-risk populations by up to 58% in four to six years.
  • Weight reduction through a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions can reduce obesity in high-risk populations within one year.

The Tonga Commitment made the following recommendations to promote healthy diets:

  • National and community-level awareness-raising and advocacy for intervention.
  • Assessment of the nutritional value of local foods leading to the promotion of healthy traditional food use and cooking methods.
  • Implementation of national food and nutrition policies and legislation encompassing food security, safety, marketing practices, labelling, and nutritional standards. This project may assist in addressing the first two recommendations.

At the meeting of Pacific Senior Health Officials Network in November 2004 members expressed interest in:

  • strategic approaches to promoting good nutrition,
  • collaboration to promote healthy eating amongst Pacific Island peoples, and
  • promoting consumption of local foods.

The Nutrition Project was proposed to address these areas of interest and to help with progress against the Tonga Commitment.



The aim of the Nutrition Project is to work in collaboration with Pacific Ministries of Health to:

  1. Examine options for health eating promotion through:

assessing the feasibility of a regional healthy eating communication strategy based on the needs and culture of member countries and existing activities,

  • study of regional resources for promoting healthy eating and potential for common communications messages, and
  • researching the role of local nutritionists in health promotion activities.
  1. Recommend areas for collaborative action for the Network by identifying regional needs and gaps in existing measures.


The Project would acknowledge the need to:

  • coordinate with existing strategies, committees and health promotion centres,
  • involve Pacific Islander people with nutrition expertise,
  • involve Departments of Agriculture and Fisheries regarding local food promotion,
  • focus on nutrition issues rather than weight, and
  • consider different requirements in individual Pacific countries.

By the end of the project we will have:

  • Established collaborative relationships with key personnel to foster long-term links,
  • Identified existing initiatives to promote healthy eating in the Pacific (existing programs, activities and resources/publication),
  • Gathered information on food supply, eating patterns and nutrition of key population groups,
  • Considered gaps in the available information and made recommendations for further studies,
  • Determined communication objectives and shared needs within the region,
  • Identified a potential regional response, and
  • Made recommendations for further action based on findings.

Key performance indicators

  • Links established with major partners.
  • Identified programs/initiatives relating to healthy eating promotion.
  • Showcase of programs identified and information documented.
  • Project report written, which includes analysis and recommendations for the PSHON.




  • Contact and establish working relationships with key nutrition staff in participating countries,
  • Utilise existing expertise to share and access information (ie SPC and WPRO),
  • Join relevant mailing lists and discussion groups if available,
  • Research relevant topics to inform reporting,
  • Visit Fiji, Papua New Guinea and Kiribati to highlight focus of study,
  • Partner with Pacific Island colleagues to prepare and finalise reports, and

Environments (WHOWPR 2003) provides a context for activity targeting Consider opportunity of progress with high level support from PSHON.


  • That all stakeholders will be actively involved and support the PSHON Nutrition Project.
  • That funding will be available to implement recommendations.


  • Funding at present is only secured for 5 months.
  • Not all stakeholders may want to be actively involved.
  • The scope of the Nutrition Project may be difficult to obtain agreement from all members of PSHON.


  • Communication with Pacific Island staff may be difficult (due to technology, timeframes and cultural preferences).


  • The project will not be able to address issues around economic trade and import/export of food between Pacific Islands and Australia or New Zealand. This has been raised as a significant issue but is outside the scope of the project.
  • The preparation of nutrition strategies for countries without them is also outside the scope of the project.

Related activity/projects

  • A proposal, Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health (DPAS) Implementation from the WHO has been received by AusAID. The requested budget is A$150,000 to support countries in the Western Pacific Region to implement the strategy for the prevention and control of chronic, non-communicable diseases. Activities are based on the WHRO DPAS implementation plan developed by Marion Dunlop and Western Pacific Regional Office staff.

Project partners/clients/stakeholders


  • Pacific Senior Health Officials Network (PSHON)
  • Australian Government Health Department colleagues (PHD & International Branch)
  • AusAID
  • Pacific Island Governments/Health Departments
  • Current Pacific Island nutrition workforce

Other stakeholders

  • WPRO – WHO
  • Secretariat of the Pacific Community
  • Universities and Training Institutes
  • Food industry
  • NGO’s: Diabetes Australia, ANF, Heart Foundation
  • DAA
  • PHAA
  • Local Governments in Pacific
  • Pacific Island Governments/Agriculture and Fisheries Departments
  • Pacific Island Governments/ Environmental Departments (health)
  • Pacific Island Governments/Education Departments

Project timeframe

5 months (August 2004-December 2005)

Note: Project timeframes have been affected by the delay in endorsement of the project and in selection of the countries to be analysed. A report to the PSHON at the meeting to be scheduled in March 2006 is required.


