History assignment essay on: Southeast Asia historian Administration

History assignment essay on: Southeast Asia historian Administration

Tutorial 1: Why does Ruth McVey emphasize that we should not think in terms of the nation-state when trying to understand pre-modern Southeast Asian states?

Assignment Expert AustraliaSoutheast Asia historian has been engaged in constructing a small world, where they will have their own craft, along with it there will be theories from other subjects like economics, political science and etc. During the last of nineteenth century, there was a contact between societies of Southeast Asian and colonial powers which led to the opening of the Suez Canal. According to the peasant’s movement, aside from a trend towards peasant dependency rural Southeast Asia was marked, by what Harry Benda liked to call a revolution of rising irritation. This was a period of development of high capitalist, where Western administration was dominating the population, the people who have never experienced the Western power directly. In the twentieth century the state of Malay that is named as Terengganu was under the control of colonial powers. Earlier policies like system of cultivation in Java and monopoly of Tobacco in Luzan by sites of that place, while destruction was basically related with the business of Western later on. In some of the great premodern states, the problem was power of the nation state which has overshadowed all other powers. If we consider Burma, during the World War II, it was very different; Rangoon was only the centre which was run by British. This centre was destroyed, when it was conquered by Japan. Medium was linked to the centre of Mataram, but it faced a problem during the Java war of behaving as an independent state. Cagayan, an area of exploitation ,there was an excess pressure on local leaders, but still continuity exist between both the groups of Fillipino, that is both the traditional and the modern group. Majority of the Southeast Asian culture related the statues of elite class with the people who are in the service of government organization, and it has always created difficulties for a group which was in power.

Tutorial 2: What are the different colonial fantasies elucidated by Hermkens and Rutherford, and explain why they are different.

Assignment Help AustraliaHermken,has used one object that is painted bark cloth, he through the history of this cloth has explain the colonialism. When there was encounter between people of Europe, Humboldt Bay and Sebtani during mid of eighteenth century, then the exchange of objects between them started. Girl has to wear maro in Humboldt Bay, as soon as they were initiated (K.W.Galis 1995).There was a interaction of women of Humboldt Bay and Sentani with male foreigner. Some of the European woman used to deal with these European, and these European agents used them for the purpose of politics, and some of them were employed to extend the power of the country. Both of them have objects which crested interest between them to extend a county power. The absence of clothing in Humboldt Bay and Lake Sentani explain the deteriotion of Papuan. The government and missionaries showed their interest to dress them, especially to women. They adopted the habit of dressing .Papuans started refusing to be portrayed in the nude, and their clothing habits got changed.

According to Rutherford, Papuans had nothing in common with Indonesian. The first two vision of New Guinea wanted a escape from a negative behaviour and roles associated with girls and women for regeneration of colonials. The Indo-Europeans chased their dreams, which are after independence of Indonesia from the Netherland; they escape to New Guinea which helped people from farming society to enter into bureaucracy. After the war, other than the Indos, Europeanness was imparted to others by New Guinea. It was the pioneer of Indonesia and Europe, who enjoy in 1950’s when sovereignty was transferred to Indonesian from the Netherland. Dutch colonialism created the people ruled by the rulers, which was due to the gendered fantasies in New Guinea.

Tutorial 3: What does Chauvel mean by the apparent paradox between the rigidity of Papuan nationalists’ demand for independence and the ability of Papuan nationalists to adapt to changing political circumstances?

Buy Sample AssignmentToday, the Papaun nationalism is stronger than it was during previous years. The revolution for independence of Papuan cannot be separated from the world revolution (Bonay c 1980s:80) there are basically four factors which shape the Papuan nationalism. First, they are sad about how their land combined into Indonesia. Second elite class of Papuan society consider Indonesia official as their rivals for dominating their country. Thirdly the development of territory in terms of economic and administrative and along with feelings of Papuans that is there difference from Indonesia has encouraged sense of their identity. The fourth is that they feel that from their own land they have been extinct. On December 1, 1961, independence was declared by Papua but it was denied during agreement between Indonesia and Netherland in 1962.In 1969, it was agreed by Indonesia that through the act of free choice Papuans can determine their own future. Unfortunately it was manipulated and was implemented. The 1961 flag raising was a major step for democracy and decolonization. Papuans consider this event as a mark of their independence. Theys Eluay in 1999, when move all around Jayapura with flag, many other flags appeared from houses of people. The Special Autonomy Law of 2001 has shown the possibility that is there can be alteration in the government policy to safeguard the interest of Papuan. There was a participation of Papuans in its formulation, and some of the nationalist value of Papuans was included in it. It has not been implemented till yet. Susila Bambang Yudhoyano’s who was elected as President has created another Jakarta moment to understand the opportunity created by this Law. It was committed by the President to the leaders of Papua for implementation of special Autonomy and decision of government to divide Papua into three provinces to be review.

