Final year project on target marketing relating to football betting shops in Nigeria-50456

The Aim of the project is to know the impact of target marketing and also find out whether it is necessary for all business to focus on specific customers?, and why some businesses decide to target only specific customers, instead of  making it general for all customers.
THE proposal literature review should focus mainly on target marketing.
< `Structure of the Dissertation first should be.
< A brief overview of the research study conducted
Chapter 1: provides an overview of the research topic and states the problems, statement and defines the main objectives of the study;
Chapter 2:  provide a detailed view of the literature which will be based on the previous studies conducted by different researchers;
Chapter 3: should be methodology section how the data’s will be collected. To defines the sources of information and the methods applicable on the sample population in order to test whether the hypothesis of the study is accepted or rejected.
Chapter 4: provides a detailed analysis of the data collected in order to help us in drawing conclusion related to the research topic of the study;
Chapter5:  conclusion.
Chapter 6: Referencing should be Harvard style of reference please.

Table of Contents
Chapter1:    4
1.0.    BACKGROUND    4
1.1.    RESEARCH AIM    7
Chapter 2:    10
2.  Literature Review    10
2.1. Introduction    10
2.2. Target Marketing:    10
Chapter 3:    18
3.2.    METHODS OUTLINE    18
3.3.    RESEARCH ONION    18
3.6.    RESEARCH DESIGN    20
3.7.    DATA COLLECTION (Primary and Secondary)    21
3.8.    RESEARCH METHOD (Qualitative)    21
3.9.    SAMPLE METHOD    21
3.10.    SAMPLE SIZE    22
Chapter 4:    23
4.    Data Analysis    23
Chapter 5    30
5.    Conclusion and Recommendations    30
5.1. Conclusion    30
5.2.    Liking with objectives    30
5.3.    Recommendations    31
5.4.    Further scope of the study:    31
6.    Reference    32
7.    Appendix    35

Vignette: A Night Out with Friends in Bayelsa


Target marketing is premised on the grounds that those who are targeted have a prior affinity for a brand, or product. If true then marketers would create an offer which met attitude towards that product or servicesin a way that culminated in a sale. One demonstration for why the targeting strategy works out is due to the shared knowledge of cultural displayed in the communication of marketing. In other terms, the accomplishment of target marketing is mainly driven by the inference of consumers towards similarity among themselves and communication effort of the company(Brenkert, 2008).
Target marketing is the process of aiming services or products at a ‘target market’. The target market is a cluster of prospects that meet these criteria(Cottle, 2000) and the Vignette which opens this dissertation illustrates each of these most clearly:
•    The group is large enough to provide a flow of sales prospects.
•     The group has common characteristics that differentiate them from the non-members
•    There could be as few as one common characteristic warrants a customized approach.
•    The group members also share a common need which may be attributed to the common characteristic(s)
•    The group is a group also in the sense of sharing information informally and formally
•    There are influential members whose reputation led other members to him or her. Indeed the key criterion of defining a target market is its communication system.
The reasons for emphasizing on target marketing are many. However, the research discusses few as mentioned below(Cant, 2006):
•    This strategy also helps the organization to gain reputation and improve brand image which discourages other competitors from penetrating in the market.
•    Target marketing results in gaining high profits by lower gaining costs.
•    The job satisfaction level of the marketers will also increase as they get chance to work with people who have many things in common.
Target marketing can be divided into three different segments(Sheehan, 2011):
•    Segmenting market
•    Targeting the market
•    Positioning the market
The segmentation process can be defined as the process of separating the market into small groups that share common characteristics and needs. The market classification can be conducted in two different ways one is the consumer products and other is the business products(Khan, 2013). The consumer products are those products that are mainly brought to the end customers and the business products are those products that are purchased mainly for the indirect or direct production process(Lovelock, 2011). For an effective segmentation process, the marketers must note that the segments must be measurable in terms of size and purchase power. Generally, there are four different types of market segments which include geographic segments, psychographic segments, demographic segments and the behavioural segments(Rossberger and Fiedler, 2014).
The geographical variables divide the market in political divisions like boroughs, cities, countries, states, territories etc. Companies that segment their market on geographical basis requires licensing (Soares and Correia, 2009). Then the demographic segment is mainly based on prospecting based on measurable statistics like religion, marital status, family size, income, occupation, ethnicity, family situation (married, single, married but no children, single parent, divorced etc), gender, generational cohort (Generation X, Baby Boom, Silent Generation etc) and education. The psychographic variable divides the market by the attitudes and lifestyles. This mainly includes the hobbies, personalities, values and leisure activities. Lastly the behavioral variables is segmenting the market by usage and buying behavior. This segment categorizes the people based on their buying motivations, loyalty towards the benefits(Morritt, 2007).
Targeting on is the procedure of selecting a specific fragment to convey the item. The portions are essentially focused around game changer, productivity and degree that are for the most part chosen by the organization (Rossberger and Fiedler, 2014). There are primarily three diverse targeting on methodologies which incorporate the undifferentiated Targeting on system, concentrated technique or the Differentiated Targeting on method. The undifferentiated technique is the method that the association picks by giving a solitary item to all its shoppers. The differentiated strategy is the methodology where the association produces single line of products for diverse client sections focused around the need of the purchasers. At that point the concentrated strategy is fundamentally focused to a specific portion of business sector or gathering of people(Fetchko, Roy and Clow, 2013).
Positioning can be described as the action of advertising which puts the particular products in the brain of purchaser and positioning causes in order to independent products offerings of an association from a substitute. Positioning activities grasped by the affiliation may oblige making an arranging guide and position of the particular products may be changed(Paharia, Avery and Keinan, 2014). A couple of parts which are basic for the buyers would be picked with a particular finished objective to make an arranging aide for the particular consequence of the affiliation. For example cost and quality are the two general parameters which are of high essentialness for the purchasers and used by marketers for positioning the products.
An enterprise will have various groups of customers or target audiences in the overall market, like it may sell its products to vendors, companies, traders, individuals, nonprofit organizations etc. Every market has different tastes and preferences and it is important for an enterprise to understand and analyze that preference to sell its products or services. Being focused on a specific market or audiences helps the organization to strengthen the effectiveness of the brand. It is important to find the right balance while defining the target audience because this would help the organization to make their potential customers aware that they are specifically talking to them.
Targeting a specific core market helps the organization to(West, Ford and Ibrahim, 2006):
•    Eliminate non-interested audience or people who do not value what is being offered
•    Make more effectual marketing spending
•    Better emphasize on needs of specific audiences instead of whole universe
•    Build strong referral base
The aim of this study is to understand the impact of target marketing on the football betting shops and why they are targeting specific customers
The objective of conducting this research is to analyse wether thecontribution of target marketing to the betting shops enable them make more profit. Andidentify who are the major target customers to the betting shops in Nigeria. However to analyse this, the research further finds the importance of focusing on specific customers by the business and then discusses the reason behind the choice of specific customers.
1.4.    The following research questions would help to find the right conclusion of the study:
•    Who are the major customers of the football betting shop?
•    What are the factors that are helpful in targeting the customer base of the betting shop?
•    What are the major challenges faced by the betting shop while targeting the customer base?
•    What are better options available for betting shop to target the customer base?
Customers are the target audiences of the social enterprise who buy the services or the products sold by them. These audiences differ in their buying habits, product choices, tastes and preferences. The consumers are more intricate than they appear. There are many people apart from those who purchase the service or the product like person who influence other to purchase or people who help in making choices are also customers to an organization. Thus it is very much important to distinguish the customers according to their need and requirement termed as target marketing(Wilson and Gilligan, 2005). This targeting helps to understand the motivations and buying habits of a person. Thus the rationale of target marketing is to generate higher sales by making explicit appeals to different customers groups.
The whole research study is categorized into different chapters for conducting the research in a systematic way. Detail and purposes of the chapter is highlighted below:
Chapter 1: Introduction
This is an introduction chapter that highlights the research context, explaining the aim, objectives and research questions. Additionally, the rationale of the study is also been discussed and also provides an outline of the study.
Chapter 2: Literature review
Inthis section, the opinions of various scholars related to target marketing is been discussed. The literature review discusses the available theories related to the domain. This section critically analyzes the propositions of various scholars and authors for analyzing the knowledge gap.
Chapter 3: Research methodology
This chapter gives a brief of various approaches and methods that the researcher has used for conducting this study. Justification is been provided in this section related to the choice of the methods and approaches.
Chapter 4: Data analysis
Collection of data at the time of primary research has been discussed in this chapter. This chapter clearly analyzes the qualitative and quantitative data collected at the time of research.
Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations
The research chapter will end up by giving details of overall findings of the study. This chapter validates the present study by aligning the objectives of the research. Also the chapter adds some recommendations to improve the study in future.

