Sport Science: 789890


Learning Outcome:

This task reflects unit learning outcomes 1, 2, 3 and 4 (content includes principles of training, strength and conditioning, exercise prescription and nutrition).

  1. Develop a basic understanding of key areas of sports science including but not limited to exercise physiology, biomechanics, performance analysis, and sports psychology, principles of training, nutrition, strength and conditioning and skill acquisition.

  1. Develop a basic understanding of the approaches used in each of the key areas.

  1. Demonstrate problem solving and research skills for sports science.

  1. Apply problem identification, formulation and solution in sports science.


Sport science examines ways we can improve our physical skills to improve performance in sport. Some of the key areas in exercise prescription include strength and conditioning, exercise physiology, aerobic and anaerobic fitness and periodisation of training programs.

In this task you will undertake pre-exercise screening, pre health screening, prepare and conduct fitness tests. You will need to determine appropriate testing according to the goals of your training program and conduct these tests before and after your training program.

©Copyright: 2016 Swinburne University of Technology

CRICOS: 0011D  TOID: 3059

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You will be required to design, implement and evaluate a periodised training program for an individual to train for a sport.

Task Requirements

You are required to work with a partner for this assignment. Your task is to design, implement and evaluate a periodised training program for your partner (client).

You need to complete the following:

  1. Determine the appropriate testing for your client i.e. measuring endurance exercise, body composition, flexibility, aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity and strength (chapter 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 39 and 40-43 of Reaburn, 2011).

What measurements are necessary for your client? E.g. would a weightlifter complete a beep-test? Can you make up and justify one of your own that matches your client’s sport?

  1. Implement the tests that you have determined as appropriate on your client. Record all your measurements.

  1. Design a periodised training program (12 months) for your client. This needs to include macrocycles.

Aim to include testing and tapering blocks within your periodisation

  1. Implement a 3-week microcycle exercise and 1-week nutrition plan within your mesocycle block e.g. nutrition plan for week 2 of your microcycle

Please justify as to what you would change if you had to pick another week in regards to nutrition e.g. would carbohydrate intake change?

Review Nutrition Notes from Week 8

  1. After the 6-week period re-do tests you completed at the start of the program. Record all your measurements.

Where would you re-test your client? When is it necessary?

  1. Analyse and evaluate your results.

Produce an 800 word report that includes.

  • Title

  • Introduction – brief description of the athlete/team, the problem and aims

  • Assessment – pre and post testing – with results

  • Intervention – periodised training program (annual plan including the 3 week microcycle) and 1 week nutrition plan.

  • Discussion – analysis and evaluation of your results.

Due date: Week 11 Friday 31st August at 5pm

©Copyright: 2016 Swinburne University of Technology

CRICOS: 0011D  TOID: 3059

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Reaburn, P, Dascombe, B, Reeed, R, Jones, A, Weyers, J, 2011, Practical Skills in Sport and Exercise Science, Pearson, United Kingdom.



Sports science is a discipline that is involved in the study of how the human bodies works during exercises and how the physical exercises and sports enhance health and the performance of the whole body. An athlete is a person can either be a male or a female in sports who participates in one or more sports that are of physical strength endurance or the speed.

These people have well-developed physiques that are generated from the prolonged physical training and are severe exercises that are accompanied by a firm nutritional regimen (McArdle, Katch, and Katch, 2009). An exercise at any level needs a diet that is well-balanced to ensure that the good health is maintained and that the performance of the sports is successful. The use of biomechanics has helped it possible to calculate a pattern that is most effective in the movement and the tactics of sporting.

Effects of exercise on the effectiveness of an athlete

The main aim of this discipline is to promote the physical and mental health of the people and help them in changing their health behaviors so as to ensure a healthier lifestyle thus becoming more active in their lives. This also helps in ensuring that the opportunities people are protected, enhanced and provided so as to meet the present and the future generations on the field of sports.  The needs of the people are understood so as to meet the planning and the objectives of the athletes effectively and formulate a strategy that will meet the needs of the athletes positively by planning for the future and developing the aspects of management.

Clark, Reed, Crouse, and Armstrong, (2003) indicates that the discipline is also aimed at recognizing the health practices that are harmful and ensure that effective intervention is made or behavioral and attitudinal change for ensuring effective adoption of the health services. There are also educational programs that ensure that the participants achieve the safety benefits and the conduct of the activities during exercises. The other aim is to develop and maintain the physical fitness programs that meet the needs of the individuals.

The fitness of the client may be hindered by many factors. These factors may include the human, organism and the athlete factors. In order to ensure the fitness of the client, the coach needs to grasp the motivation of the client for fitness and the goals they need to achieve. However, beliefs and the manner in which the clients speak of themselves can determine the spirit and the essence of the clients in ensuring fitness (Thompson, and Manore, 2015). The coach should ensure that he or she assesses and analysis the daily activities and the biological function of the client, for example, the sleeping habit, eating habit, and the frequency of exercises.  The athlete can be accessed through benchmarking, performing the metrics and also getting to know of the physical capabilities of the client.