Tutorial 4: What are the ways in which religious rituals bridge divisions between conflicting ethnic groups in Sri Lanka.

Kataragama, this site represents the unity and peace between Tamil Hindu and Sinhalese Buddhist. However due to lot of difference between the pilgrimages of two kind, times will be required for their articulation. From the Tamil point of view the Sinhalese are the people who wanted to engage themselves with the affairs of the states. From Sinhalese point of view, strict and rigid self punishment of Tamil, acts like rolling on the ground, injection of thousand of arrows throughout their bodies ,art of humiliating and embarrassing themselves has spoil the atmosphere of the site. In Kataragama the difference in rituals are resolved and feeling of cast does not come into existence (Paul Wirz 1966). But now the condition has been changed since the past years. Buddhist has adopted the worship mode, which was followed by Hindus and the rumours about Hindus that they have betrayed the God, has been discarded by the Tamils according to Obeyesekere. Even Hindus enjoy the cheerful worship of Sinhalese at Murukan. It has been accepted by Hindus that their god Murukan is same as the god of Buddhist that is Skanda. The participation of Buddhism in Kataragama and Skanda is due to the arrival of new problem in the modern world. Skanda,he provide blessings to overcome the problems of modern world. They both believe that  only he can solve the problems,which are not possible for other deities. He can solve problems related to child birth, marriage and others. Despite the rivalries between two group, Kataragamas is a place where both of the group cooperate. Kataragama is a place where untouchables can pray without the fear of the upper class people. Kataragama, it provides the sense of unity amongst the people who visit this site.

Tutorial 5: In many of the post-colonial countries of Asia, dance has been a prominent tool to express and embody ethnicity, identity and cultural heritage. What is the relationship between nationalism and dance cultures?

Buy Assignments OnlinePencak Silat is a martial art which prevails in many parts of Indonesia, as well as amongst the people who speak Malay. Indonesian Pencak Silat Association has worked for making this art form as one of the national resource. This art form act as a tool for character building (Nalapraya 1999:4). Many of the tradition of martial art of today can be relate to movements of previous years. Judo transformed the martial art and during 20th century, karate was incorporated in the curriculum of national school. Thousand of trained young people, with proper coordination displayed a Pencak Silat, which was the victory of national unity. During mid of nineteenth century program on Pencak Silat was broadcasted in Radio of Republic Indonesia. This art form was traditionally considered for men, but it has taught fighting skills to women in a graceful manner. Sometimes this art form is accompanied by local instruments.It is a part of culture heritage of Indonesia. The movement in jurus are very specific. In jurus Ciajus, the town which is near to Jakarta,is a centre for Penca. Ciansur is associated with the Menak.In  usik ,the main aim is not to gain victory ,but to develop sensitivity within both side of the people. It is usually consider as an indoor art form. Pencak Silat, style form which is associated with Sundanese and Cianjur are known as Syabandar and Cikalong. In Cikaret, the Pencak Silat is practised by Wa Udm, the guru who is far more open than others. The education on Pencak, will broaden the people culture, due to it, there will be a resolution in social and cultural area. This art form will increase the unity within people of nation.

Tutorial 6: Ong and Peletz argue that gender “is a fluid, contingent process characterised by contestation, ambivalence and change” (1995:1). Illustrate what is meant by this with reference to examples from the Brenner and Mills readings. (Reference: Ong, A. and Peletz, M. 1995. Bewitching Women, Pious Men: Gender and Body Politics in Southeast Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press.)

Mortality, power and control structure is being coded by gender. The idea of male power has legalised the control of men over women and in the society. Men are considered of superior status, according to the Javanese culture, but in actual they are not. Javanese women give approval to the idea that status of men is superior, so that their prestige does not get spoil. On the other hand, sometimes women clearly say about uncontrollable passion of men, and sometimes their childish behaviour ,due to which, the do not act properly. Women should depend on their strength, so that they compensate the lack of control of their husband. The activities of the women outside the home for economy purpose are actually their concern for money matters related to the household work. Men speak negative about women, when she is associated with money. But there is another possibility, that there can be a positive attitude for women, dealing with money matters that are they bring prosperity to their family. A survey has been conducted where along with men; even rural women leave their home and move to urban centre. Travelling give men a chance of acquiring greater knowledge as well to have a look on women who are attractive (cf.Krish 1966). A woman, who is not under the control of any man is a threat to the society dominated by the males, for examples, there are lot of gossips on widows and divorcees, especially about their sexual activities. In short, we can say that both genders that is men and women compliment to each other and play an important role in the society. Both of the genders have their own structure and status.

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