Chapter 2:
2.  Literature Review
2.1. Introduction
In the contemporary business scenario, every organisation has recognised their target markets for their own products and scenarios.  The products could or the services could be differ from the in terms of demographics, needs, attitudes, locations and the nature of the customers. Targeting allows the companies to target their customer base and deliver the product as per the demand and needs of the customers (Adair, 2011).  It is very much necessary to follow the needs and values of the target customers within each segment. As observed in the betting market, competition base pricing strategy also focuses on the customer retentions for the existing organisations (Anderson and Vincze, 2008).  The particular chapter will focus on the establishing a foundation of academic knowledge related to targeting only those customers who are very much love in betting and earning the livelihood. Application of various theories and models will add literature to the research topic so that in later chapters, it can be utilised for better analysis.

2.2. Target Marketing:
As noted by Baker (2007), target market can be referred as the customer groups towards which the marketing efforts are aimed by the business unit for their merchandise. It is very important to well define the target as the targeting is one of the most important elements of the marketing strategy. The target marketing is basically based on the premise that there is a pronounced affinity for the brand or the product for the targeted groups (Barker and Chitty, 2009). Thus it is expected that the marketers will meet achieve their desired goals and objectives if the marketing practices are conducted by targeting. The explanation for the effectiveness of the target market can be achieved from the communication marketing and the shared cultural knowledge. The inference of the similarity and the difference between various aspects of the communication of the company can derive how the target market can lead to the success of an organisation.
The target markets are basically separated or distinguished on the basis of the certain characteristics of the consumers. As discussed by Anderson and Vincze (2008), the organisations can target the consumers in the market on the basis of those characteristics. The target markets can be separated on the basis of the segmentation of the location of the climatic region; on the basis of the socioeconomic or demographic characteristics, on the basis of the psychographic characteristics; on the basis of behavioural characteristics and product-related segmentation (Baker, 2007). There are various strategies that can be applied in case of target marketing.
Strategies for Target Marketing:
There are various strategies that are used by business units in order satisfy the target markets. These can be discussed here.
    Mass Marketing:  It is one of the strategies that are applied in case of target marketing. In the market coverage or mass marketing strategy, firm may go after the entire market and not only a segmented market in a location (Barker and Chitty, 2009). In this type of marketing, a selected segment is not targeted but the product is planned to be supplied to the wide audiences in the industry. The main aims of the companies are in to send the message to the wide group of people so that it can maximise the chances of attaining the success in the industry.

