Criminal Justice:795302

Criminal Justice

Answer 1 – Modern Piracy

Modern piracy can be described as an act through which the pirates attack the ships in the night utilizing grappling hooks or ropes on the poles for boarding it before anyone on the ship raises the alarm. The modern pirates conquer the ships to get access to the market of the country to which the ship belongs. This enables them to sell a large number of illegal goods or even humans in the market. Not only the ships, but they also take valuables of the personnel of the crew and the electronic items of the ships (Wilson, 2018). Most of the attacks are carried out near the shores using small speedboats which work in conjunction with a large mother ship carrying ammunition, supplies and fuel. As the video shows, the crew of the ships carrying valuable and legal goods for country is quite scared of the attacks and thus, naval ships are placed near the ships carrying such goods to handle such piracy attacks (The Economist, 2016). The video talks about the piracy attacks in the Horn of Africa conducted by Somalia. The Somali pirates have hijacked the vessels worth more than $400 million dollars from Africa and used those funds into prostitution, drugs, real estate and other such illicit areas (Cable News Network, 2013). There have been certain reports which state that the pirates are helping the terrorist organizations by smuggling their fighters and weapons to the desired location for money (Vox Media, Inc., 2017).

The modern piracy can be linked to the terrorism acts as they help the terrorist organizations in transporting their weapons and fighters from one place to other. But they cannot be called similar due to difference in their motives. The motives of pirates are just financial and are related to material gain, whereas, the motives of terrorism are political and creating terror in the world. There are also a few other factors which establish the difference between the two such as the level of violence, choice of targets, type of operation and tactics. However, they possess a few similarities as well, as they both operate from the land-base on their host country and they influence world trade, but they cannot be directly compared to the terrorists (Joubert, 2013).

The maritime piracy poses great threats to the seaborne traders as they steal raw materials and fuel from them which are being shipped to economic powerhouses. Human trafficking is also reaching heights due to piracy. Smuggling of weapons and terrorists across the shores is posing threat to the governments. Act of piracy is affecting the global economic policies and strategies all across the world (Fu, Ng, & Lau, 2010).

There have been a number of task forces which are working to eliminate the piracy from the Horn of Africa. The video gives an elaborative description of the acts of ABSALON, which played a major role in eliminating the piracy off the shores of Africa. It is Danish support ship which is equipped for land attacks, naval warfare and strategic sealift missions. It was a part of NATO’s counter-piracy mission off the coast of Somalia (Ricks, 2010). Apart from this, International Maritime Bureau (IMB) and Combined Task Force 151 also fight against piracy (Poulin, 2016). As a consequence to their efforts, the rates of piracy in the Horn of Africa have reduced tremendously after 2011 as shown in the graph below.


Rate of piracy in the Horn of Africa over the years

Source: (Poulin, 2016)

However, a lot of efforts still need to be put in to maintain this rate constant and eliminate piracy permanently.

Answer 2

What are your thoughts on children and adolescents being used as suicide bombers?

ISIS- the terrorist group in Iraq’s most effective weapons are suicide bombers. They train children, brainwash them and turn them to suicide bombers.  These young human bombs are very young teenagers or even as young as seven years old.  These youngsters are recruited, motivated and then properly trained. Depending on their abilities, capabilities and skills, the young children are trained to be watchman, fighter or a suicide bomber.  Majority of the youngsters are forced to join by motivating them that his act is a religious honor and they will become martyrs and go straight to heaven (Logan, 2015).

I think this kind of suicide bombing is an example of asymmetrical warfare.  Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors play role in this kind of motivation.  Suicide bombing was started by Tigers of Tamil Eelam-LTTE and this modus operandi proved to be so influential and effective that it was copied and implemented by Middle-East terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda, ISIS and Boko Haram in Nigeria.  According to UNICEF these children are victims and not perpetrators.  Due to insurgency in Nigeria, millions were displaced, thousands were killed and hundreds of children were orphaned.  Due to malnutrition crisis and no homes, these children become easy prey of terrorist groups.  (Hayden, 2017).  This act is extremely barbaric and beyond the limits of humanitarian philosophy.  This is the most horrifying act that causes many fatalities and throws the human society in to turmoil.  It has devastating effects on the society and psychology of young people.  I think severe repression, feeling of hopelessness, desperation, and lack of opportunities, financial security etc. are some of the reasons that motivate the children to take this suicide mission.  The only way to prevent the making of human bombs is by educating the orphans and providing the love and support they need to integrate in the society.