Project costs

  Item Costs1
1. Investment by permanent staff (FTE estimates only) 1.0
2. Project budget:  
a) Temporary project staff – APS EL1 $30,810
b) Associated non labour and corporate overheads (includes on costs) $5,085
c) Other – travel and production of reports $9,800
  Project budget-total A$46,108

Additional funding of $10,000 will be provided by AUSAID to support travel for a regional expert to participate in the research tour of selected Pacific Island countries to facilitate local ownership of the Project and improve communication.

Resource contribution from stakeholders

Staff time of PSHON committee and Pacific Departmental staff. Assistance where required from AusAID staff.

Estimated margin of error

+/- 5%

Cost implications post-project

Costs will not be identified as part of this project.

Overall project risk

The overall risk to this project is low-moderate.















Part B: Project Management

Human resource management


  1. Structure

This project will be managed by the Nutrition Section, DoHA in collaboration with the Pacific Island Regional Expert. Advice will be provided to the section through the Pacific network staff involved.

Roles and responsibilities

Project role Name/s Responsibilities
Project Sponsor Pacific Senior Health Officials Network ·           Provide representation on behalf of their country.

·           Advise country contacts.

·           Consider recommendations provided.

Project Officer Leticia White ·           Develop and agree project objectives and brief with AusAID and Network members.

·           Collaborate with identified Pacific Island
stakeholders to undertake the project.

·           Provide nutritional expertise.

·           Visit selected countries to inform preparation of the report.

·           In collaboration with the Network member countries develop a report with recommendations on possible areas of focus for the Network.

Pacific Island Regional Expert Wila Saweri ·           Work with the Australian Health Department project officer to provide expertise, information and advice on existing activities.

·           Assist in developing a program of appointments for the detailed analysis in nominated countries.

·           Take part in the study tour of up to three selected countries.

·           Work with the small group and the Australian Health Department project officer to develop recommendations on possible further work for consideration by the Network.

·           Collaborate with the Australian Health Department project officer to prepare and comment on the report.


  1. c) Key decision points (ie. higher authority)
Project role Name/s Responsibilities
Detailed Analysis Selected Countries –

Project Advisory Group

Republic of the Fiji Islands – Nisha Khan

Papua New Guinea –

Wila Saweri Kiribati –

Tinai iuta Metai

·           Work with the Australian Health Department project officer to provide expertise, information and advice on existing activities.

·           Assist in developing a program of appointments for the detailed analysis.

·           As part of a small group work with the

Australian Health Department project officer to develop recommendations on possible further work for consideration by the Network.

·           Provide strategic advice regarding the progress of the project.

·           Collaborate with the Australian Health Department project officer to prepare and comment on draft reports.

·           Provide timely feedback on drafts

·           Ensure the information about the project is shared with other internal and external partners including Network representatives.


member Pacific Ministries of Health

Samoa Vanuatu

Republic of Nauru

Solomon Islands

Kingdom of Tonga


New Zealand

·           Work with the Australian Health Department project officer to provide expertise, information and advice on existing activities.

·           Collaborate with the Australian Health Department project officer to comment on the report.

·           Provide ongoing feedback to the Network

Italicised countries not confirmed.

Manager Lesley Paton ·          Provide day to day supervision and guidance.
Liaison Point Policy & International Branch

Beth Slatyer Anna Bauze

·           Provide liaison point to PSHON.

·           Provide liaison point with AUSAID.

·           Provide advice on international liaison.

·           Manage funds provided for project and travel.

