Changes in Medical Education-2245514


The history of healthcare training from the 1800s to today is a remarkable trip through time, showing not just advances in medical understanding and practice but additionally substantial changes in how prospective physicians are taught (O’Malley, 2023). The purpose of this study is to investigate the evolving topic of medical education by contrasting and comparing the apprenticeship and academic models, which have impacted medical training throughout the years, and to emphasize the need to comprehend this history in order to improve medical education in the future.

The Changing Scope of Medical Education

During the 1800s, medical education was predominantly based on the apprenticeship approach, which included hands-on instruction under the supervision of experienced practitioners (Li-Sauerwine & King, 2018). With little formal schooling, the emphasis was on understanding via practical experience.

In the 1960s, when the academic approach became popular. Medical schools established a more organized, classroom-based approach in which students acquired a thorough education in fundamental sciences before beginning clinical training (Dong et al., 2021). The 1960s saw a considerable trend towards standardized curricula and evaluation systems.

Medical education continues to advance throughout the early 2000s. Medical advances, like the Human Genome Project, have resulted in an increased focus on evidence-based medicine and greater awareness of the genetic causes of illnesses (Chow et al., 2018).

Currently, the breadth of medical education has grown substantially as a result of numerous technology advancements and healthcare requirements (Li-Sauerwine & King, 2018). Students can practice difficult medical operations in a secure setting using newer technologies such as augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) (Barteit et al., 2021). Robotic-assisted surgery has grown into an essential component of surgical training, improving precision and reducing mistakes. Patient care has been transformed by minimally or noninvasive procedure technologies, which have reduced recovery times and improved results. Remote patient monitoring (RPM) and telemedicine via a virtual model of care (VMC) have become necessary components of current medical education (Morgan, 2023). These resources help students grasp the significance of telehealth in providing healthcare and prepare them for an evolving medical landscape.

Apprenticeship Models vs. Academic Model

Describe Both Models

Medical education was predominantly an apprenticeship style in the 1800s. Collaborating closely with seasoned practitioners helped aspiring physicians learn. The course of study was adaptable and casual, with a focus on hands-on learning. Close mentoring and tailored training were possible under this arrangement, although the level of education was frequently dependent on the talents and morals of the supervising clinician (O’Malley, 2023).

The academic paradigm, defined by regimented, classroom-based learning, emerged in the 1960s. Medical schools began to offer a more structured curricula with a heavy emphasis on basic sciences as well as clinical experience (Chow et al., 2018). The goal of this paradigm was to give a more structured and complete medical education, with a greater concentration on research and evidence-based practice. Graduating students were required to satisfy particular educational criteria, and assessment procedures grew more uniform.

Analyze How They Have Evolved & Impact on Quality of Care

The apprenticeship approach of the 1800s progressively gave rise to the academic model, which provided a more uniform and regulated method for medical education. The demand for a more complete curriculum and the necessity for a deeper knowledge of basic sciences prompted this move (Li-Sauerwine & King, 2018).

The academic model’s dedication to research and evidence-based practice has had a significant influence on patient care quality today. It has resulted in medical advances, better patient results, and the formulation of evidence-based guidelines (Dong et al., 2021). It did, however, create a more strict and intense curriculum, which may prove difficult for certain pupils.

Importance of Understanding History of Medicine

Knowing the roots of medical education is critical for defining medical education’s direction. It gives useful information on the strengths and drawbacks of various models. One may understand the causes for the change from the apprenticeship system to the academic approach, as well as the later inclusion of sophisticated technology, by looking at the historical backdrop (Dong et al., 2021).

Furthermore, historical understanding helps people to appreciate the need of adjusting medical education to society’s evolving requirements. Medical students of today are prepared for a healthcare environment, which is largely reliant on technology, genetics, and telemedicine. Educators may better prepare pupils for the difficulties and possibilities that await them in the medical field by knowing the historical backdrop.


From the 1800s to the present, the evolution of medical education shows the dynamic interaction of technology breakthroughs, cultural upheavals, and evolving healthcare requirements. The shift from the apprenticeship system to the academic paradigm was a watershed moment that influenced the standard of patient care through evidence-based practice. Nowadays, cutting-edge technology impact medical education, highlighting the necessity of remote patient monitoring, telemedicine, genomics, and less invasive treatments.

Barteit, S., Lanfermann, L., Bärnighausen, T., Neuhann, F., & Beiersmann, C. (2021). Augmented, mixed, and virtual reality-based head-mounted devices for medical education: systematic review. JMIR serious games, 9(3), e29080. doi:10.2196/29080

Chow, N., Gallo, L., & Busse, J. W. (2018). Evidence-based medicine and precision medicine: complementary approaches to clinical decision-making. Precision Clinical Medicine, 1(2), 60-64.

Dong, H., Lio, J., Sherer, R., & Jiang, I. (2021). Some Learning Theories for Medical Educators. Medical science educator, 31(3), 1157–1172.

Li-Sauerwine, S., & King, A. (2018). Curriculum development: Foundations and modern advances in graduate medical education. In Contemporary Topics in Graduate Medical Education. IntechOpen.

Morgan, A. (2023). Masks, Misinformation, and Making Do: Appalachian Health-care Workers and the COVID-19 Pandemic. Ohio University Press.

O’Malley, C. D. (Ed.). (2023). The history of medical education: an international symposium held February 5–9, 1968 (Vol. 12). Univ of California Press.