Do you think most suicide bombers freely decide to engage in suicide bombing, or do you think they are manipulated into their actions? Support your views.

Majority of the suicide bombers are manipulated, motivated, exploited psychologically, emotionally and financially to perform these kinds of actions. The young suicide bomber Zakaria captured in Baghdad clearly states that he was ashamed of this act and felt sorry for the people.

Most of the young human bombs thrive in ignorance and poverty. The fundamentalists often use threats, intimidation, and violence and abduct children by instilling fear in the families. The suicide bombers are persuaded by teaching them religious ideology and legitimizing the theology. Although, suicide is strictly forbidden in Islam, but these young minds are motivated to become martyrs.  Generally, the suicide attackers are celebrated as heroes by the local community and their acts are glorified via images, games, and cards.  For example Palestinian approval of suicide bombing was 29% in 2005 which rose to 77% by 2008. (Bruce, 2013).  Research carried out to study why suicide bombers use this tactic as the last resort to achieve their strategic goals.  It is also used to outbid the competitors, get political gain and popularity.

Perhaps the most dominant factor that is instilled in the human bomber’s psychology is religion.  Since religion can be used to inflame nationalist and religious sentiments, suicide bombing is used as a toolkit by the terrorists. The ‘martyrdom operations’ are the centre of their ideology and they recruit potential candidates to execute their mission. Suicide bombing is relatively new innovative technique and a new technology which requires least investment (Horowitz, 2015). It can be clearly said that by analyzing the social, religious and personal incentives that although suicidal bombing seems to be irrational and altruistic behavior but it is maximized by self-gratifying benefits.

In a nutshell it can be said that some young human bombs are terrorized and forced in to these acts and some having psychological autopsies like weak personality, low self-esteem, social marginalization and radical values opt for these acts as it is glorified as a heroic deed that is honorable and an act of martyrdom (Hasisi, 2014).



Answer 3

After watching this documentary, did you find you had any misconceptions about Iran? If so, what where your misconceptions? 

Rick Steve’s 12-day tour to Iran is an eye-opener documentary that clears many misconceptions about Iran.  First and foremost, Iran is the land which is fascinating and a land rich with culture and traditions for almost 2500 years, but is most misunderstood, misquoted and misinterpreted land.  There is a kind of bizarre mixture – personal warmth of the Iranians and the rattling politics.

Watching this documentary, I gathered that Iran is a fascinating country and a complete paradox of what is presented to us by the Western media. Besides the exhibition of anti-American and anti-Israeli murals, the country’s locals do not exhibit any grudges or dislikes for Americans.  My misconception was that an anti-Americanism attitude will be prevailing in the country that has exasperated America. But on the contrary, the people are chatty, courteous, curious, loving and ready to smile. The people are hospitable and filled with energy. There is full freedom of religion as long as it is not offensive to Islam.  Furthermore this most perplexing country has a glorious past. Despite the political distrust between the American government and the Iranian government, the crew of Rick was allowed to make a documentary and was given permission to roam about freely (Steves, 2018).

From this documentary, I can state that the media has crafted a wrong image of Iran. They portrayed like the culture is orthodox, menacing, and unfriendly.  But this documentary gives a paradoxical glimpse. The murals are mean but the locals are friendly. Another misconception that I had drafted was that they are Arabs and Arabic is their language.  But neither of this is true.  Their language is Farsi and they are Persians. The rich culture is secular.  Although there is lack of incentive and there is pretty low energy but human ingenuity is maximum. I was of opinion that Iran is an ‘enemy country’, but this whole documentary portrays that this is a misconception, propaganda by the Americans to isolate and target a country that is intensely human filled with warmth and love.