Risk management

Risk Risk Management Activities
Key stakeholders won’t support/commit to project Actively communicate benefits from being involved with project and ensure key stakeholders are kept informed of progress
Project partners/ Project Advisory Group members do not actively contribute High level advocacy and active promotion of value of being involved with PSHON

Quality management

Quality standards/benchmarks/guidelines

  • Good communication practices
  • Timely dissemination of information/reports

Communication management


What How With/To Whom When/how often
PIC Contacts Email/fax   As needed
Project Advisory Group meetings Teleconference? Email   Monthly? As needed
Progress Reports Email/paper   As scheduled

Information management

Document Type/Name Electronic Location Hard copy location
Nutrition Project Plan S/Subsections/Nutrition/Pacific Nutrition Project PSHON/Project Admin/ Nutrition Project Plan File, Health CO
Nutrition Project Report S/Subsections/Nutrition/Pacific Nutrition Project PSHON/Project Papers/ Nutrition Project Report File, Health CO

Procurement and cost management




Costs will be managed by Internationals Branch with liaison with AusAID when necessary.


Recommendations and decisions

Recommendations (project manager)
Next Step

Progress to implementation Cease


Prepared by


Unit/Network: Date:

Cleared by (if relevant)
Name: Position: Signed: Date:
Approval/decision (higher authority)
Next Step

Progress to implementation phase Revise project plan and present again Cease


Project manager2

Project sponsor2

Resources approved?

Yes               Amount $



Parameters of project manager authority Time:




Name: Position: Signed: Date:

References/Recommended resources for this unit:

Agile & Project Management Resources: cPrime project management resourses, books and recommendation readings. https://www.cprime.com/training/online/project-management-professional-pmp-online/

Mullaly, M E. (2003). The Accidental Project Manager: Coming in from the Cold. Ganthead. http://www.gantthead.com/article.cfm?ID=165059

Turner, J Rodney. (1999). The Handbook of Project-Based Management, Second Edition. McGraw Hill.




Chapter 3 – Management responsibilities

Max Lionel, CEO

Max is responsible for working with the Board of Directors to oversee the business, set overall strategic directions, manage risk, and authorise large financial transactions.

Riz Mehra, Chief Financial Officer

Riz is responsible for preparing quarterly financial statements and overall budgeting. Riz Is also responsible for overseeing budgets for cost centres and individual projects. At the completion of financial quarters and at the end of projects, Riz is responsible for viewing budget variation reports and incorporating information into financial statements and financial projections.

Kim Sweeney, Operations General Manager

Kim is responsible for the day-to-day running of the company. Kim oversees the coordination, as well as the structural separation, of the Residential, Commercial, and Investments centres. Kim is responsible for sponsoring projects which affect operations of the organisation as a whole. Kim works with the Human Resources Manager to coordinate systems and projects in order to achieve company-wide synergy.

Les Goodale, Human Resources Manager

Les is responsible for the productive capacity and welfare of people at MLR. With the Operations General Manager, Kim works to coordinate projects and management systems such as performance management, recruitment, and induction. Kim will need to ensure aspects of the recently launched WHS management system, such as risk assessment, management, consulting, reporting and continuous improvement, are coordinated with all subsequent activities.

Sam Lee, Manager Residential Realty

Sam is responsible for the management of all aspects of residential realty. Sam manages the activities of residential agents.

Pat Misfud, Manager Commercial Realty

Pat is responsible for the management of all aspects commercial realty. Pat manages the activities of commercial agents.

Peter Mitchell, Manager Investments

Peter is responsible for the management of all aspects investment realty. Peter manages the activities of investment agents. Peter works with the Operations General Manager to ensure separation of investment from obligations to residential and commercial clients.

Chapter 4 – Budget summary

Max Lionel Realty 2013–2014 budget by activities to be undertaken

Commissions, fees from clients $2,566,000 Commissions and agents’ fees for the period.
Investment  income $1,567,000 Real estate investment income.
COGS $150,413 Cost of provision of services.
Total Income $3,982,587 Gross profit.
Wages, salaries and on costs $1,567,890 Wages, salaries, superannuation, work cover insurance, payroll tax.
Consultancy fees $50,000 Project management: WHS management system; AD awareness program.
Communication expenses $42,000 Telephone, ISP costs, IT support.
Staff travel, transport and accommodation. $55,500 Cost of staff travel and associated costs for sales, etc.
Premises expenses $250,000 Rent, electricity, maintenance, cleaning.
Capital expenditure $120,000 Purchase of new office equipment (90%), vehicles; purchase of properties, land.
Depreciation and amortisation $177,569 Computers and capital equipment that is depreciated.
Office supplies $65,068 Printing and stationery, postage, amenities.
Professional fees (consultants, legal and audit), insurances, taxes and charges, subscriptions and memberships. $62,187 Audit fees, external accounting costs, bank charges, insurance except workers compensation.
Total Expenses $2,390,214
Surplus $1,592,373 Net income before tax.