    Differentiated Marketing: When the companies are following the differentiated marketing strategy the companies decide to offer separately in different segments of the market where the company targets. It is also referred as the multi-segment market and thus in the different market segments there are certain degree of appeal in the market (Cant, 2009). In each and every segment the consumers are offered unique benefits and unique features in terms of the product or the service. This can significantly increase the benefits of the company and by providing these unique facilities to the consumers as they can be attracted to these specialist services. It can increase total sales of the company but the cost is also very high due to the specialization or personalised service provision for each target groups in the industry (Carriganet al.2005).

    Niche Marketing or Concentration Marketing: This strategy can also be used in case of target marketing. In this strategy a particular market niche is selected first. The marketing efforts are basically targeted on that particular market niche. After that the organisation implements their concentration on that particular market segment and the needs and the wants of the consumers in that segment are identified (Chernev, 2010). The research on the needs and the wants of the consumers in that segment can help in implementing the marketing strategy that is required to be implemented by the organisation. It is evident that most of the small firms use this strategy for competing against the big business units in the industry.

    Direct marketing: As opined by Alvarez and Casielles (2008),it is another strategy that can be used for the target marketing. Through this strategy the organisations try to reach the consumers directly in the market. The organisations can access the consumer database and the segmentation profiles can be created by the individuals. The contacts of the consumers are included in the database which can help in direct marketing.
Target marketing can help in obtaining a significant customer base for the organisation and the customers can show an intense affinity in terms of the brand loyalty. The organisation can convey the required message to the consumers with the help of effective target marketing strategy (Anand, 2007). There are certain factors related with the region, demography or psychographic characteristics that can help in distinguishing the customers in a specific market. Thus it can be said that target marketing is one of the effective processes that are implemented by the business units in order to achieve the strategic goals and objectives of the organisation.
Advantages of Target Marketing:
As noted by  Bakeret al. (2009), it is evident that target marketing is used by various companies in recent times. There are various advantages of target marketing. It is known that target marketing enables an organisation to get appropriate prospective of the consumers. This can increase the efficiency of the organisation in achieving the goals and objectives. Targeting can help in segregating the groups of consumers on the basis of their needs and wants and then appropriate products can be supplied to the consumers (Ballantyne and Aitken, 2007). It is very effective to concentrate on a specific segment where the customers are interested rather than focusing on a vast market where the consumers are less interested. Target marketing can also provide the required competitive advantage to the organisation as well. So the advantages of target marketing can be in the following points.
    With the help of target marketing, the attention of the marketer is focused on a specific area of the market. So the company can save the cost and time of vast marketing strategy. Thus target marketing is time-efficient as well as cost efficient (Bouldinget al.2010).
    The materials that are used in promotion are highly relevant with the requirements or the needs of the employees. Thus it can be more effective tools for the organisation.
    Target marketing can also help in brand positioning and gaining customer loyalty in the industry.
    Target marketing can help in achieving the competitive advantage in the market and thus it provides a competitive edge from other competitors (Erevelles, 2008).

Target market strategies
There are two type of marketing in the current business industry one if mass marketing which depicts that  the products and services sold by the companies has universals appeal. On the other hand, concentrated marketing targeting specific kind of customer for the predicts and services sold by the companies, for instance, betting, companies, gambling and luxurious goods (Farahmand, 2011). Mass marketing is generally are those products such as FMCG, vehicles and clothing sect.  Mass targeting suggests that products and service should be made in a such way that it appeals to every people in the world. However, concentred marketing is very much related to the niche market. These products or the services are made for the specific kind of people who are very much into the same business (Alvarez and Casielles, 2008).
Concentrated marketing
As opined by Carriganet al. (2005), here the customers are fewer in number long with few companies. The market is also known as the monopolistic market with few suppliers and few customers. The products and services are unique in nature that, it cannot be purchased in the other market. Concentrated marketing is used in the gambling industry because the companies concentrate very few customers from the existing society (Cant, 2009).  The betting industry is one of the major examples for the company.  This market is also known as the niche market which involves betting an even more select group of the customers. When you are engaging in niche market, the company’s goal is to be a big fish in the river instead of small fish in the big pond.  Some of the examples of the companies operating in niche markets are very much careful with the privacy issues and the trust (Barker and Chitty, 2009)\. Although the theory also explains that these companies or the market is regulated by the government by setting up of the norms but it is avoided in the moat of the nations worldwide. Some of the nations who has legalised the betting and the gambling are USA, UK, Nigeria, Zimbabwe and some of the south American nations.
On the other hand, as discussed by  Anderson and Vincze (2008),niche market and focusing companies attracts the customer via premium and lucrative earning without the even doing any kind of the physical or mental work. In addition to that, hidden danger  in looking at the business would be appear  in niche market. Most of the small companies or rathe brands are often are start the business by thinking that it is more of deceiving and believing that only the company is selling these services to the consumers (Adcock, 2010).  The reality may be in fact may be different that could be vulnerable number of companies will be present in the market.  For instance, the target consumer will be driven with reward which they will earn in betting.   Targeting the customers as per the price and the reward gained within the game or the betting is one of the major strategies. One of the major factors would be the trust and the experience of the company in the industry (Anderson and Vincze, 2008). Apart from that, company has whether or not have government licensed for the business.
The majority of the  studies has examine the efficiency of the measuring markets  and its focus on the betting , where the money is bet on all outcomes in pool and after the winning and losing the commission is been presume is hard proportionally  among the winning bets (Adcock, 2010).  On the contrary, target market for the fixed odd are set by the bookie and bettors final payout is determined by the existing odds prevailing at the time consumer place their bets which shows that weak efficiency of the market.