Overall, this documentary showcased that Iran has great ancient Persian culture and splendor. Cities like Esfahan and Persepolis have marvelous sightseeing and speak volumes about their impressive and rich cultural roots. The Iranians are proud, strong and united lot with sound beliefs and values.  Although there are many concerns that Americans find outrageous about the government of Iran like supporting Hezbollah, oppressing gay people, and asserting their rights for joining the nuclear club. But nonetheless, this documentary is an eye-opener and can prove to bridge the gap between the two countries. The scare, fears and the negative image drummed by the American media is hoax. On the contrary, the vast majority of Iranians are spontaneous, hospitable with great family values.  Steve’s documentary portrays a loving picture of the most threatening and demonized country (Berger, 2009). They have lost millions in the war with Iraq and fear war. They will go in to war if their values are threatened by western encroachment.  But they have no anti-sentiments against Israelites or Americans. Steve’s documentary does help to get rid away of wrong notions and misconceptions of Iran (Steve, 2009).

Answer 4 – Hezbollah

In my opinion, Hezbollah is a terrorist organization as it has taken a number of lives of innocent people and has created terror in Israel and the USA. It’s not just me but a large number of international organizations also support my claim. However, this organization is distributed into political and military wings, but the USA, the Netherlands, Canada and GCC states have recognized its involvement in the terrorist activities. The EU, in 2013, designated the military wing of Hezbollah as the terrorist organization after they attacked a tourist bus in Bulgaria in the year 2012 (IDF, 2018). The organization has been continuously promoting the hostile activities all across the world, as shown on the videos, which have taken a large number of lives of both soldiers and US militants. Its local collaborators and operatives have been arrested in different parts of the world. Beyond all these claims, Hezbollah itself claims to be a terrorist organization (Deutch & Lapid, 2017).

Yes, despite of claiming that Hezbollah will not attack the Americans, the Americans need to stay aware of the fact that the terrorist group aspires to conduct attacks on American Homeland. The organization has already attacked the American military forces in Iran killing about 240 militants. After Trump administration decided to draw stricter policies against Iran, Hezbollah is more likely to attack the USA now as it is extensively backed by Iran in its operations ( Cable News Network, 2017).

Israel occupied southern Lebanon in 1982 claiming that it was creating a space by separating its towns on northern borders from the terrorists who resided in Lebanon. Some other sources claim that Israel attacked Lebanon for attacking the Palestine Liberation organization (PLO), which was an enemy group. After the fight, PLO relocated itself but this led to the rise of numerous militant or terrorist organizations such as Hezbollah, Lebanon has not been able to resolve the long term consequences of that war even today (Mowles, 1986).

There has been a religious divide between the Sunni and Shiite Muslim forces and the conflicts have arisen multiple times. There have been innumerable cases of violence among the two communities in Lebanon, which are also said to have involved the Jihadi networks. Out of 1.6 billion Muslims in the world, 85% are Sunni Muslims (Council on Foreign Relations, 2014). Hezbollah is a Sunni Muslim organization and has always tried to depress the Shiite militant group’s display of power. The violence between the two ignited the Sunni factions which killed and wounded a large number of Shiite Muslims in Lebanon. Hezbollah, a Sunni organization, getting into power and its links with leading terrorist organizations line Al-Qaeda have led to marginalization of Shiite Muslims in Lebanon. However, it is said that Hezbollah assists Shiite but the truth from this fact seems to be missing (New York Times, 2008).