Chapter 5 – Operational plan

Max Lionel Realty operational plan (summary) FY 2013 – 2014
  Objectives: Performance measures Tasks:
1 Engage with customers/build ethical profile:

●      raise organisational profile by 20%

●      improve client satisfaction performance by 25%.

●      Percentage of brand recognition in sought-after categories in periodic customer surveys.

●      Percentage of customers with positive view of organisational responsiveness, innovation, quality.

●      Number of client/tenant complaints.

●      Project to raise awareness of anti-discrimination, WHS and other legislation/codes of conduct among agents, clients, tenants.

●      Conduct of quarterly surveys: clients and tenants.

●      Training needs analysis and training of agents.

●      Ensure agents disclose potential conflict of interest to clients, tenants.

●      Development of ethical charter, including principles all agents must follow.

2 Increase revenues by 20% within the third quarter. ●      Total income.

●      Agent income.

●      Investment income.

●      Investigate resourcing needs: number of agents; personnel; office equipment, cars, etc.

●      Fulfil resourcing needs in accordance with policies and procedures.

3 Reduce direct and indirect costs of operations by 10%. ●      General ledger accounts; financial statements:

○     wages

○     cost of agent services

○     consultancy fees

○     wastage and associated expenses.

●      Renegotiate with suppliers.

●      Research potential new suppliers.

●      Management engagement with employees to achieve greater employee support of organisational goals.

●      Include explanation of how activities work with organisational strategic goals in all communications to internal personnel.

●      Greater use by managers of budgets to encourage restraint.

●      Greater focus on budget restraint in management of projects.

4 Engage workers with strategic goals of business and support professional development in line with strategic goals. (Targets to be set by individual managers.) ●      Percentage completion of performance plans and performance management process.

●      Numbers of coaching sessions completed.

●      Numbers of operational – related training programs completed.

●      Management engagement with employees to achieve greater buy in of organisational goals.

●      Include explanation of how activities work with organisational strategic goals in all communications to internal personnel.

●      Regular coaching.

●      Training needs analysis and training.

●      Strategic goals included in induction program for estate agents.

●      Employee incentives for performance in all areas relevant to operational and strategic goals.

5 Improve health of employees (range of specific areas). ●      Numbers of injuries (Target = 0).

●      Numbers of absentees
(Target = <3% of total hours).

●      Training need analysis and training on WHS and implementation of recently launched MLR WHS management system.

●      Research incentives for: safe work achievement and healthy lifestyle.


Chapter 6 – Operational risk register

Max Lionel Realty risk register FY 2012/2013
Identified risk Probability Impact Current controls Future actions
Failure to recruit qualified real estate agents due to increased competition. Medium High ●      All office equipment regularly reviewed and updated as required; IT security monitored and maintained.

●      Appropriate insurances held and coverage reviewed annually.

●      Managers encouraged and incentivised to follow performance management policy.

●      Employee performance plans align with business plan and six-monthly review process in place.

●      Project to raise awareness of anti-discrimination, WHS and other legislation/codes of conduct among agents, clients, tenants

●      Appropriate HR policies and procedures in place.

●      WHS management system in place.

●      Industry benchmarking in all areas of organisational performance

●      Conduct periodic reviews of agent performance to ensure professional conduct

●      Staff trained in use of technology as needed.

●      Keep abreast of changes in potential liabilities.

●      Review and develop HR related policies where required.

●      Development of ethical charter, including principles all agents must follow

Failure to realise revenue gains due to recent slump in real estate prices. High High
Inadequate insurance cover. Low High
Non-compliance on anti-discrimination. Medium High
Perception of discriminatory practice reducing client and tenant base. Medium High
Poor organisational culture; low level of staff engagement and morale. Medium Medium
Loss of knowledge and capability through departing staff. Low High
Failure to meet occupational health and safety requirements. Low High


Chapter 7 – Work Health and Safety (WHS) Policy

Max Lionel Realty WHS policy

Max Lionel Realty recognises its responsibility to provide a healthy and safe working environment for employees, contractors, clients and visitors. Max Lionel Realty is committed to the continued wellbeing of its employees and to ensuring that all employees are safe from injury and health risks whilst undertaking work-related duties, including home-based work.


