Society assignment essay on: Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Child and Social Science
Society can be considered as the group of civilised people and community, who live together. There can be a number of different groups, community and classes of the society that architect the integrated structure of the society. In relation to this, there can also be different social issues and problems faced by different classes and groups presented within the integral structure of the whole society. In this context, there are a number crucial and effective solutions of different problems and issues faced by various subgroups of the society are provided by social science and its different theories (Hek 2005). In regard to this, the paper is directed to reflect the role of sociology related theories in resolving some critical issues regarding vulnerability faced by a specific component of the society. Different theories related with sociology are also intended to be used for the purpose of addressing vulnerability issue by a particular subsection of the society. In addition to this, some intensive roles played by government and NGOs in direction to welfare of that subsection of the society are also considered within the paper.Criteria 1: Selection of the subgroup
In order to accomplish the objective of the paper, a subgroup consists of unaccompanied and asylum seeking child in the UK, have been taken into account. Under this subgroup all the individuals below below 18, applying for asylum on the basis of their own right, are considered. This category of people consists of the people, who are separated from both parents and are not being cared for by any adult who has a responsibility to do so, by law (Home Office 2007). Most of them are refugees from other countries. In the year 2002, about 280,000 refugees were there in the UK. This number has been enhancing rapidly, since then. As per the statistical data among such large population of refugees, about 45% were children and 11% was under the age of 5 years. In the year 2006, about 3200 children who are from refugee community, have applied for asylum (Rundle 2008). In the year 2008, this figure has reached to 5500 (News release: Imperial College of London 2012). This shows that number of this subgroup within the UK’s society is increasing, rapidly.
Criteria 2: rationale behind the section of the group This subgroup is selected for the purpose of undertaking analysis as social problems and issues exposed to such group are quite critical and vulnerable towards the entire society. The vulnerability of the group can be defined as the degree to which an external event converts into looses in the well being of that particular group (Joseph Rowtree foundation 2011). On this account population selected for the analysis, i.e. unaccompanied and asylum seeking child in the UK, are quite facing danger of facing some of the critical problems. Owing to this reason, the selection of this population is quit rational.
Vulnerability of the group
The degree of vulnerability faced by the group depends upon the problems and different critical social issues emerged in front of the individual belong to that particular group. In this regard, there are some critical and issues and problems that can be emerged in front of the unaccompanied and asylum seeking children within the territory of the UK (Rundle 2008). Some of the major problems that reflect in the vulnerability of the group can be presented as below:The risk of trafficking for exploitation in the sex industry in the context of this subgroup is quite high (Rutter 2003).
- This sub group pursue high risk of domestic exploitation in the UK (Thomas et al 2004).
- Loneliness and social isolation, and problem of depression are also another crucial factor of vulnerability of the subgroup (Papadopoulos 2002).
- Increasing participation of this group in acts of violence and social crime also leads this subgroup towards vulnerability (Lay et al 2007).
- Moreover increasing population of children in need of social equality and justice is also an evidence of vulnerability of this group
Sociology related theoretical evidences for rationality behind Vulnerability of the group
The vulnerability of this subgroup can be proved as per two crucial perspectives discussed as below:
Marxist perspective The Marxist perspective states that differences in the materialistic things such as money and social status of different classes are the basis reasons behind the superiority or inferiority of a society. This perspective seeks the reasons behind the vulnerability of a class of the society in the differences in the social status of the societal norms (Worsley 2002). The Marxist perspective can be demonstrated on the basis of two crucial theories:
Cycle of deprivation
As per this theory, there is a specific sequence of different crucial activities behind the vulnerability of any human being. The theory also reflects that deprivation or vulnerability of the human being is started with materialistic factor such as low family income. Later it starts to convert into cultural perspective within the society. Ultimately it converts into different critical situations such as education failure, lack of resources, low paid work or unemployment, and isolation and loneliness (Kirby 2000). This cycle can be reflected as below:
(Source: The existence and persistence for Poverty 2012)
This theory has been proposed and elaborated by Stephen Castles and Godula Kosack. As per this theory, it is the perception and classical conditioning of the society of the people, which makes any class or group in the society superior or inferior. The prime reason behind the asylum seeking behaviour of unaccompanied children is the results of negative attitude of people towards them (Turner 2006). For instance, the society has negative perception towards unaccompanied children and considers them as carrier of diseases, social burden and bogus claims and drain on national resources (Pierson 2002).
As per this perspective, different action of the society makes a specific subgroup differentiated from rest of the society. This isolation results into the vulnerability of specific sections of the society (Andersen and Taylor 2012). As per this concept, there two prime aspects of functions of the society, which creates a number of different problems and issues for unaccompanied children. These aspects are:(1) Discrimination: such unaccompanied children are discriminated within the society in terms of opportunity of development and getting adequate education which leads them to vulnerable.
(2) Social exclusion/Isolation: Along with this, isolation and social exclusion of this subclass of the society is also an important and crucial reason behind the mental deprivation of unaccompanied children within the society (Dunlap 2002).
