Current Trends in Networking : 651756


Learning Outcomes:
After completing the module, you should be able to:
1. Critically evaluate threats to network provision and compare solutions
2. Compare and contrast existing and emergent networking technologies
3. Apply appropriate network technologies in complex settings, providing alternative
solutions, clear selections and justifications.
4. Critically evaluate relevant and credible sources for up to date information on network
and data communications technologies.

Rubha Reidh (means Red Point in the local Gaelic language, sometimes seen spelt Rua
Reidh and pronounced “roo-a ree”) is a remote lighthouse on the west coast of Scotland.
The lighthouse itself is now automated (as are all lighthouses in the UK) and the original
keeper’s cottage is now run as a bed & breakfast holiday guest house. This is a VERY
remote location. The nearest place on the map is Melvaig, which is just a camp site and an
Inn. The nearest place with a shop is Gairlock, 12 miles (20km) away. Gairloch is so small
that it does not have a Wikipedia entry! Oddly, Rubha Reidh itself does have a Wikipedia
entry, so you can look it up. There is also a web site for the guest house, so you can search
for that as well. The UK post code for Rubha Reidh is IV21 2EA. You may need this post
code during your research. You can use it on mapping web sites such as
and to find the location. The places named here also come up in
normal searches, with links to various local information.
Like any modern holiday accommodation, Rubha Reidh need to provide Internet access for
their guests. However, given the remoteness of the location, this is obviously going to be a
challenge. Your assignment is to determine how to provide an Internet connection to this
You are to provide a report for the owners of Rubha Reidh that explains the options available
to provide high speed and reliable Internet connections to their location.
You should produce a formal report that outlines a suitable range of connection technologies
that could be used for this location. You MUST focus on this location. Consider the
problems that this location presents and how the technologies resolve those problems. You
need to make recommendations for this location and clearly justify these recommendations.
You need to cover the entire backhaul connection route from the premises to a major
Internet backbone. You do not need to discuss local distribution of the Internet connection at
the premises. i.e. do not discuss LAN technologies.
You should research the connection technologies that are currently available to Rubha
Reidh using the various web sites that provide such information. You should also consider
novel connection technologies that are not commonly used but may be appropriate for this
A Visit Scotland grant is available to help the local tourist industry with getting Internet
connections, so the cost is not a major issue, but you do need to provide guidelines on cost
and consider it alongside other aspects of the technologies discussed.



The Internet facility has helped in expanding business all over the world. This report discusses the internet connection in Rubha Reidh lighthouse, Scotland, UK.

This report focuses on the different components of the internet connection implemented in the lighthouse. The threats and risk involved in the internet connection have been described in the report. The existing and proposed network of internet connection have been provided in this report.

This report outlines about the different technologies used during implementation of internet connection in the lighthouse. There are recommendations provided in the report for mitigating the threats and issues in the network installed in the lighthouse. A proper justification has been provided for implementing the recommended strategies in the locality.

Current Trends in Networking

The internet network has enhanced its quality and range in the world. In the case of Rubha Reidh, there is a need of reliable and fast internet connection for exploring various opportunities in tourism. Rubha Reidh is a lighthouse located in remote area of Scotland, UK. The enhancement of the internet technology in the location would help in creating new opportunities for the tourism industry in the locality (Bore et al. 2017). However, the ethical and technical consideration is required during implementation of internet networks in the locality. The technical improvements in the internet connection increases number of tourists in the lighthouse. It also helps in providing better services to the tourists. A good internet connectivity helps in enhancing proper communication and sharing of electronic files and data in lighthouse.

However, the lighthouse has been receiving a good number of tourists without any communication services due to its natural beauty. On the other hand, the implementation of internet connectivity might increase the number of tourists than it was before. Therefore, a network connectivity has been proposed that will include voice and video transfer that might help in transfer of voice and data to other places (Müller-Stewens and Möller 2017). The enhancement in network communication has enriched the contribution of internet connection in streamlining the operational function of the organization. The various types of network can be implemented in the location that depends upon environmental and financial condition of the company.

Network Infrastructure

The network infrastructure is a vital element in implementation of internet connection in the lighthouse. Various network infrastructure and connection might operate at different levels of platforms. There might some key determinants in the case of Rubha Reigh lighthouse, as it is located in remote areas of Scotland and perceiving number of users at distance for using network connectivity (Charrier, Coates and Stavridou 2017). Therefore, there can be two cases including either wired or wireless connection. The operational management of Rubha Righ lighthouse need to ensure that the Internet connection is properly sourced from Internet Service Provider (ISP), Internet Access Provider (IAP) or Wireless Service Provider (WSP). Different prevailing Internet Connectivity include Cable Connection, Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL) and Wireless Networks.