The purpose of this policy is to ensure the acquisition of resources is carried out consistently, fairly and transparently and in accordance with organisational requirements.

In order to ensure a healthy and safe working environment, Max Lionel Realty will (in accordance with the WHS management system):

●      undertake risk assessments and implement procedures to adequately manage any risks in the working environment

●      provide written procedures and instructions for safe working practices

●      ensure compliance with all relevant legislation

●      maintain safe systems of work including the work premises and environment

●      provide appropriate support, instruction, training and supervision to employees to ensure safe working practices.


The scope of this policy covers employees and contractors of Max Lionel Realty (MLR).


Specific procedures for the implementation of this policy are available below and on the company intranet.


Max Lionel Realty management and employees are ultimately responsible for ensuring that safe systems of work are established, implemented and maintained.

Management is  responsible for:

●      the effective implementation and regular review of WHS procedures

●      consultation with employees regarding health and safety issues and changes to legislation and/or working practices which may affect the health, safety or welfare of employee

●      providing and maintaining a safe system of working practices

●      providing support, training, and supervision to employees to ensure safe and healthy workplace practices are carried out, including relevant first aid training where appropriate

●      the provision of adequate resources for employees to meet the WHS commitment, including an up-to-date first aid kit.

Individual employees are responsible for:

●      following all WHS policies and procedures

●      ensuring they report all potential and actual risks to partners or managers/supervisors

●      taking care to protect their own health and safety and that of their colleagues at work

●      ensuring their own or others health and safety is not adversely affected by the consumption of drugs or alcohol

●      encouraging others to follow healthy and safe working practices in the workplace.

Policy Implementation and Review

This policy has been established and implemented through the human resource functions of the organisation and will be reviewed regularly in consultation with MLR management and employees to ensure compliance with legislation, industry standards and organisational changes.

Relevant legislation, etc.

●      Privacy Act 1988 (Cwlth)

●      Estate Agents Act 1980 (Vic)

●      Equal Opportunity Act 2010 (Vic)

●      Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004

●      Dangerous Goods Act 1985 (Vic)

●      AS/NZS 4804:2001 Occupational health and safety management systems – General guidelines on principles, systems and supporting techniques


10/2013 – Riz Mehra, CFO

Chapter 8 – Anti-discrimination policy

Max Lionel Realty Anti-discrimination Policy


The purpose of this policy is to ensure transactions with clients, tenants and other employees is handled fairly and transparently and in accordance with organisational and legal requirements. Generally it is unlawful to discriminate on the basis of the following 16 characteristics:
●      sex

●      relationship status

●      pregnancy

●      parental status

●      breastfeeding

●      age

●      race

●      impairment

●      religious belief or religious activity

●      political belief or activity

●      trade union activity

●      lawful sexual activity

●      gender identity

●      sexuality

●      family responsibilities

●      association with, or relation to, a person identified on the basis of the above.


The scope of this policy covers all employees and contractors of Max Lionel Realty (MLR).


Specific procedures for the implementation of this policy are available below and on the company intranet.


Responsibility for the implementation of this policy rests with all employees, contractors and management of Max Lionel Realty.

Relevant legislation, etc.

●      Privacy Act 1988 (Cwlth)

●      Equal Opportunity Act 2010 (Vic)

●      Age Discrimination Act 2004 (Cwlth)

●      Disability Discrimination Act 1992 (Cwlth)

●      Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cwlth)

●      Sex Discrimination Act 1984 (Cwlth)

●      Estate Agents Act 1980 (Vic)


10/2013 – Riz Mehra, CFO

Chapter 9 – Procurement policy and procedures

Max Lionel Realty procurement policy


The purpose of this policy is to ensure the acquisition of resources is carried out consistently, fairly and transparently and in accordance with organisational requirements.


The scope of this policy covers the purchasing and acquisition of resources by employees and contractors of Max Lionel Realty (MLR).


Specific procedures for the implementation of this policy are available below and on the company intranet.


Responsibility for the implementation of this policy rests with employees and management of Max Lionel Realty with responsibility for purchasing resources.

Relevant legislation etc.

