Industrial Chemistry-57267

Question: –

Industrial Chemistry


Chemical process (Task 1)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

Process Selection (Task 2)…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

Product Quality (Task 3)………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

Co-products and Sid-products (Task 4)…………………………………………………………………………… 8

Environmental and Safety Aspects (Task 5)…………………………………………………………………… 10

Related Environmental and Safety Issues (Task 6)………………………………………………………….. 12

References………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14

Chemical process (Task 1)

Nature of the chemical product

Ethyl benzene is present in the air and ambience mainly because of a result of industrial releases in and the emissions from vehicles in the air. Petrol has about 1-2% ethyl benzene in it. Ethyl benzene is found in the urban sites (Fu, 2012). Ethyl benzene is a chemical that is mainly used in styrene’s manufacture. Subtle exposure to ethyl benzene in the humans results in respiratory effects, such as chest constriction, throat irritation, irritation of the eyes and effects in the neurological system such as dizziness or sleepiness. Long term exposure to ethyl benzene from inhaling can result in contradictory results in the blood. The study of animals has shown effects on the liver, blood, kidneys and from many parts of the body from excessive inhalation of the ethyl benzene. In a study by the NTP exposing animals to ethyl benzene by inhalation resulted in increased incidents of kidney and testicular tumours in rat and lungs and liver tumours in mice. EPA has categorized ethyl benzene as a group D, not pigeonhole as to the humans carcinogenicity.

Ethyl benzene is used mainly as in the making of styrene. It is used as a solvent, as a constituent of asphalt and naphtha, and in making fuels.

In a study we found that ethyl benzene was detected in the urban region’s air and has a median concentration of 0.62 parts (Ethyl benzene production based on catalytically-cracked dry gas, 2005).The medium level in the air of the sub urban was about 0.62 ppb and the mean level measured in air in rural locations was more or less 0.13ppb.

Ethyl benzene has been identified in the air present indoors with a minimum concentration. Exposure to ethyl benzene can occur from the use of consumer products, pesticides, solvents, gasoline, paints, varnishes and the smoke from tobacco.

How to manufacture the chemical, in this case ethyl benzene

Commercially almost all ethyl benzene is made by mixing benzene with ethylene, except for a very small portion that is recovered from mixed c8 aromatics by super fractioning. Ethyl benzene and styrene units are almost always fixed together, with matching capacities or capabilities. In a typical ethyl benzene and styrene complex, energy economy is realized by the advantageously integrating the flow of energy of the two parts. The alkylation is exothermic while the ensuing while subsequent dehydrogenation to styrene is endothermic.

The reaction of benzene and ethylene takes place through a catalyst

C6H6+CH2=CH2 ↔ C6H5CH2CH3

The modern technologies utilize synthetic zeolites set up in fixed-bed reactors to catalyze the alkylation in the phase of liquid. Another route which is proven uses pore which is narrower to manufacture the chemical.

The above figures are the figures of the manufacturing of ethyl benzene in various processes.

Acidity alteration of MCM-22 was done by hypothermal treatment of parent MCM-22 with flowing of pure steam at an increasing temperature XRD, SEM and N2 adsorption/desorption results indicated that the crystallinity and the pore properties of MCM-22 were influenced slightly by the hydrothermal treatment at various temperatures (Dual zeolite catalyst for making ethyl benzene, 2013). Nh3 tpd and ft-ir with pyridine adsorption showed a slight or minimum change in Bronsted acid sites, compared to parent MCM-22, with hydrothermal treatment temperature ranging from 773-873 K. The potency of Bronsted acid was only minutely affected or altered. The lewis acid sites were only slimly changed and affected by hydrothermal treatment. The acid sides of Lewis acid were only acid used in this process. The results show that alkylation of benzene with diethyl occurred mainly on sites of Bronsted acid. It was found that a specific strength of acid and catalyst was needed to maintain high benzene conversion and ethyl benzene selectivity.