Proposed Internet Connection

The implementation of internet connection in the remote area of Rubha Reigh depends majorly in the distance and connectivity of the internet. It can be explicitly analyzed that the use of the wired network ca be used along with the electric connection to save cost of installation. The connection can be underground. However, the roads of Rubha Reigh Lighthouse are poor, which can damage the wired connection (Tordera et al. 2017). It can be analyzed that the broadband connection can be installed in the lighthouse that can access television, telephone services and Internet services at high speed. Cable connection is available for the latter generation programs and applications including 3G, 4G, 5G and DSL.

Figure 1: Cable Modem Termination Network

(Source: Laumer et al. 2017, pp. 988)

Therefore, the organization have to look for a reliable Internet Service Provider (ISP) in Scotland. This might include various specifications of internet users purpose of installation and number of access points needs to be created. Cable Model Termination Network (CMTS) enhances the transfer of both digital and analog signals from ISP to the Rubha Reigh Lighthouse (Laumer et al. 2017).

The cable might require routers for channeling correct packets of data to the required address locations. The signal repeaters helps in generating signal strength for averting cross talk and signal depletion during approaching the lighthouse. This might help in increasing the speed of communication with enhanced voice quality and data connections. However, in the remote areas of the lighthouse, installation of modems and different communication gadgets are necessary for encoding and decoding both digital and analog signals from ISP to Rubha Reigh Lighthouse. Presently, the link would expect switches to channel the right information parcels to required address areas in like manner, while flag repeaters would be helpful in recovering sign quality to turn away cross-talk and flag corruption as it approaches the lighthouse. This would upgrade fast correspondence with quality voice and information associations (Como, 2012, p. 37). Nevertheless, on lighthouse side, IT division will guarantee that introduced correspondence devices and modems for encoding and disentangling both simple or computerized flag actuators are kept up at low temperatures, yet with consistent controlling to hold framework settings and turn away pointless detachments.

Figure 2: Communication Patch panel

(Source: Müller-Stewens and Möller 2017, pp.169)

Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL) Internet Access

Digital Subscriber Loop is a single medium twisted pair copper line that accumulate signals modulated by three channels. The Rubha Reigh has adopted DSL network connection to connect cable connection that is alternate to the cable connection. The DSL connection provides high-speed internet access to the lighthouse. The implementation of DSL internet connection helps in providing all time internet access (Müller-Stewens and Möller 2017). The type of network infrastructure that is used by the wireless technology does not require any physical cabling connection. It only requires an ISP and the receiver for providing internet services. This might activate the voice and data transfer process in the lighthouse. The data packets are send and receive from the ISP that helps in maintaining the internet services in the lighthouse at determined data transfer rate.

The data packets send from the ISP are detected by modems, routers, decodes and encode it into appropriate signal for providing outputs for the organization. For implementing DSL and cable modem, the organization has to maintain an internet speed of 20 Mbps. The clients are able to obtain a quick access to the internet connection from the network (Bore et al. 2017).

Figure 3: DSL Connectivity

(Source: Bore et al. 2017, pp. 69)

Several researches have been done to analyze the speed of the internet in different parts of the UK. It is found that the Northern Ireland have the slowest average internet speed at 4.3 Mbps and 4.4 Mbps (Tordera et al. 2017). Therefore, there is a requirement of high-speed internet access in the lighthouse. The cable modem offer low reliable services to the customers and is dependent on the internet connectivity of the television connection. The DSL broadband services are more reliable since the present clients are reliable to the internet services. The cable modem are less costly than the DSL connection. The cable modem works in a shared facility. The DSL uses separate pair of wires from each user during installing DSL.

Figure 4: DSL Modem

(Source: Lin et al. 2016, pp.6)

Fiber Optic Cable

This technology deals with the conversion of electrical signals carrying data to light and sending light through glass fibers. Therefore, the speed of the data transfer is maximum in this case. In the case of Rubha Reidh, fiber optic fiber can be used for fast data transfer among the customers in the lighthouse. The data transfer rate is higher than the Digital Subscriber Line by 100Mbps. Optic Fiber has minimized the loss of coupled with extremely high speed (Khan, Pathan and Alrajeh 2016). The distance is not a factor for the Optic Fiber as optic signals can travel long distance before amplifying. The restriction on bit rate causes the speed of improvement of equipment r transmission of data and information through optic fiber.