●      Privacy Act 1988 (Cwlth)

●      Estate Agents Act 1980 (Vic)

●      Equal Opportunity Act 2010 (Vic)

●      Corporations Act 2001 (Cwlth)

●      A New Tax System (Goods and Services Tax) Act 1999 (Cwlth)

●      Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 (Cwlth)

●      Fair Work Act 2009 (Cwlth)

●      Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 (Vic)


10/2013 – Riz Mehra, CFO




14 Principles governing the Max Lionel Realty procurement process

1. Probity and ethical behaviour

The principle of probity and ethical behaviour governs the conduct of all procurement activities. Employees who have authority to procure goods and services must comply with the standards of integrity, probity, professional conduct and ethical behaviour. Employees or directors must not seek to benefit from supplier practices that may be dishonest or unethical.

2. Value for money

Value for money is the core principle underpinning procurement. Contracted organisations must be cost effective and efficient in the use of resources whilst upholding the highest standards of probity and integrity. In general, a competitive process carried out in an open, objective and transparent manner can achieve the best value for money in procurement.

3. Non-discrimination

This procurement policy is non-discriminatory. All potential contracted suppliers should have the same opportunities to compete for business and must be treated equitably based on their suitability for the intended purpose.

4. Risk management

Risk management involves the systematic identification, analysis, treatment and, where possible, the implementation of appropriate risk-mitigation strategies. It is integral to efficiency and effectiveness to proactively identify, evaluate, and manage risks arising out of procurement related activities. The risks associated with procurement activity must be managed in accordance with the organisation’s risk management policy.

5. Responsible financial management

The principle of responsible financial management must be applied to all procurement activities. Factors that must be considered include:

  • the availability of funds within an existing approved budget
  • staff approving the expenditure of funds strictly within their delegations
  • measures to contain costs of the procurement without compromising any procurement principles.

6. Procurement planning

In order to achieve value for money, each procurement process must be well planned and conducted in accordance with the principles contained in this document and comply with all of the organisation’s policies and relevant legal and regulatory requirements.

When planning appropriate procurement processes consideration should be given to adopting an approach that:

  • encourages competition
  • ensures that rules do not operate to limit competition by discriminating against particular suppliers
  • recognises any industry regulation and licensing requirements
  • secures and maintains contractual and related documentation for the procurement which best protects the organisation
  • complies with the organisation’s delegations policy.

7. Buy Australian Made/support for Australian industry

Employees who are involved in procurement activities must make a conscious effort to maximise opportunities for Australian manufacturers and suppliers to provide products where there is practicable and economic value. In making a value for money judgement between locally-made and overseas-sourced goods, employees are to take into account:

  • whole-of-life costs associated with the good or service
  • that the initial purchase price may not be a reliable indicator of value
  • the quality of locally made products
  • the record of performance and delivery of local suppliers
  • the flexibility, convenience and capacity of local suppliers for follow on orders
  • the scope for improvements to the goods and ‘add-ons’ from local industry.

8. Pre-registered list of preferred suppliers

Max Lionel Realty shall maintain a pre-registered list of preferred suppliers, following a request for expressions of interest and an evaluation of the submissions. Suppliers can request to be evaluated for inclusion on the existing pre-register list at any time.

All purchases under $5,000 may be made from preferred suppliers without undertaking a competitive process. Purchases above $5,000 where a preferred supplier exists should include a competitive process if practicable.

This list is reviewed at regular intervals with admission of interested parties on a rolling basis. Care should be taken to ensure that such lists are used in an open and non‑discriminatory manner. Max Lionel Realty encourages new contractors to provide information on their experience, expertise, capabilities, pricing, fees, and current availability. It is in the interest of the organisation that the pool of potential suppliers is actively maintained and updated. Employees should be encouraged to provide reports of their experiences in working with each contractor/consultant to assist future decisions concerning commissioning suitable contractors and consultants.

9. Avoid conflict of interest

Employees and directors are required to be free of interests or relationships in all aspects of the procurement process. Employees and directors are not permitted to personally gain from any aspect of a procurement process.

Employees and directors shall ensure that to the best of their knowledge, information and belief, that at the date of engaging a contractor no conflict of interest exists or is likely to arise in the performance of the contractor’s obligations under their contract.

Should employees or directors become aware of potential conflicts of interest during the contract period, they must advise the CEO and the Board of Directors immediately.

Prior to any situation arising with potential for a conflict of interest, complete disclosure shall be made to the CEO and the Board of Directors to allow sufficient time for a review.

10. Report collusive tendering

Employees should be aware of anti-competitive practices such as collusive tendering. Any evidence of suspected collusion in tendering should be brought to the attention of the CEO and the Board of Directors.