Criteria 3: role of relevant agencies for welfare of the group
The above sections of the paper have revealed some crucial discussion regarding vulnerability of the group. In this account, the vulnerability of the society is directly affecting the sustainability of the entire society. Owing to this reason, it is one of the major duties of the government and other non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to ensure the welfare of this group of the society.
The role of government for this group is related with the formulation and administration of different regulatory actions and policies in the betterment of this group. In relation to this, there are different crucial policies and actions have been taken into account by the government for the group of unaccompanied and asylum seeking children within the UK territory (Hek 2005). For instance some of the crucial policy actions of the government of the country can be listed as below:
Establishment of Local Authority Social Services
Local authority Social Services are directed to take care of local areas and its related social problems.
Foundation of NASS
NASS (National Ankylosing Spondylitis Society), is one of the leading charities operating in the UK for well being of patients of Ankylosing Spondylitis. This charity also put emphasis on the metal and physical care of unaccompanied children (NASS: National Ankylosing Spondylitis Society 2012).
Foster Parent Schemes
As per this scheme the government promotes the local families to adopt children who are unaccompanied and alone (Rundle 2008).
Implication of the WBP project
Well-Being Project (WBP) is one of the major projects of the government to provide better and effective mental health services to unaccompanied asylum seeking children (Well-Being Project (WBP) 2012).
Moreover, along with such effective regulatory steps, the government has also implies some of the crucial legal and regulatory norms under different legal sections, which are listed as below:
(1) The 1989 UN convention of the rights of the child.
(2) The Children Act 1989 Section 20
(3) The Children Leaving Care Act 2002
(4) Race Relation Act 1976 and amended in 2000
(5) The Children’s Act 2004 – (Every Child Matters)
(6) The Education Act 1996, and amended in 2006 (Rundle 2008).
Non-governmental projects run by NGOs
In addition to the government, there are a number of different crucial NGOs that are working of the betterment of unaccompanied and asylum seeking children. Some of the crucial projects run by NGOs can be reflected as below:
- Establishment of Refugee Council to take care of refugee children
- Establishment of Red Cross society for providing effective medical facilities to unaccompanied within the country (Rundle 2008).
- Undertaking of Refugee Actions for improving living conditions of refugees within the country
- Better and effective allocation of financial resources into this subgroup, Chastain Aid is a crucial non-governmental project (Hek 2005).
- Establishment of ICAR (Information Centre about Asylum and Refugees), which is an organisation that collects some crucial and update data regarding Asylums and Refugees within the country. This data can be used quite intensively in policies formation for unaccompanied asylum seeking child (About: ICAR 2012).
- Commencement of different inform Projects, which are directed to inform government regarding the existing conditions of subgroup (Hek 2005).
In this way, it can be considered through different programs and policies, government and related NGOs are looking for addressing different crucial social problems faced by unaccompanied and asylum seeking children.
Criteria 4: role of social science in informing public health and welfare practice for the group Different theories and concepts of social science are quite crucial in understanding the reason behind the vulnerability of the social subgroup i.e. unaccompanied asylum seeking children in the UK. On the basis of different important theories of social science, it has become quite clear that there is a need of some integrated efforts from the side of different classes of society. With the help of such crucial social perspective such as Marxists approach, the socialist can reveal different dimensions and methods which would be helpful in reducing the negative impact of social exclusion over unaccompanied asylum seeking children. Different crucial aspects of Marxists theory namely cycle of deprivation helps the socialists to understand that lack of financial resources and ineffective allocation of the resources to this subgroup of the society is the prime reason behind the vulnerability of this section. Moreover, Underclass perspective induces the government and strategy makers of the country to improve the perception and attitude of the local community within the country towards this section of the society. In this way, the proper implication of such theories leads to reduce the social issues faced by unaccompanied children within the society.
There are a number of different crucial aspects of the social behaviour and attitude of the entire society towards unaccompanied children, which leads them towards the stage of depression and other mental as well as diseases (Hek 2005). Moreover, from the perspective of vulnerability of this group of the society also, there social science also reflects that there should be some effective efforts and government of the country to deplete the gap among different social classes. Fair distribution of resources within the society prevents the cycle of deprivation which leads to decrease the number of the young children seeking for asylum (Andersen and Taylor 2007). In addition to this social science also elaborates that every class of the society is quite important for the long term sustainability of the integrated and civilised framework of the society. The vulnerability of a group directly reflects upon the overall distortion of the society (Rundle 2008). In this way, such Social Science related theories are inducing the government of the country to undertake some crucial steps for the purpose of public health and welfare practice for the group. In addition to this, different theories related to social science provides an effective and competent platform on the basis of which different steps and programs for welfare of unaccompanied asylum seeking children can be taken into account (Kohli and Mitchell 2007).
In this way on the basis of entire discussion it can be reflected that different crucial theories and concepts of Social theories are quite important for providing direction to have effective programs and steps for welfare of one of most vulnerable groups in the society, i.e. unaccompanied and asylum seeking child in the UK.
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