Process Selection (Task 2)

A mini plant that represents the vital parts of the whole industrial process, including the recycle streams has to be operated. Isothermally operation of the reactors for dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene to the chemical styrene is important (Cappaert, 2000). The columns of distillation and feed rate have values which are not discussed here. To start a new process in a chemical process development some decades before very expensive main plants based on experiments in the laboratory. Not to mention the data which is experimental under real conditions is unavailable. Hence it is a powerful experiment that produces ethyl benzene and it is a convenient technique for the building up of mini plant and the mini plant costs a hell lot of money. The mini plant is created in a scale of laboratory and this is relatively inexpensive method and above all it requires too much time which is nowadays a very important or vital criterion for the development of the process of industrialisation.

The mini plant is to be operated continuously during a period of sufficient time in order to mainly get information about the stability of the catalyst, constructional and sealing materials and solvents. It helps in the improvement of the impurities and by-products from the reactants in recycle loops. It aids in the special requirement of the process. This includes analysis and controlling (Benvenuto, 2013). The mini plant of the experiment shows a example in a simplified organization. The well known process of the manufacture of ethyl benzene is also an expensive process. The high funds needed for this process is provided by the organisation or company who is caring out this process. The whole mini plant process requires only a reactor and one distillations column. There is a process for the manufacturing of ethyl benzene. Benzene is alkylated with ethylene in a phase of vapour reaction over a catalyst consisting of ZSM-5. The by-product from the vapour is diethyl benzene. The alkylation reation is separated from the benzene of ethyl and reacted with the benzene in a phase of liquid. The catalyst of the phase of liquid is transalkylation reaction that may be composed of zeolite such as zeolite beta. The combined product of ethyl benzene product from the vapour phase alkylation reaction and from the phase of liquid transalkylation reaction has a low xylene level of impurity of less than 1000 ppm.

Product Quality (Task 3)

The ethyl benzene or C6H5CH2CH3 is commonly known as phenylethane or alpha methyltoluence. The ethyl benzene or C6H5CH2CH3 is a type of monocyclic alkylaromatic chemical compound, which is having a molecular weight of 160 (Meney et al., 1998). It is miscible with a large portion of the ordinarily utilized natural solvents as a part of any proportion, however is just sparingly solvent in water is in range of 170 ppm under surrounding conditions. Spilled ethylbenzene will glide on water and parcel firmly towards air. Because of its high vanishing rate, no critical natural dangers are normal. Being fairly unstable and having a glimmer purpose of 19-23 o C, ethylbenzene is characterized as an exceedingly combustible substance, which being used may structure combustible/hazardous vapor-air mixtures. Transient presentation to ethylbenzene in people brings about respiratory impacts, such as throat aggravation and lung narrowing, disturbance to the eyes, and neurological impacts, for example, tipsiness. Ethylbenzene has a trademark smell which can be identified at low fixations is in range of 1 to 2.3 ppm.

The Ethyl benzene is basically found in indoor atmospheres as well as outdoor air or atmospheres. The Ethyl benzene is easily found in our daily life style as like it is found in outdoor atmosphere as very high data quality, also found in daily drinking water with moderate data quality (Shojania et al., 1999). The Ethyl benzene is also found in our daily rations and beverages with very low data quality, which is not a perfect resource for risk about the cancer. The Ethyl benzene is also consisting in petrol and coal refining gases. In atmosphere the Ethyl benzene is easily found or detected in form of the vapour as well as it is also found is in solvent materials like thinners and motor vehicle or automobile production.

The Ethyl benzene products are also found in industrial wastage. The automobile wastage or vehicle contains approximately 1 to 2 percentage of Ethyl benzene. The products of the Ethyl benzene having some awareness is in range of 0.74 µg per cubic meter (µg/m3) to 360 µg per cubic meter (µg/m3) on in range of 0.1 to 83 ppb, which is calculating by the help of the metropolitan site. The ethyl benzene is also found in countryside area which is in the range of below 2 µg per cubic meter (µg/m3) or below 0.46 ppb. The Ethyl benzene products produced in the indoor atmosphere is due to our daily life style and also consists the basic resources like using of pesticides, using of paints, petrol emission in automobile or vehicle, using of solvent, process by using photo coping, plotters, using in glue, adhesives and also found in water which is drink by the human being. The Ethyl benzene is also use in fabric industry and leather industry to get better products. It is also found due to smoking of tobacco and burning of woods. The Ethyl benzene is also detected in drinking water of human being, surface water, in ground water, which is shown in below by the help of table.