11. Competitive process

It is a basic principle of procurement that a competitive process should be used unless there are justifiable circumstances. For purchases under $5,000, the list of preferred suppliers may be used. The type of competitive process can vary depending on the size and characteristics of the contract to be awarded.

12. Direct invitation (selective or restricted tendering)

A process of direct sourcing to tender may be used. This may involve:

  • an invitation to organisations deemed appropriately qualified for a particular product or service (this may be appropriate for specialised requirements in markets where there is a limited number of suppliers or service providers)
  • an invitation to tender to organisations on MLR’s pre-registered list of preferred suppliers if applicable.

13. Evaluation and contract award

For projects being awarded, consideration will be given not only to the most economically advantageous tender, but also to the track record of the tender respondent and the degree of confidence that the panel has in the quality if the bid. It will be the normal practice to have the evaluation of tenders carried out by a team with the requisite competency.

14. Results of tendering process

All tender respondents should be informed in writing of the result of a tendering process immediately after a contract has been awarded.

Summary of procurement policy delegations

Authority Purchase amount Required number of quotes Comment
CEO and one Director Authority to sign contracts for products and services over $75,000. Two or more competitive quotes for contracts over $75,000. Detailed services contract required.
CEO Authority to sign contracts for products and services up to $75,000. Two or more competitive quotes. Detailed services contract required for contracts over $20,000.
General Managers

Delegated authority only through CEO

Authority to sign contracts for products and services under $30,000. One or more competitive quotes preferred. Provided they are within the approved budget and consistent with business/operational and strategic planning.
Managers Authority to sign contracts for products and services under $10,000. One or more competitive quotes preferred. Follow MLR purchasing procedures.
Agents Authority to sign contracts for products and services under $5,000. Must use preferred suppliers list. Follow MLR purchasing procedures.
Contractors and external consultants No authority. One or more competitive quotes preferred.

Must use preferred suppliers list.

Contractors and external consultants must follow MLR purchasing procedures and must seek approval for purchases from person holding relevant authority.




Identify the stakeholders -1 day
Assign roles to specific persons based on

expertise (Consultants)-7 days, Budget $ 1000

Communicate program to the stakeholders

And psychologically prepare them-4 days,

Budget $ 700

Undertake training for the different agents/

Staff in a way that operations are not

Interrupted Stagger training), 10 days, Budget

$ 7500

Obtain training feedback,- 3 days



















































The budgets are as shown in the WBS; the total budget for the project will be $ 14600, so out of the alloted budget of $ 15000, there will be a balance of $ 400.


Roles and Responsibilities


Person Role Responsibility
Max Lionel Executive Sponsor To provide support (financial and executive) to the program so that it achieves its set objectives
Riz Mehra Financial Approving and rationalizing the budget for the program

Controlling the budget

Approving changes to the budget


Kim Sweeney Project Coordination Coordinate the hiring of the venues for training and development of the required training materials

Performance management

Induction of staff

Coordinating subsequent activities of WHS, anti discriminatory measures, and risk management

Reporting on the training outcomes

Continuous improvement of the systems

Les Goodale Staffing and coordinating staff Getting trainers and communicating training needs to all staff


Follow up on training outcomes

Responsible for the welfare of people at MLR and their productive capacity

Creating reports on the training outcomes

Ensuring compliance with anti discriminatory regulations and processes at the company

Sam Lee Residential manager Managing all aspects of residential tenancy

Ensuring WHS requirements are put in place and complied with, working with the Operations Manager

Pat Misfud Commrcial Realty Manage all aspects of commercial realty

Compliance with real estate regulations on disclosure


Resourcing requirements

Consultants and experts will be required to undertake the initial training of all staff. These will be sourced by the HR manager. A suitable venue will be required for the initial training of the staff and this will be a hotel or conferencing center. To ensure business continuity, the initial training will be conducted over ten days, with each team being trained for two days. The staff will be divided into maximum groups of twenty for each training session. Training material, including stationery and the regulations that all staff will have to follow. A follow up mechanism to ensure compliance and adoption of the new program. Material obtained from (Vargas, 2009), (Burton & Michael, 2001)


<Project Name>

Risk Management Plan

Version <1.0>



Version History

This risk management plan is version 1 and has been created for the MLR program of improving client and staff relations and welfare through the implementation of a WHS and an anti-discriminatory plan at the organization. This document will be updated and subsequent versions created. Kim Sweeney, working with Sam Lee are responsible (directly) for this plan