Figure 1: Targeting strategies used in the global market
(Source:Baker et al. 2009, pp-523)

Breadth of the target market Coverage
The final segmentation decision is based on the chosen strategies by the companies who are entering into the market and segmenting the part.  In light of these thoughts, there are five essence of market coverage exist:
Single segment concentrations: in this phase of the target market, business focuses only on the one sided segment.  Although there is high risk strategy in that the firm is vulnerable with sudden changes in the choosing of the customers (Alvarez and Casielles, 2008). Concentrated marketing lines have often provide to be attractive to small companies with limited funds. Companies who are looking for the single segment has to develop strong market position who will also be known as the specialist in the industry.
Selective Specialisations:  Concentrating on just one segment, the stagiest has to decide the risk by the covering the several segments.  These segments will give an internal assessment which would be compatibles’ with the organisations objectives and the resources (Bouldinget al.2010).  Some of the vehicle organisation like ford has introduced their van which is tough and very well maintained by the off road vehicle has targeted the wide variety of agricultural people and the wood cutter along the carpenters.  Vehicles has dominated in these markets has recently launched luxurious form of cars like sedan which appeal to the very different types of the target group of the customers (Erevelles, 2008).  These are also known as the selective specialisation by the companies who are looking to gain the large customer base via   producing various products and choosing the different market group.
Product or service specialisations:  the product or the service specialisation depicts that organisations concentrates on marketing a particular type products to large variety of the customer base (Ballantyne and Aitken, 2007).  In these case, gambling and betting would be included as the companies ahs used various and lucrative services like free drinks for the customer who are into the business of the serving the services which is small in number to the special kind of guest. These organisation are generally motivate the pole to play or to maintain engagement process tightly in order to gain the profitability (Baker et al. 2009).
Market specialisations: In this phase of the customer base companies are looking to  involves in particular type of product and services to cater the variety of the  target group.  For examples betting institution are targeting who would love to bet on the team sort the cards to win the prizes (Ballantyne and Aitken, 2007).  Apart from that are some of the examples too like agrochemicals manufacturer whose major principles is to cater the target market for the farmers.  These companies manufactures only those products only for the few section of people who are into the business of conducting catering only few section of people. However, these markets produce low products and services as per the demand and expectation of the rising demand.

Full market coverage’s:  as noted by Chernev (2010), it is one of the most costly of the above five patterns of the market coverage because of strategy of the full market involve catering the large customer base with the full range FMCG products. Full market coverage also includes the vehicles companies who are not the business for the selling of the cars and van for the large number of consumers.

As observed from the study of the particular chapter, the researcher was able to gather knowledge and details of customers’ decision-making process and the role of targeting in the concerned process. Targeting of consumer is considered as one of the parameter that is useful to determine the choice or the selection of a product.  Very few companies and special section of consumers are participated in the particular organisation. Betting industry is involve in creating preference of quality of betting so that customers can gain adequate satisfaction level and can be converted into loyal customers. Consumers’ perception towards a good or a product is revealed by success target strategies of an organisation that helps in competing with the rivals at better rate.

Chapter 3:
This chapter gives a detail description of various approaches, methods and strategies that the researcher has chosen to conduct this present study. The research methodology is termed as the process for conducting research by emphasizing on the research objective. Based on these research aim and objectives the researcher has selected few appropriate methods to solve the research problem. The main role of the researcher is to address the research validity the so that the readers can interpret the results easily and can align with the research objective. Every part mentioned in the research methodology is very important in order to conduct the research effectively so that every factor can be addressed significantly to understand the impact of target marketing on the football betting shops in Nigeria.
As per the opinion of Ellis and Levy (2009), the research method outline is the framework of the overall research methodology. This outline provides a systematic and basic structure to drive the research in the right way. This research focuses on understanding the impact of target marketing on the football betting shops and analyzes the influence of specific target customers on the business. Based on the present research study, the researcher decides to choose positivism philosophy for the present study along with inductive approach. The research design chosen is descriptive. To make the research more effective the researcher focuses on both primary and secondary data to effectively address the research problem. The quantitative analytical method is been chosen followed by simple random sampling.
Research onion is a systematic framework that provides details of conducting the framework through different important steps that are designed in specific series. Going through every layer right from the outer most circles would help the researcher to reach the desired conclusion. This framework helps the researcher to frame the strategies for conducting the present research by aligning with the objectives in a systematic way.

