Era of American Policing: 1333947

Scenario 1

The investigation in scenario 1 based on the definition of Kelling and Moore (1998) was done during the reformed era of policing. The investigation centered on Thomas Jennings’ fingerprints to determine whether he was linked to the killing of Mr. Hiller. In the reformed era of policing, the police use scientific methods to investigate a crime committed by suspected individuals and it was during this era of policing that the investigation was done (Kelling & Moore, 1988). The reformed era of policing emphasized the role of professionalism among the police officers in investigating crimes committed and detectives under the reformed era are required to utilize scientific techniques while investigating crimes via forensic labs. The investigation in the scenario led to admitting fingerprint evidence as a legal, as well as an accepted method of scientific identification in the murder case. Therefore, the reformed era of policing brought changes in policing in America and this is the case in scenario 1, where the investigation was performed (Lum et al., 2011).

Scenario 2

In this scenario on the conviction of Richard Croker, the investigation as defined by Kelling and Moore (1998) was carried out during the political era. The political era is believed to be the first era of policing in America and the case took place in New York during the political period and politics influenced the outcome of the case (Nagin, 2013). The New York Police was founded in 1845 during the political era of policing that started around the 1840s. Croker was involved in Tammany Hall during the time of the investigation, which city’s political machinery and the politics tampered with the evidence to convict Croker, which apparently demonstrates that the investigation occurred during the political era (Braga et al., 2015). During this era, policing was limited because of new rules and politicians controlled the police and this affected the outcomes of many cases.  In this initial stage, the police agencies were controlled by the municipal government and the constituency leaders. They not only exerted a strong influence on how the police force is used and deployed, they were also often selected as police officers. There was no objective standard for selecting police officers according to actual ability. They are selected on the basis of political loyalty as a necessary condition, often with characteristics of family bonds, race or ethnicity, and relationships with friends.  This close relationship between the police and the government often breeds corruption. Police activities during this period were very random, without organizational authorization, clear handling procedures and police role positioning. The politicians in various communities decide the objectives and activities of the police, which leads to the fragmentation of police activities, and different communities differ greatly. The police agency became an appendage to the political machine, and only obeyed those of its time.


Braga, A.A., Welsh, B.C &. Schnell,C. (2015). Can Policing Disorder Reduce Crime? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 52: 567–588.

Kelling, G. & Moore, M.H. (1988). The Evolving Strategy of Policing. Perspectives on Policing Bulletin (No. 4). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

Lum, C., Koper, C & Telep, C. (2011). The Evidence-Based Policing Matrix. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7 (1): 3–26.

Nagin, D. (2013). Deterrence in the Twenty-First Century. In M. Tonry (ed.), Crime and Justice: A Review of Research (Vol. 42). Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press.