Figure 5: Fiber Optic communication modem

(Source: El Kadiri et al. 2016, pp 23)

Figure 6: Optical Internet Connectivity

(Source: Zakrzewska, Ruepp and Berger 2014, pp.41)

Benefits of Fiber Optics

The fiber optic cable connectivity provides the fastest internet access to the users. This connection provide low attenuation power and high signal integrity. Therefore, this helps in providing a high quality if the data transfer with clear voice calls. The interval between the data transmission becomes low that helps in continues flow of data through the transparent glass fibers. The fiber optics can be spread to large distances that helps in maintaining to data transfer up to large distances with high speed and quality (Barton, Soshnev and Geyer 2015). These cables are unlike copper wires, providing nil interference with other signals in the medium of transfer. Therefore, these creates a fast speed for the data to transfer through the medium. Therefore, with all these benefits, fiber optic technology can be used in the case of the Rubha Reidh lighthouse for improving internet connection.

Cellular Internet Access

The cellular technology has helped in providing internet access in the mobile phones and gadgets with the help of wireless network. This technology has evolved over the years during the period of the analog signal technology in the market. The market of the cellular internet access has been evolved from analog signals to 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G Internet access (Navimipour and Charband 2016). The speed of the various internet connection varies but common ones are 3G and 4G connection. These networks provide a high-speed internet access to the customers in their cellular phones. However, this speed is measured in the busy area where different internet resources are available for increasing the speed of the internet access. In the case of Rubha Reidh, it is located in remote area where there is lack of internet resource. Therefore, the speed of the internet might not as fast as it is in township area.

Satellite Communication Network

This network innovation is utilized by numerous endorsers since it is considered for having high speeds in downloading and transferring. The speed of download is for the most part up to 22Mbps (Edwards and Wang 2016). This has made it workable to download huge applications. It is conceivable for downloading expansive applications. Speed is most fundamental consideration while installing an Internet connection. If speed is high, at that point, there will be no blockage, information parcels would not get lost and furthermore there will be no association time-out (Lebeau and Ielpi 2016).

Satellite Internet choice is accessible for some since it is anything but difficult to introduce. It simply require a dish and a modem in this manner can be utilized as a part of the remote ranges like Rubha Reidh where dial up or even link modem cannot be obtained. It might influence execution of the satellite Internet innovation. In any case, satellite Internet innovation is somewhat costly because of the establishment of the dish and modem yet a superior decision for the area of Rubha Reidh.

Figure 7: Satellite Connectivity

(Source: Schlechtendahl et al. 2017, pp. 91)

The premises where the entire correspondence framework ought to be set, with a satellite on housetop to interface up with ISP server framework for getting both voice and information. However, satellite download interface is gotten straightforwardly from satellite. Although, keeping in mind the end goal to actualize this framework, it require an a few feet satellite dish and interchanges modems (Bhatia, Chauhan and Nigam 2016). Coaxial link would be associated from the dish to interchanges modem for the clients’ PCs and other network and contraptions with remote highlights. Relatively to WiMAX, giving Internet associations in rustic regions utilizing satellites has high monetary profit subsequently Internet specialist organizations would pick it (Zhang et al. 2016).

Figure 8: Wireless switch.

(Source: Li et al. 2016, pp. 23)

NOVEL Connection Technologies

There are can be alternative source of internet access for the lighthouse located in the remote areas of Scotland is wireless network technologies including WiMAX, satellites, balloons and laser link technologies. However, some of the distributed internet systems have failed in past as distance covered by the wired networks for covering rural areas makes it too expensive for installing and maintaining the networks in the rural areas (Singh. and Aggarwal 2017).

Figure 9: Wi-Fi Router

(Source: Singh and Aggarwal 2017, pp. 11)

The Wi-Fi technology has able to reduce various requirements of the outsiders into small set of requirements. WiMAX has provided high data transfer rates of 70Mbps that reaches up to 50 Kms. WiMAX have more security concern than the Wi-Fi networks. WiMAX have various services including BridgeMAXX that is provided by the Digital Bridge Company (Jain 2016). The company uses long towers with five miles radius that helps in providing Internet services to rural areas.