When determining the appropriate testing for my client I will use the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). This test is designed to measure the fitness of the soldiers in the army by testing their endurance, muscular strength and the fitness in the cardiovascular respiratory. This test will be conducted in regards to the standards that are detailed in the army FM 7-22. This testing will involve three activities that are push-up, sit-up, and the two-mile run.

Push-up is for measuring the endurance of the client’s shoulder, chest and the muscles of the hand. According to the words of McGuine, and Keene, (2006) the set-up exercise will be measuring the endurance of the hip-flexor and the abdominal muscles and finally, the two-mile run will be assessing the aerobic fitness and the endurance of the muscles of the legs. The client should be able to run when there is no physical help offered to him or her for assistance.


When assessing the pre and post testing of the client a few things came into my attention. First, when assessing the posture at first the client did not show the normal standing position and was always leaning forward when seated but however at the end of the training the client was able to stand upright and seat well. Also at first, the client found it had to do the single leg squat thus indicating the risk of injuring his knee or the ankle. However, in the end, the client was able to squat using one leg thus indicating the flexibility of the joints and muscle.

After conducting the accelerating testing it was crystal clear that the client was able to accelerate and increase the quickness and also increased the ability to effectively change his directions which were not possible before the training was done. According to Pauw et al., (2013) after testing the push-up and the pull-up challenge with other clients, the client was able to increase the push-ups and the pull-up within the three minutes given as compared to before the training was done where the client was unable to do the quality push-ups and the pull-ups. The client was also able to increase the sprint endurance both aerobically and an aerobically after regular training as compared to the time when the client had not yet gotten any training.

A three week training program for an athlete

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3
Pull-up squat Dumbbell row
Superset bicep curl Leg curl Bent over or machine row
Dumbbell press Lunge Pull-up
Calf raise Incline dumbbell Incline dumbbell press
Squat or leg press Set-up Leg curl
Three position pulls Dumbbell press Squat
Leg extension Bench press Leg curl

 This will be important when looking at the accurate metabolic and the demands of the biochemical of the sport. This program will help in foreseeing the problems and providing a method that will be used in modifying the problem identified.

Nutrition plan for an athlete

Days breakfast snack lunch Dinner
Day 1 Strawberry parfait, chopped strawberries and a granola with low-fat milk, flavored with extracts from almond or vanilla Bagel melt, three slices of tomatoes and a slice of onion and salad Brown rice with green peas, clove garlic and olive oil
Day 2 Cubed honeydew melon, sweetened dried raisins and shredded- wheat cereals. grapes Avocado, canned black beans, lettuce and grilled chicken Broccoli florets, cauliflower, and squeezed lemon juice
Day 3 Grated carrots, whole wheat toast and jam Tomato juice Tuna sandwich and baby carrots. Couscous and lamb, tomato and cucumber salad
Day 4 Oatmeal, orange juice Chunks of watermelon Spaghetti and tossed salad Boneless ounces and roasted chicken breast
Day 5 Whole wheat toast, and pineapple chunks apple Deli sandwich marinated cucumbers Cheese pizza
Day 6 Egg and grapefruit juice Yogurt pain Red pepper sandwich and vegetable soup Roasted pork, smashed red potatoes, broccoli florets and milk
Day 7 Lemon pancake Banana and almond extract Broccoli florets Sweet potato with chili


Exercises stimulate a pathway to oxidize the fats in the body of an athlete. Nutrition and diet are ranked as the main contributing factor for limiting or fueling the calorie in the body and thus the combination of the exercises and the diet may be more effective in losing the fats and keeping fit for an athlete (Garrett and Kirkendall, 2000).

However, research shows that people are more obsessed with the diet which is not enough in ensuring that the body is fit. Thus athletes need to observe the diet as well as to give keen attention to the program of their exercises so as to ensure that they keep fit for competition. In conclusion, diet and exercises should be considered of equal contribution on the fitness of the body whether one do it for competition or for personal benefit


Clark, M., Reed, D.B., Crouse, S.F. and Armstrong, R.B., 2003. Pre-and post-season dietary intake, body composition, and performance indices of NCAA division I female soccer players. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism13(3), pp.303-319.

Garrett, W.E. and Kirkendall, D.T. eds., 2000. Exercise and sport science. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.I. and Katch, V.L., 2009. Sports and exercise nutrition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

McGuine, T.A. and Keene, J.S., 2006. The effect of a balance training program on the risk of ankle sprains in high school athletes. The American journal of sports medicine34(7), pp.1103-1111.

Pauw, K.D., Roelands, B., Cheung, S.S., De Geus, B., Rietjens, G. and Meeusen, R., 2013. Guidelines to classify subject groups in sport-science research. International journal of sports physiology and performance8(2), pp.111-122.

Thompson, J.J. and Manore, M., 2015. Nutrition for Life: Books a la Carte Edition. Benjamin-Cummings.