(Source: Saunders et al., 2009, p-52)
If the research onion shown above is observed thoroughly, it can be seen that the research philosophy is the first layer in the onion which means that all the other approaches or methods are reliant on the research philosophy. In this layer, the researcher has to choose the appropriate philosophy for assessing the impact of targeting market on the football betting shops in Nigeria.
In the present research the researcher opts for maintaining positivism philosophy since the researcher tries to find the influence of targeting marketing on the betting shops. According to the opinion of Cameron (2009), positivism philosophy supports the studies that are based on the real life facts and figures and also real life scenario. Lancaster (2012), simultaneously supports by saying that the positivism philosophy supports the systematic studies.  For scientific evidences, the present study involves the quantitative data analysis through which the author can identify the real factors that influences the football betting shops in Nigeria and also tries to analyze the impact of specific targeting. Thus positivism philosophy helps to make a systematic and structured research to acquire the desired result.
The research approach is the second layer in research onion. There are generally two basic approaches deductive and inductive approaches that the researcher can use to study the impact of targeting. Morgan (2007) describes inductive approach is all about creating new theories related to the study and deductive approach is the process of testing the already existing theories. Similarly, Brannen (2009) described that inductive approach follows a specific path which includes observations, data collection and analysis, utilizing the various analytical tools which helps to develop new theories related to the topics. While, the deductive approach follows the previous theories related to the topic, designs hypothesis, analyzes the data and implements the discussed theories for confirmation of theoretical evidences.
In the present research, the researcher utilizes the deductive approach. The past theories have been already discussed in the chapter 2 literature review. In the chapter 4, the data collection and analyzes provides theoretical evidences. Further, the study is developed based on the waterfall model that begins from the theory evaluation to theory testing with proper data analysis.
The research design is the third layer research onion. In this layer, the researcher has to interpret the results and findings of data analysis based on the aim and objectives of the research. Here the researcher focuses on overall research to explore the topic. There are three different types of research design; descriptive, explanatory and exploratory. The descriptive research design tries to find the correct findings by relating the overall research with the objective. The explanatory design mainly helps the researcher in finding out the reasons behind the risen research problem. The exploratory design highlights the background information of the identified problem statements(Creswell and Creswell, 2007).
In the present research, the researcher has decided to align the findings and the conclusion with the research objectives designed earlier. Since the deductive approach in the study is mainly used to evaluate the background information related to the domain of the research. Since the deductive design helps the researcher to find the best solutions to the research questions designed in chapter 1, the researcher has decided to find the right solutions to the questions like how, why, where and what.
1.7.    DATA COLLECTION (Primary and Secondary)
The data collection process emphasizes on two different phases one is primary data and another one is the secondary data. The primary data is the data being collected through survey of present target audiences and the secondary data are the data that are already available in online articles, informative websites, e-journals and books. All this information is used in the literature review and also describing the specific terms(Punch, 2009).
The primary data is collected using the questionnaire method that is given to the participants in written or in few cases taken verbal replies. A structured written questionnaire was used to gather the information. Likert Scale is used to gather the attitudes of the participants to understand the impact of target marketing on the betting shops. According to the opinion of Parahoo (2006), the likert scale is a type of questionnaire that details articulations which the scientist considers will speak to the idea being measured without experiencing the acceptance procedure utilized as a part of a Likert scale. The survey will comprise of emphatically and contrarily worded explanations with six diverse reaction alternatives going from unequivocally differ to firmly concur. Positive proclamations are scored one to six (one for unequivocally concur through to six for firmly deviate) and scores are turned around for negative explanations. The score for everything will be accounted for independently(Brace, 2013).
1.8.    RESEARCH METHOD (Qualitative)
The research methods are mainly categorized into two different segments quantitative and qualitative. The qualitative research emphasizes on improving the services and products of the organization and the qualitative research method emphasizes on collecting the information by conducting surveys from the respondents(Seale, 2004). Here the researcher focuses on conducting the research through qualitative research methods by conducting survey of football betting shops in Nigeria.
As the exploration needs to be accumulated essential information, testing is a vital system to choose the respondents for directing the overview. Examining strategy alludes to the choice of fitting contender for the study that significant information can be gathered through the information accumulation technique (Ellis and Levy, 2009). Two essential inspecting strategies are likelihood examining and non-likelihood sampling.Brannen (2009) referred to that focused around the decision of testing system, the significance and precision including the information investigation methodology can be controlled. Straightforward irregular likelihood testing system has been utilized amid quantitative information examination. As opined by Morgan (2007), basic irregular method gives break even with chances to the respondents of getting chose. An alternate purpose for picking such specimen system is the bigger number of example size
1.10.    SAMPLE SIZE
For the current research on, the researcher has gathered respondents that are 4 football betting shops along with their 5 managers have answered to this survey. This may help in getting alluring conclusion from the study the creator needs to draw. For qualitative information customer of 4 football betting shop is namely Nairstake , 360 bet , SureBet 247 and MerryBet chosen from Nigeria.
The research needs to consider several ethical limitations while conducting this study. This would help to maintain the study acceptability. According to the opinion of Ellis and Levy (2009), maintaining ethics is very important for every research study so that the society or the reader can accept the study. Further the researcher should make sure the confidentiality of information provided by the participants is maintained and also should construct the questionnaires based on the emotions and feelings of the participants like their background, customs and beliefs etc(Love, 2012). The researcher should also make sure that the questionnaires should not be too long to read and understand. Further the researcher should also make sure that the data is collected at leisure time or with prior appointment. Further this data should only be used for academic purpose and not for any kind of commercial purpose(Mauthner, 2002).
Chapter 4:
1.    Data Analysis
Qualitative Questionnaire:  For manager of four major betting shop of Nigeria: Nairstake , 360 Bet , SureBet 247 and MerryBet

