Essay Topic: Were the Chinese welcomed in Australia or did they face a hostile reception?-86474

This is a 1250 word essay (not including introduction or conclusion)

A minimum of 10 references are needed.

Australian History

The Chinese have immigrated to Australia which dates to more than two hundred years back where there was a Chinese Immigrant called as Mak Sai Ying who has moved to Australia. The year 2005 – 2006 has recorded that there were 221995 people who have confirmed that they were Chinese and they have migrated to Australia and they have settled in Sydney.

Immigration of other countries population is viewed in different contexts as it would depend largely on the growth rate of that specific country. In this case of Chinese immigration into Australia there has been a strong evidence that there was a shortage of labour in Australia since 1825 in spite of the rate of immigration remaining lessin the late nineteenth century (John Pilger, nd).

There was a policy known as a policy called as White Australia Policy which has seen a series of restrictive legislation which has been passed at the State and the Federal Level. There was an atmosphere of fear and distrust which has existed in those times and has eased to some extent from 1950. Since then the so called immigrant community of those times has become a critical part of the Australian community now. The Chinese form a vibrant character of the Sydney scene today (Peter, Phyllis G, 1959).

Chinese immigration has increased to a great extent since the 1990 and in the present day scenario they have been ranked as the third largest community among all the immigrants. There was a shift in the trend related to migration and it has become less permanent than it normally used to be where there have been more examples where this trend has gone in more than one direction and some of the examples of this trend are the Students.

If we look at this pattern the no. of Chinese settlers who have returned permanently to China was rare however by the year 2003 the no. of Chinese settlers especially the ones who belonged to Hong Kong were leaving Australia for better prospects has been equal to those who arrived during that specific period.

Staying back and Going back

Though many of the Chinese came only a few of them stayed back in Australia. This can be proven with the examples of the Eastern and Australian Steamship Company which has made 19 trips between Sydney and Hong Kong moving thousands of people like 2565 people into Australia and 2568 back to China.

This type of a constant movement has resulted in the overall economic growth of the City. With the initiation of the gold rush there existed a lot of groups in China who had a better vision of a type of better prospects or to find a living which would be made in the city by providing the incoming fortune seekers which can give them a better place to sleep, picks, shovels and bags of rice.

Initially there existed185 Chinese Population who were living in Sydney in 1861 which has risen to 336 in 1871 and to 1321 in 1881. Initially only a few men have got permission to get their family along to Australia. The immigration requirements involved various rules of obligations and most of the Chinese who were unsuccessful had to go back home especially those who could not find jobs for themselves. They did not face opposition altogether but they could secure at least menial jobs in Sydney where this could allow them to accumulate enough wealth to retain their honour.

Racism issues in Australia

In Australia a distinct multi ethnic society has been formed.The entire population of Australia might belong to various other countries. Indigenous Australians were known to have come from countries like Africa and they are called as the most primitive Australians.

The laws in Australia forbid any type of discrimination and the Government has a strong need to protect the people from all types of discrimination and they have to give them a freedom of religion.

Mainly there were four Nationalities which have moved to Australia to a great extent and they comprised the majority of Australia for many years. Other than the people from the UK there were other Nationalities like Europeans, North Americans and Chinese (Ormston, Robert, 1996).

The Colony of Victoria’s population has grown from a meagre 75000 to 535000. This has happened over the span of 9 t0 10 years. There was a discontent overall which has grown amongst the diggers specifically in the largely populated Victorian Fields. There were a no. of protests which have taken place later in terms of petitions of reforms which has resulted in violence eruption at Ballarat in the late 1854.

There was a huge competition in the Goldfields which has erupted a lot of issues with respect to labour and the Australian Nationalism has led to the formation of an environment of racial discrimination mainly during the nineteenth century.

The immigrants who have suffered a major blow were the Chinese who were involved in Mining and he Australian Colonies has forced a lot of restrictionson their immigration policies.

The Government of Australia has passed legislations which have targeted the Chinese immigrants. The objections arose only because their large numbers , religious traditions and beliefs, they did not have any of the so called bad habits of resenting to opium and  also that they had a strong notion that they were hardworking and they could work for extended long hours.

Reforms formed by the departments of Planning in order to solve the issues related to cultural racism was far beyondtheir attempts in Western Sydney which was famous for its migrant settlement. There were many attempts made by the State Government in order cto bring in the provision of community services to promote languages and provide secure places of worship. All of these initiatives were considered to be integrating strategies in order to avoid and solve the issues related to racism.

There were some beautiful works which were proposed by the elected people to Parliament like Pauline where they have proposed plans for abolishing multicultural differences and the other forms of racism was being made applicable in all such cases and this was mainly true in cases of the Native Australians as well (Richardson, Ronald Kent, 1982).

Finally the implementation of various services like Charter of Public Service in Australia was implemented in order to ensure that the services are enabled in a way where they can sensitize them to the language and culture of Australia and they would be provided equal opportunities through the Equal Opportunity Commission.


John Pilger, The New Rulers Of The World

Borowski, A (July 2000). “Creating a virtuous society: Immigration and Australia’s policies of multiculturalism”. Journal of Social Policy 29: 459–475

“Pauline Hanon’s Maiden Speech”. Retrieved 2010-11-22.

O’Rourke, Terrence James, “Problems of Queensland defence, 1878-1901”, BA (Hons) thesis, History Dept, University of Queensland, 1969

Ormston, Robert, “The rise and fall of a frontier mining town: Cooktown 1873- 85”, PhD thesis, University of Queensland, 1996

Peter, Phyllis G, “Moderation and militancy: A comparative study of the trade union movements in N.S.W. and South Australia in the 1880’s”, BA (Hons) thesis, University of Adelaide, 1959

‘Philo-Sinensis’, “The Chinese as colonists”, privately printed and circulated pamphlet, McIlwraith papers, John Oxley Library, OM64-19/114, envelope “1889 letters”, item 1847

Priestley, Alison M, “The 11th parliament of South Australia 1884-1887: the influence of the Depression”, BA (Hons) thesis, University of Adelaide, 1964

Rendell, Margaret Patricia, “The Chinese in South Australia and the Northern Territory in the Nineteenth Century: A study of the social, economic and legislative attitudes adopted towards the Chinese in the colony”, MA thesis, University of Adelaide, 1952

Renfrew, Louise, “Wilton Hack and Japanese immigration into the Northern Territory: 1876-1877”, BA (Hons) thesis, University of Adelaide, 1992

Richardson, Ronald Kent, “The signs of power: A study of English anti-slavery thought”, PhD thesis, State University of New York at Binghampton, 1982 (Chifley Library, Australian National University)

Plummer, John, “Recollections of John Stuart Mill”, Victorian Review, vol. 3, no. 17, March 1881, pp. 542-49

 Pope Hennessy, John, “The Chinese in Australia”, The Nineteenth Century, 1888 (c May), pp. 617-9, found in volume, “Nineteenth Century : Australasia [extracts]”, Mitchell Library

Queenslander, “Colored labor and Queensland sugar”, The Sydney Quarterly Magazine, vol. II, no. 8, December 1885, pp. 339-44

‘Queenslander’, “Six years of Queensland politics”, Victorian Review, vol. 8, no. 43, May 1883, pp. 60-73 and vol. 8, no. 44, June 1883, pp. 158-69