In Atmosphere [µg per cubic meter (µg/m3)]
Remote countryside region 0.2 – 1.6
Industry with high level traffic density Up to 360
In Water [µg per litter (µg/L) or ppb]
Surface water Below 0.1 to 1.8
Contaminated surface water Up to 15
Ground Water Below 0.1 to 1.1
Contaminated ground water Up to 2000
Drinking water Below 1 to 10

According to the above table the ethyl benzene is generally found is uncontaminated ground water is in range of below 0.1 ppb. As well as higher levels of the ground water contaminated with the help of the wastage water in the industry or in daily uses, fuel dispatched in ground due to the industry and automobile.

The Ethyl benzene products are analysis by the help of some various analysis liker high data quality, moderate data quality and very low data quality, which helps to improving the data quality of the products.

Co-products and Sid-products (Task 4)

The ethyl benzene is used to produces or manufacture styrene (C6H5CH=CH2). The product, styrene is provided by the help of the satisfactory feedstock (Stocchi, 1990). The purity of the ethyl benzene is over comes and the products are found in form of the n- propyl benzene, ethyl toluene’s, cumene and xylenes. It is also controlling and managing the effect of the ethyl benzene production like styrene. The Purity of the ethyl benzene is also depending on the reactions and its products. The purity of the ethyl benzene is 99.5 weight percentage is minimum as well as benzene have 0.1 to 0.3 weight percentage, toluene have purity is in range of 0.1 to 0.3 weight percentage. The minute of the ethyl benzene like ortho xylene and cumene have 0.02 weight percentages, meta xylene and para xylene have 0.2 weight percentage, mixture of allylbenzene n propylbenzene and ethyltoluene have 0.2 weight percentage, diethyl benzene have 20 mg per kilo gram (Xu, Mulchandani and Chen, 2003). The purity of the ethyl benzene and its various products are the main signification by which we can easily solve our products reaction and its details.

The ethyl benzene is mostly used to make styrene monomer (C6H5CH=CH2). Most of the ethyl benzene like greater than 99 percentage of ethyl benzene is used for manufacturing the styrene monomer (C6H5CH=CH2), which is one of the very large amount or volume of commodity chemicals for the industry and the rest of ethyl benzene or 1 percentage of the ethyl benzene created is utilized as a halfway for the creation of acetophenone, diethylbenzene and ethylanthraquinone, as a constituent of black-top and naphtha and as a hostile to thump added substance in powers and fuels. Of the minor uses, the hugest is in the coatings business as a dissolvable (blended xylenes) for paints, enamels and varnishes.

In industry, the ethyl benzene is manufacturing by the help of the alkylating benzene which is react with ethylene. Approximately 99 percentage of the ethyl benzene is manufacturing by the reaction with alkylating benzene. The ethyl benzene is also obtaining in very small volume by the mixture of C8 aromatics chemical compound xylenes by its super fractioning. The ethyl benzene and the styrene chemical compound are always mounting together in industry in other words, the styrene monomer and the benzene is always works together by the help of its identical and similar chemical identification and significations. In a commonplace ethyl benzene-styrene complex, vitality economy is figured it out by profitably incorporating the vitality streams of the two units. The alkylation is exothermic, while the consequent dehydrogenation to styrene is endothermic (Weissermel and Arpe, 1993). The most up to date innovations use manufactured zeolites introduced in settled bunk reactors to catalyze the alkylation in the fluid stage. An alternate demonstrated course utilizes narrower-pore manufactured zeolites, additionally introduced in settled bunk reactors, to impact the alkylation in the vapor stage. An extensive amount of ethylbenzene is unmoving created or manufacturing by alkylation with homogeneous aluminum chloride impetus in the fluid stage; however the late pattern in the business has been to retrofit such units with zeolite innovation. The uses of cluster scoring system is controlling and monitoring the uses of chemical compounds in industry. By the help of the cluster scoring system industry business model is easily identifying and analysis the nature and scope of the uses chemical compounds. It incorporates more mechanical parts than are secured by the Dangerous Discharge Stock, and gives information on utilization volume and natural discharges for chemicals by bunch. It doesn’t give disaggregated information that could be utilized to portray synthetic utilize or discharge at particular offices or in particular geographic regions.