1.What are the importance of  target marketing for football betting shop in Nigeria?
As per of Nairstake , feels that for every business companies should target the customers. Specifically  for the betting shop, only those customers are target who are rich and are willing to taking the risk  to earn higher and lose the existing money. In 2013, sports betting in Nigeria is fast becoming a genuinely two horse race  as its rapidly  growing online and offline segment  close  up on a retail business  that has been staging  in revenue terms.
As per the other two manager from the 360Bet and Surebet  has chosen those people who are earning more than $4000 in a month. Most of the customers are forming  an online club  in order to bet on the football which is one of the most popular way of marketing in Nigeria.  Manager of the 360 Bet feels that higher would be the winning price higher the chances of attracting the bidders.
Apart from that, as per the thought of the 4th managers of Merry bet founds that, gaining the large customer base is one of the major tactics of football betting shop. Merry bet has chosen segmenting, targeting and positioning phase before placing the game bet. The manager feels company increase the betting price during the time of the Football world cup and for the others seasonal like English premier league and Spanish league. This enhances the customers chances of winning of game which is higher that brought them towards the shop.
2. How targeting strategy helps in enhancing sales for your betting shop?
While answering the question manager of the Nairstake and the Merry betting totally agree that price and clear betting policy and procedure of each is been one of the pillar of the gaining the customer towards their shop. Most of the small and rookie are attracted towards the fake betting shop that is generally cheating the customers for the small amount of money.  The gross revenue gambling earning of the Nairstake shows that football betting is second on the pipe line which is aggressively attracting the customer because of the higher demand of the customer base.
Gross Betting    Revenue of the Nairstake (2012)
Casino betting     20,893
Sports betting     20,900
Limited payout machines     16411
Bingo     3835
Total betting     28840

As per the manager of 360bet, To guarantee the success of your company and to avoid wasting valuable  time and resources  you need to perform  target market analysis. As per the manager, with the help of the defining the potential customer base is defined via profile of the market which includes the characteristics of the customers via psychographic and the behavioural aspects which will lead the company to gain the large market share in existing business of Nigeria.
Apart from  the above, the other manager suggest that with the help of proper way of the positioning the brand of the betting shops in festive season and the local radio advertisement has help the company to achieve this type of the success.

3.Why are the football betting shops targeting Specific customers?
As per the managers, football marketing shop target specific customer because it is not for the universal appeal or FMCG products to sell in the market.  Betting shops only target those customers adult and has enthusiasm of betting on game. Apart from that, betting shop des not target the vulnerable people in poor areas. These shop target the high income group and club who are passionate about the football. Most of the football betting shop in Nigeria is following the RGT including the Nair stake and 360 degree.  The football target two specific group of customers who are socialise through the football and are passionate about the game. These consumers have healthy bank account and are capable of controlling themselves during the betting.  Gambling has been part of the society  for many years, over the past few years  football betting has become more mainstream business in term of opportunity and now more viable widely  available because of internet.
Depending upon the legality and just diction, Merry bet and Surebet follows the legal act to protect the interest of the players. These shops follow the gambling act 2005, who are the legal members and certified members to open a football betting shop. Targeted customers are also very much interested in responsible gambling where the customers are given the self helps tools to avoid the excessive or rather foolish betting. Football is national game of the Nigeria, most of them are emotionally attach iwth game and rest are make business out of the game. Most of the football gamblers are usually customers are very much found of taking risk within the game which ultimately help the company to keep interested the customer by raising the winning prize money.
4.Who are the major target customers to the betting Shop?
Some of the major customers are of the betting shop are between the gae of 18-45. Apart from that those customer who are are passionate of the game and are interested in earning livelihood from betting asre oem of the major customers. There some of the other customers who form a club for the love of game and are intretsed in betting as their recreation.  Betting business in Nigeria is been very much popular because of the football is national game of most of African nations.
Besides that, company also target the high income group who are major looking to gain something out of the game. These people are very much keep track the team performance and are keeping the track of buying and selling of the player from one club to another.  Companies attract them via lucrative offers like double or the triple of the investment if the chosen team wins. In Nigeria , betting shop keep attracting the existing and potential customer via advertisings the prize money or the suggestions.  Customer satisfaction is one of the major area which determine the customer loyalty in betting business.
Customer loyalty is one of the major issues which may take the company to grow in the future. Managers feel that, enjoyment, satisfaction and commitment gain the loyalty of the consumers. Gambling in football has become common phenomena in western nations and African nations. One of the major findings is that significant growth of the gambling industry is because of potential societal impact and word of mouth advertising has draw the attention of the employees from time to time. Gambling is often projected as the negative light but there is clear evidence of the economic benefits and social benefits of betting. As per the research of ABB, more than 1000,000 jobs have been provided by the football betting industry in Nigeria.  More than 89% of the football betting players are men in compare to the women who are 7% in Nigeria. Out of the 918, 34, 051 of the population only 12% (110200.86) of the Nigerian population visits the betting shop and among the only 35% of the regular visitors within the betting shop.