Figure 10: WiMAX Network System

(Source: Gómez et al. 2017, pp.3)

Figure 11: WiMAX Accessibility

(Source: Avner and Dror 2016, pp.3)

Cost of various access technologies

  WiMAX CDMA 450 Wi-Fi WipLL
Coverage 5Km 17 Km 1-2 km (omni directional)

5km (directional)

Number of simultaneous users 16 Users 32 users on each 1.25MHz carrier 3 for 802.11b (directional)

24 for 802.11a (directional)

126 users total
Spectrum costs Unlicensed (2.4/5Ghz)

Licensed (3.5GHz)

Licensed Unlicensed Unlicensed
Spectrum availability 380MHZ at 2.4GHz (13 users)

200MHz at 2.4GHz (13 users)

150MHz at 5GHz (13 users)

9Mhz FDD (Feature Driven Development) 80MHz at 2.4GHz (13 users)

580MHz at 5GHz (13users)

Same as WiFi
Peak throughput per user 4Mbps 1Mbps (7 users) 802.11b:5-7Mbps


Base station costs

current, projected (2yrs)










Subscriber unit costs

current, projected (2yrs)











Table 1: Comparison of capabilities and costs of various access technologies


It is recommended for the light to consider various types of the Internet connectivity and its infrastructure incusing cost, availability and speed of the internet access in the area. The security of the internet connection is an important aspect for securing the data and information of the customers and other visitors in the lighthouse. This will affect the financial viability of the company in the market. The installation of the appropriate internet connection might help in increasing the profit of the lighthouse in the market. The maintenance if the lighthouse will be enhanced with the use of the internet connection.

On the other hand, due ti the remote location of the lighthouse, WiMAX can be recommended for the lighthouse for providing long range internet connection in the remote areas of the lighthouse. The strength of the network will be strong that will help in providing quality network connection in the area. The use of the WiMAX will reduce the cost of the installation and the internet charges in the lighthouse. On the other hand, wired network connectivity uses wires that increases the cost of the installation. In this way confirming the reasons regarding why Rubha Reidh ought to receive WiMAX as the main need among other accessible Internet innovations. Also, the utilization of unlicensed WIMAX inside rural areas is exceptionally cheap in spite of the fact that it has a noteworthy weakness that; unlicensed range has issues with arrangement reaction and information misfortune that are not frequently predominant with authorized range.

Presently, with respect to link innovation, separation and adaptability particularly when continued electric electrical cables, which are settled somewhat underneath the electric electrical cables on a similar electric shaft. This must be received in the event that the lighthouse is guaranteed of steady stream of sightseers, why say this, since it has high association and support costs and administration or membership costs. Coaxial links utilized are compelling yes, yet costly in spite of the fact that it gives extra administrations like TV motions inside crossover Fiber link foundation. Therefore, if Rhuba Reidh lighthouse receives link innovation, customers and the administration would viably associate and convey however at higher cost prompting need to build the cost of administration arrangement in the lighthouse.

However, lighthouse should just receive fiber optic innovation when there is high activity and utilization of Internet and different administrations inside organization. For organizations that does not depend excessively on Internet utilize, embracing this innovation would not be financially perceptive since it would not have enough movement. It will resemble a misuse of assets since immense transmission capacity will be repetitive to lighthouse.

Another choice that would suit Rhuba Reidh lighthouse is DSL. In spite of the way that lighthouse is situated in remote territory, separation may be short or long, for short separations, it would be suggested that DSL be received for Internet availability. This is because of way that it is just accessible to frameworks inside 3-4 miles of local office, yet using repeaters; it is conceivable to improve flag quality since it is equipped for recuperating voice and information misfortunes those outcomes from cross talk and flag corruption.


It can be concluded that the use of the wired internet connection is not appropriate for Rubha Reidh. Different technologies has been discussed in the report that can help in providing internet connection in the lighthouse. The network connection have helped in increasing the tourism in the lighthouse. The tourists can use internet connection for locating various spots nearby and transfer their data and information to the other places. The Rubha Reidh s located in remote areas of the Scotland. Various internet searches has been done in the report for gathering information about the Rubha Reidh lighthouse in Scotland. The current available sources of internet has been discussed in the report. The comparison of the internet connection services has been included in a table. The use of the optic fiber and its benefits has been discussed in the report.




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