|Question 1: (10 marks)
|10 both tables
|Answer: Routing table of routers R2 and R3:R2MaskNetwork addressNext-hop address InterfaceDefaultDefault184.108.40.206M0/20220.127.116.11-M1/21161.22.0.0220.10.40.4M0/22140.21.0.0220.10.40.1M0/1818.104.22.168-M2/2422.214.171.124-M0 R3MaskNetwork addressNext-hop address InterfaceDefaultDefault126.96.36.199M0/22188.8.131.52-M1/21161.22.0.0220.10.40.4M0/18150.32.0.0220.11.40.2M0/20200.11.60.0220.10.40.2M0/24184.108.40.206-M0
|5 max 5 max
|Question 2: (8 marks)
|When a data packet arrives at the router R3 having the destination address of 220.127.116.11 it searches the arp cache of the router and since the address is not for any of the interface of the router R3 it is send to the M0 interface. A broadcast message is sent and the routers connected in the network searches for the IP address in their arp cache and if found sends reply to the router R3. The Router R2 sends the reply with the address found and it the data packet is forwarded to the router R2 and it sends the packet to the destination address via the M1 interface.
|When a data packet arrives at the router R3 having the destination address of 18.104.22.168 it searches the arp cache of the router. If the address is not found it is forwarded to the next hop interface of the router at M0. The next hop router in turn searches the IP address in their arp cache and if the address is found a reply is sent to the router R3 by identifying the MAC address. The destination address is found at interface M2 of router R2 and the route is sent to the router R3 for sending the data packet.
|CIDR is used for reducing the IP address wastage and reduces the growth in routing table. Here the inter domain routing is used for controlling the data flow and its interaction with the PDC computers. The primary domain controller computers work on different service and protocols and its utilized as a multicast for the internet domains. In the inter domain rioting the routing algorithms between the domain and it knows the interface of the routers inside the domain. Exterior gateway protocols are used in inter domain and routing is done between the autonomous networks. The protocols assume that multiple autonomous systems combine to form the internet and an example of inter domain routing protocol is BGP.
|Question 3: (7 marks)
|Zone in ad hoc network is defined for the node X and consists of the nodes having minimum distance (hops) from the node X of maximum of a predefined number. The number is defined as the radius for the zone and for example a node having radius 2 can have zone with maximum neighbour routers at any of the interfaces. The nodes in each of the zone have the requirement of acquiring routing information routing protocols are needed to be used. Inter-zone routing protocols are used maintaining route between the zone and is responsible for finding nodes having distance more than the radius. Intra-zone routing protocol is used for maintaining routes between the zones of each of the nodes. There is different traditional protocol that can be used to work as IARP with the limitation in range of routing update for the boundary of zones.
|Total marks awarded
|Less late penalties
|Less plagiarism penalties
|Total marks earned
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