5.How targeting tool plays crucial role  in influencing the customers decision making process for your football betting shop ?
Targeting tool like position plays one of the important part in gaining the customer confidence which by promoting the shop and its quality of betting along with free advice during the time of the matches are some of the major tool which helps the business to attract the customer base.
Another major tool as per the Manager 1 of Nairstake is social media targeting. First identifies the group of the gamblers who are indirectly attached with the football betting.  In order to  get there, managers has uses the platform like Twitter and Face book fan page in order to target highly engaged  customers  when they are reading about the products and services sold by the Nairtsake is been introduced in real time would  play the vital role in attracting the consumer decision making process.
Other major manager of the 360bet and Merry bet manager are totally agree of the targeting network base via contextual targeting method.   However, since the internet users in Australia is growing per day but still the uses are lower in compare to the UK , US and Asian region explains that most of the customer are still not bet online because of the lack of physical appearance of the shop.
Targeting tool like Face Book and phone number status of the customers helps the proposed solution that provides the producers  with portal  that can host  all of their personal information’s  and documents of the gamblers.  This will help the business to gain the information which will help the company to launch new of business ideas in order to gain the cost effective form of the management.  As per the manager of the Surebet , STP process helps to mould the company from the traditional form of betting business. STP service tool like behavioral and psychographic helps the company  to understand the mind of the consumers and their frequent changing demand  of betting because the it is niche market.

6.  What are the factors helpful in giving the brand recognition for your football betting shop?
One of the major factors which are helpful in recognizing the branding for the company   is price and and the quality as per the Surebet managers. Winning prize money must be double for the existing money invested is one of the major attraction for the  consumers of the betting company. Price factors are is one of the major factors which have been agreed by each and every companies managers.
Apart from that technology up-gradation like  Automated score board which shows the rise  and of the lowering price of the betting which may again attract the gamblers to bet on the products. As per the manager of the Nairstake  some of the major consumer are willing to take risk when the bet price is higher and  winning changes are triple the money which make them to bet on the football. Apart from that, with the help of  cash , debit card and credit card , companies are taking bet which  is another major advantages for the 360 bet because of the secured payment options available .
Lastly, factors like calling the customers and offering them lucrative  offers  has created loyalty of customer towards the Merry bet is one of the major strength of the company. Some of the companies like Sure bet has great ambience and Kiosk which give the locales and customers to have  several beverages and betting ion the football is one of the new fashion  for the business in Nigeria.

7. What the possible opportunities that can be gained with the implementation of concentrated marketing strategy for you shop?
High Sales: Concentrated marketing extends the sales of the organisation that helps in bringing new customers to  the betting shop which help in with the help of added advantages as per the Surebet manager. Branding brings new customers to the organisation that helps in generation of income and improves sales of the organisation.
Market Expansion: Attraction of larger number of customers helps in expansion of the market as positive word-of-mouth forces new customers to take entry in betting business in Nigeria as per the Nairstake shop. The managers also find that branding of the organisation is facing new markets and is enjoying the market opportunities adequately.
Positive Publicity: Satisfied customers are referring the brand to their known ones and are helping in promotion of the organisation via verbal mode with the help of concentrated marketing as per the Merry bet managers. Such positive publicity brings more number of customers and on being satisfied convert these customers into loyal ones.
Loyal Customers: Repeated customers of 360 betting shop are the sole strength that is catered as per their alterations so that they do not switch to other betting company. The status Quo conscious customers of the betting shop are regularly available with the n have wide range of football betting league which starts from the Spanish league to English league to Bundis league products and brand of the organisation can be justified adequately.

Chapter 5
2.    Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1. Conclusion
The entire study was focused on the concept of foot ball betting shop in Nigeria and the role niche market plays in shaping consumers’ behaviour while making choice of their service. As cited from the study of the research paper, the targeting marketing relating to football  betting shop  are observed by the researcher so that the value of can be evaluated with a specific example of an organisation. As seen in the secondary and primary sources. Football betting shop in Nigeria  are relying on the concept of branding and making their choices of services with the sense of security and reliability.
2.2.    Liking with objectives
As per the research objectives,  with the help of target market in football betting shop has able to create the large market base which has been  helps the business  to cater only few customers who are fanatic fan of the football and are willing to take the risk for the in the football betting. As per the theory of the target market simplifies that questionnaire 1 and 2 are been related to the target market.  As per the objective, managers give very much importance to the target market strategy in order to gain the large customer base within the existing business scenario.  Apart from that, as per question 3 and 4 major customer of the football betting has been identified along with that logic behind chosen customer base.
Apart from that, with the help of other questionnaire  of 4, 5 and 6, it has been found that STP process has certain limitation which is lack of innovation and increase in cost.   This satisfies the objectives importance of focusing on the specific customer for the football betting rather than catering like FMCG products.  Lastly, objectives of reason behind the choice of the target market are specified within the question 6 and 7.

2.3.    Recommendations
Depending on the analysis and result of the study, the researcher has listed recommendations that can help in bridging the gap between the issues and the proposed solutions.  With the help of online business in Nigeria, these footballs betting would be very much popular. Apart from that , With the help of better promotional activities like extension of social media marketing will give company an enough edge to gain the large customer base. Lastly with the help of customer feedback will give the company enough scope to understand the need of the consumer base.
2.4.    Further scope of the study:
Scope of the study due to restrictions could not be exploited to its proper potential level. Further, the topic could have developed with study of two  betting games like cricket and Football. Apart from that study will be enhances via consumer decision making process while investing betting. This will helps the study go deeper and analyze the customer demand and their willingness. Further, comparative study also enhances the chances of observing the various steps applied in the two organizations such as Surebet and Nairstake. The study between the two organisation of football betting   will help to analyses the tow companies targeting style.