Version # Implemented








1.0 <Name> <mm/dd/yy> <name> <mm/dd/yy> Initial Risk Management Plan draft
1.1 < Name> <mm/dd/yy> <name> <mm/dd/yy> <reason>



To effectively manage risks to the program by identifying, anticipating, and implementing measures to offset/ alleviate the risk and update the status after the intervention. This is going to be a continuous process

Procedure for Risk Management


The project manager, working with entire project team, will ensure the active and continuous identification, documentation, analysis, and implementation of measures to manage identified risks effectively; the risks will be monitored continuously (Bissonette, 2016)

Identification of Risks

Risks will be identified by the project team and relevant stakeholders and will entail an evaluation of factors such as resistance to the new program, poor implementation of the WHS, lack of adherence to the regulations and guidelines, the organizational culture and structure and how they can affect the program, issues of communication, costs and budgeting, failure to attain the project deliverables, constraints, assumptions, resource plan, role suitability, the WBS. A log of risk management will be generated and updated as needed; the log will be electronic with options of print-outs, as proposed by Kendrick (2016)

Analysis of Risks

All identified risks will be assessed to understand their likelihood impact, and consequences. Based on these, mitigation. Control measures will be put in place and the effects evaluated, with the risk profile updated after implementing interventions. The risk analysis will both be qualitative and quantitative. The framework below will be used for qualitative risk analysis


Impact H  




  L M H


(Simon, Hillson & Newland, 2007)


Planning Risk Response

Each real risk (those in the Yellow and red zones) will a chance to be doled out with an undertaking cooperation part to following purposes to guarantee that the danger won’t “fall through the cracks”.

To each real risk, a standout amongst the accompanying methodologies will make chose will location it:. Evade – kill the risk by eliminating those reason. Relieve – recognize approaches to decrease the likelihood or the sway of the hazard. Acknowledge – nothing will be completed. Exchange – make an additional party answerable for those hazard

To each hazard that will a chance to be mitigated, the task group will recognizing routes with prevent those hazard from happening or decrease its effect or likelihood from claiming happening. This might incorporate prototyping, including errands of the one task schedule, including resources, and so on.

To every significant danger that is with make alleviated or that is accepted, a strategy will make illustrated to the occasion that those danger does appear in place with minimize its sway.

Risk Monitoring, Reporting, and Controlling

The level of risk on a project will be tracked, monitored and reported throughout the project lifecycle.

A “Top ten Risk List” will be maintained by the project team and will be reported as a component of the project status reporting process for this project.

All project change requests will be analyzed for their possible impact to the project risks.

Management will be notified of important changes to risk status as a component to the Executive Project Status Report.


An electronic risk log will be used for managing the risk


The persons undersigned will acknowledge receipt of the risk management plan for the project. Any changes will be coordinated by the responsible persons



Signature:   Date:  
Print Name:      

Task 2

Project monitoring

The document below will be used for the monitoring and evaluation of the project


  Indicator Definition Baseline Target Implemented Person Responsible Reporting
Goal Implement a functional WHS Work Place Health and Safety program that fulfills regulatory requirements          
Goal Anti discrimination at the workplace or when dealing with clients            


Task 3


Financial record keeping


Task Budget in $ Actual Variance
Defining project objectives 200 200 0
Assign roles to specific persons based on



1000 1000 0
Review deliverables with assigned persons


500 500 0
Communicate program to the stakeholders

And psychologically prepare them


700 700 0
Secure training venue and prepare training materials 4300 4300 0
Training 7500 7500 0
Report 400 400 0


97.3% of the projected budget was actually used; project did not exceed or completely utilize budget



Bissonette, M. (2016). Project risk management: a practical implementation approach.      Newtown Square, Pennsylvania : Project Management Institute, Inc

Burton, C., & Michael, N. (2001). A practical guide to project planning. Auckland, Reed.

Kendrick, T. (2016). Identifying and managing project risk: essential tools for failure-proofing your project.  New York  : American Management Association

Simon, P., Hillson, D., & Newland, K. (2007). PRAM: project risk analysis and management guide. Norwich, Association for Project Management.

Vargas, R. V. (2009). Practical guide to project planning. Boca Raton, Auerbach Publications.