When part chemicals for a group are distinguished, EPA joins data on potential human and natural perils and exposures, contamination anticipation potential, and administrative scope to score chemicals and bunches into high-, medium- and low-concern classes (Yilmazcan et al., 2013). The framework gives a measure of potential danger in light of accessible information, and is a valuable screening device for setting needs for danger diminishment or contamination anticipation exercises. Utilization bunch scores, for instance, can give a beginning evidence of possibly more secure substitutes for lethal chemicals utilized for particular capacities.

Environmental and Safety Aspects (Task 5)

The ethyl benzene or C6H5CH2CH3 is commonly found in atmosphere or environment and ethyl benzene or C6H5CH2CH3 is also utilization as a dissolvable alone and as a segment of blended xylenes, and as a fuel added substance by and large at low levels in both encompassing and indoor air, water, silt soil and biota. Extensive amounts have been radiated amid its creation, utilization and transfer (Luyben, 2010). The largest amounts of ethyl benzene or C6H5CH2CH3 found in nature are frequently connected with modern operations, and it is a standout amongst the most regularly discovered substances at risky waste locales. The ethyl benzene or C6H5CH2CH3 is additionally found in engine vehicle emanations, some sustenance tests, tobacco smoke and buyer items and has been identified in human and creature tissues. The living creature or human being introduce the ethyl benzene or C6H5CH2CH3 by the help of the inhalation of in heal of vapour or air to a smaller extent and with the help of all the dermal investigation the ethyl benzene can be easily produced by the combustion of all the natural materials that are quite helpful for making the component of the forest fires and the smoke that are found in the cigarettes. These are also constituents of the naphtha and asphalt that are in the toxic substances and diseases registration.

The Ethyl benzene that is found in the rural and the urban atmosphere results in the primary implications of the vehicle in the industrial and petroleum emissions. In the air ethyl benzene is vanish or disappear into the environment due to having the low solubility and vey high vapour pressure (JO and KANG, 2012). Approximately 99 percent of the ethyl benzene is usual in air section or air element. The ethyl benzene in atmosphere or environment of Austria, Finland, Germany, Sweden, Italy, Netherland and United States are shown in below by the help of the table, which is in the range of below 2 µg per cubic meter and greater than 100 µg per cubic meter.

Source Arithmetic mean in µg per cubic meter Location
Urban Air 1.3 to 6.5 USA
1.1 USA
0.9 to 2.8 Netherlands
6.0 to 22.0 Germany
7.4 Italy
below 2 Austria
13 Germany
6.2 to 100 Sweden
Indoor Air (Homes) 13 Germany
3.2 Finland
1.5 to 161 Germany
27 Italy
6.46 (Winter) Canada
8.15 (Spring) Canada
4.35 (Summer) Canada
13.98 (Autumn) Canada
4.34 USA
3.5 to 8.3 USA
4 to 6 Italy
0.8 (Non smoker) USA
2.6 (Smoker) USA
Indoor Air (Office) 0.5 USA
7.0 to 19 USA

Table: Amount of ethyl benzene in atmosphere

The above table is analysing by the help of the various categories like indoor air in home and office. Sources of the ethyl benzene is various according to the location like emission of the products in indoor air or atmosphere, fabric and leather dealing or management as well as tobacco smoking.