Answer 5 – Somalia crisis

The major evidence of the tension between the two countries, i.e., the USA and Somalia, lies in the form of “Black Hawk Down Battle” in 1993 where 18 American soldiers were killed by Somalia. After that, the USA has made its policies stricter and has intensified the clandestine war in Somalia. The USA has escalated this crisis in Somalia using airstrikes, Special Operations Troop, private contractors and its African associates against the Islamic militants in the nation to prevent such a debacle from happening again. The main war of the USA is against the terrorist group Al-Shabab, a Somalia based militant group which has its allegiance towards Al-Qaeda. The US policies related to war on terror have caused greater complications in Somalia (New York Times, 2016). The White House, through these policies, has increased the authority of the President for using the troops in Somalia. The policy has also allowed the African and American troops in Somalia to use the airstrikes to protect themselves from the terrorists of Al-Shabab. The policy has announced the plans of the USA to extend its secretive war in Somalia. The American forces have been given greater authorities for calling the air support. In 2007, America also conducted Airstrike for consecutive days to kill the terrorist of Al-Shabab. In 2017, the Pentagon announced their plans to provide more, unspecified airstrikes for Somalia government forces and AMISOM against Al-Shabab. These measures have increased the crisis in Somalia and have led to internal power struggles in the country. One such example can be seen between Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and Islamists which resulted in the loss of many lives. It has intensified the acts of the terrorist group and is causing great complications for the citizens (Time Inc., 2017).

It will be not wrong to blame the poverty of Somalia for its crisis. Being an economically weak nation, it is easy for the large countries to attack it and take in possession. It lacks the resources to combat its conquerors. Alone, it can neither fight against the involvement of America nor against Al-Shabab. The scarcity of resources is one of the driving forces of conflict between the two nations. Different groups in the nation are always at fight for occupying these limited resources. Somalia has always been an underdeveloped country and thus, has always relied on the foreign resources and aid for many years. This reliance on the resources of other nations has led to increased involvement of the foreign nations in the county and its politics. The country needs to educate its present and future generations as much as possible to come out this crisis. More education will lead to increased economy which, in turn, is the solution to all the problems of Somalia (Time Inc., 2017).

Answer 6

The fourth amendment is an integral part of the American constitution. The fourth amendment gives the right to the people to be safe in their houses, persons and papers, and effects against unreasonable seizures and searches. This right shall not be violated and no warrant shall be issued against the people without a genuine or probable cause. Upon probable causes, the warrants that are issued must be supported by an affirmation or oath and must clearly describe the place which is to be searched, or the things or persons who are to be seized. But the effectiveness of this amendment became weak in America after its towers were attacked on September 11, 2001 (The Nation, 2014).

There have been allegations that the War on Terror policy is a violation to the Fourth Amendment. I totally agree to this statement. It has been extensively debated in the past few years as the intelligence and police agencies in the USA have trapped under a number of controversies. The War on Terror policy has led to violation of this right multiple times.  As a part of War on Terror policy, the Federal government has conducted the bulk collection of telephone numbers and internet connections on the Americans.  The municipal police forces in many areas are using the “stop and frisk” method aggressively in the American citizens. There have been a number of police-citizen encounters in which innocent civilians are shot in the end on the basis of mere suspicion. Using Aerial surveillance through drones or piloted aircrafts is again a violation to the privacy of the citizens (Friedman & Kerr, 2018). Not only in America has the privacy of the citizens been hampered by the intelligence, but also in other countries, such as Iran, Somalia and such others. This violation is also highly supported by the development of technology such as drones and internet. The Fourth amendment, actually, is meant to put restrictions on the government, the time it seizes or searches a property or person and thus, the provision of warrants has been kept. But in practice, it is not totally applied as the police can search the automobiles of people whenever they want without  presenting any warrant or seize people on streets in case of an emergency. The only case where the fourth amendment is put effectively into practice is under criminal proceedings (Galloway, 2002). The acts like torture, kidnapping, offshore imprisonment and illegal surveillance have been justified by the War on Terror and are considered to be necessary for the national security purposes. Also, the imprisoned individuals can face indefinite detentions without any trial or charges. Drone assassinations (including the citizens of America), heightened surveillance and giving amnesty to the torturers are also a few measures supported by America.  All these acts are totally the violation of Fourth Amendment. These acts of violation of the Fourth Amendment began from the times of Bush and continue even today. Therefore, it is right for the people of America to be fearful and feeling the need of protection. It will not be wrong to say that the America’s Bill of Rights has been declining for the people, one amendment at a time (The Nation, 2014).


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