Summary of research history help

Summary of research history help 

Essay Writing Tutor Sydney This is the reason why many historical cases like injecting of syphilis virus into Hawaiian female lepers in the year 1883 was witnessed and done by Fitch just to find the connection between the leprosy and syphilis. Another gruesome example which emerged was stimulation of electrodes into the brain of female patient bye famous scientist Bartholomew in 1874.

 Similar is the case which has been seen with animal subjects where the Draize Test has been used by many manufacturers to find out the effect of chemicals especially in case of new products or cosmetics by pharmaceutical companies. In this test they torture the mice by injecting the irritation causing chemicals in their conjuctival sac. Another debatable topic is ‘vivisection’ where animal is cut alive or dissected when it is breathing.

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All these heinous activities done one either human or animal subjects asks for a call to protect them from such inhumane treatment and physical tortures through steps like finding suitable alternatives for research and trying to give dignified treatment to the animal as well as human subjects. In order to make sure that the benefits reaped do not out get outweighed by the risks to the subjects several measures should be taken while conducting research. Like the investigators who are conducting research should know in detail all the Federal regulations and should comply to them as well. Welfare of the laboratory animals can be guaranteed by following the Three R’s which are: Replacement, Reduction and Refinement. Same ways the most ethical issues for the human subjects which should be taken care of during research are taking informed consent, given right to withdraw and should get risk without benefits for human subjects.

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