3.    Reference
Adair, J. (2011) Effective Communication: The Most Important Management Skill of All. 5th ed. London: Prentice Hall.
Adcock, D. (2010) Marketing: Principles and practice.4th ed. London, Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publication.
Alvarez, B. A. &Casielles, R. V. (2008) Consumer evaluations of sales promotion: The effect on brand choice. European Journal of Marketing, 39 (1), 54-70.
Anand, P. (2007) ‘Inducing Franchisees to Relinquish Control: An Attribution Analysis’, Journal of Marketing Research 24(2): 215–221.
Anderson, C. and Vincze, J. (2008) Strategic marketing management. 5th ed. London: Chapman and Hall.
Baker, C., Nancarrow, C. and Tinson, J. (2009) The mind versus market share guide to brand equity. International Journal of Market Research, 47, 5, pp. 523–540
Baker, M. (2007) Marketing strategy and management. 6th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Ballantyne, D. and Aitken, R. (2007) “Branding in B2B markets: insights from the service-dominant logic of marketing”, Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 22(6), pp.363 – 371
Barker, N., and Chitty, W., (2009).Integrated Marketing Communications Asia Pacific Edition.  6thed. New York, London: Routledge.
Boulding, W., Staelin, R., Ehret, M. and Johnston, W. J. (2010) A customer relationship management roadmap: what is known, potential pitfalls, and where to go. Journal of Marketing, 69(4), 155–66
Brace, I. (2013). Questionnaire design. London: Kogan Page.
Brannen, J. (2009). Prologue, mixed methods for novice researchers: reflections and themes. International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 3(1), pp.8-12.
Brenkert, G. (2008). Marketing ethics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.
Cameron, R. (2009). A sequential mixed model research design: Design, analytical and display issues. International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 3(2), pp.140-152.
Cant, M. (2006). Marketing management. Cape Town, South Africa: Juta.
Cant, M. (2009) Marketing Management. 3rded. New York: Free Press.
Carrigan, M., Marinova, S. and Szmigin, I. (2005) Ethics and International Marketing: Research Background And Challenges. 5th ed. London: Prentice Hall.
Chernev, A. (2010) Strategic marketing management.5th ed. London: Prentice Hall.
Cottle, D. (2000). Professional’s guide to target marketing. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Professional Pub.
Creswell, J. and Creswell, J. (2007).Qualitative inquiry & research design. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Ellis, T. and Levy, Y. (2009). Towards a guide for novice researchers on research methodology: Review and proposed methods. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 6, pp.323-337.
Erevelles, S. (2008) “Advertising Strategy in China: An Analysis of Cultural And Regulatory Factors,” Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 15(1), 91-123.
Farahmand, N. F. ((2011) Organizational marketing planning by management educated managers, African Journal of Marketing Management 3(8), pp. 178-187
Fetchko, M., Roy, D. and Clow, K. (2013).Sports marketing. Boston: Pearson.
Khan, T. (2013).STP strategy for New Product Launch-a Work in Progress.International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2(3), pp.56-64.
Lancaster, G. (2012). Research methods in management. 4th ed. Oxford: Elsevier/Butterworth Heinemann.
Love, K. (2012).Ethics in social research. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald.
Lovelock, C. (2011).Services marketing. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Mauthner, M. (2002).Ethics in qualitative research. London: Sage Publications.
Morgan, D. (2007). Paradigms Lost and Pragmatism Regained: Methodological Implications of Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1), pp.48-76.
Morritt, R. (2007). Segmentation strategies for hospitality managers. New York: Haworth Press.
Paharia, N., Avery, J. and Keinan, A. (2014). Positioning Brands Against Large Competitors to Increase Sales. Journal of Marketing Research, 51(6), pp.647-656.
Parahoo, K. (2006). Nursing research. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Punch, K. (2009). Introduction to research methods in education. Los Angeles: Sage.
Rossberger, T. and Fiedler, M. (2014).Customer Segmentation Analysis in Major Sporting Goods Companies and its Influence on Strategic Marketing Decisions.RES, 6(4).
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2009).Research methods for business students. 5th ed. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall, p.52.
Seale, C. (2004). Qualitative research practice. London: SAGE.
Sheehan, B. (2011). Marketing management. Lausanne, Switzerland: AVA Pub.
Soares, J. and Correia, A. (2009). Factors and focuses in the strategic decisions of sporting organisations: empirical evidence in sports associations. IJSMM, 5(3), p.338.
West, D., Ford, J. and Ibrahim, E. (2006).Strategic marketing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wilson, R. (2010). Strategic Marketing Planning. 2nd ed. Oxford: Routledge.
Wilson, R. and Gilligan, C. (2005).Strategic marketing management. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann.

4.    Appendix
Qualitative Questionnaire:
A list of Questionnaire: For manager of four major betting shop of Nigeria: Nairstake , 360 bet , SureBet 247 and MerryBet.
Age:                                                                 Location:
Contact No.                  Email ID:

1. What is the importance of target marketing for customers of football marketing companies?
2. How does targeting strategy helps in enhancing sales of your beetling shop?
3. What is the impact of target marketing to the betting shops?
4. Who are the major target customers to the betting shops?
5. How targeting plays crucial role in influencing the customer’s decision making process for your football betting shop?
6.  What are the factors helpful in giving the brand recognition for your football betting shop?
7. What the possible opportunities that can be gained with the implementation of concentrated marketing strategy for you shop?