The ethyl benzene is also found in drinking water, ground water as well as in surface water resources. The amount of the ethyl benzene is in the range of below 1 µg per litter. The amount of the ethyl benzene of the surface water resources is very low or in other words it is in the range of below 0.1 µg per litter. The low amount of the ethyl benzene is only present in non commercial area or non industrial location. The ethyl benzene amount of the urban location or commercial area is very high respect of the non industrial location. The amount of ethyl benzene in urban and industrial location is 15 µg per litter. For that reason Commission of European Communities was reported in 1976 for respect of the ethyl benzene in water. The main reason of the ethyl benzene are present in the surface water or drinking water is discharging the by industries, fuel emission, leaking of the underground storage reservoir, leaking petroleum underground pipeline and also due to the disposal or garbage’s. In USA ethyl benzene is measure and listed in 58th chemical compound which is easily found in ground water as well as surface water resources (Jangwan and Mathuriya, 2008). As well as approximately 11 percent of ground water and 4 percent of surface water is found which is affected by ethyl benzene. The listed percentage is measure and analyzed by the help of the 1177 National Priority List (NPL).

Ethyl benzene is found in soil or land due to various type of resources by releasing it like due to gasoline and other burning or emission of fuels, due to liking of underground storage tanks, due to household products, cleaning solvents using by daily life, using of pesticides in ground and many others. The average concentration of the ethyl benzene dry weight of sample was 5.0 µg per kilo gram, which was measured and analyzed by United States Environmental Protection Agency’s STORET in year of 1980 and 1982.

Related Environmental and Safety Issues (Task 6)

The ethyl benzene is also present on human being blood. The present of ethyl benzene chemical compound in blood of 631 non occupationally by every individual person in the United States, which is measure and calculating by the help of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey by United States government or different health organization. According to the examination survey average value was near about 0.11 and the median value was 0.06 µg per litter. According to Ashley et al in 1992, they were measured and analyzed only 13 blood sample of human being and found the concentration value of the ethyl benzene is in amount of 0.12 µg per litter. The amount of ethyl benzene is much higher respect of the non smoker blood sample as well as respect of smoker blood sample of human being (Dual zeolite catalyst for making ethyl benzene, 2013). The concentration mean value of ethyl benzene of non smoker blood sample is 431 as well as median value is 0.06 ng per litter and also the concentration mean value of ethyl benzene of smoker blood sample is 535 as well as median value is 837 ng per litter. The ethyl benzene is also found in human being or women milks.

The Ethyl benzene was calculated in approximately 96% of the 46 composite specimens investigated for unpredictable natural chemicals in the year of 1982 National Fat Tissue Study directed by the Natural Assurance Organization in the United States. Albeit a wet tissue focus scope of not distinguished (location restrain, 2 ng/g) to 280 ng/g was referred to, the normal fixation was not description.

Practically 200 ethyl benzene-generation labourers or employees in Czechoslovakia, somewhere around in year 1964 and 1985 were checked twice a year for mandelic corrosive discharge. The mean time of specialists presented to ethyl benzene was 36.6 a long time and their mean length of business was 12.2 years (Cappaert, 2000). The creators expressed that malignancy occurrence among concoction labourers or employees in the mechanical perplexing (of practically identical age also, length of work) not occupied with ethyl benzene generation was around three times the national normal, though in the gathering of ethyl benzene creation labourers or employees, no tumours had been accounted for over the 10 earlier years. The Working Gathering noted that no exact figures were given to substantiate these declarations; what’s more, co-exposure to benzene was available, and the age of the labourers or employees and length of post luminary were not sufficient for a fitting assessment of malignancy hazard in connection to presentation to ethyl benzene.

A mortality study was led among 560 styrene generation and polymerization labourers or employees utilized for no less than five years on 1 May 1960 at a plant in the United States. Exposures other than ethyl benzene included benzene, toluene what’s more, styrene (Bianchi and Canuel, 2011). Subsequent secured the period from 1 May 1960 (or the tenth commemoration of livelihood in the plant) through 31 December 1975. Eighty-three passings were watched versus 106.4 normal, including 17 malignancies passing’s, versus 21.0 normal. Among these, death from leukemia was in the range of 0.79 normal and one passing from lymphoma was in amount of 1.25 normal happened.


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