Asked Question Overview for: History of social and economic life in Australia:-
Historically Australia has given most migrants the right to stay permanently but this is changing today. What is the significance of this? Discuss.
Answer the Question Frames is:-
During the second part of the 20th century, worldwide migration appeared as one among the key aspects within social advancement and growth in almost all the areas of the world (Iredale, 2001). Its importance is expected to increment further during the coming years since the populace mobility is continuously growing in number and takes on new forms (Taylor, 2002). Moreover, migration is the outcome of the incorporation of local communities as well as national economies into worldwide associations. Migration results in further advancement of the country. There exists mounting belief that migration is vital and unavoidable element of the social and economic life of every country and state and can prove to be advantageous for both the country as well as the individuals. However, migration also has serious issues associated with it like over-population, lack of job opportunities etc(Iredale, 2001).Migration is regarded as one among the defining worldwide issues of the beginning 21st century, since a large number of people are moving today as compared to the previous times. According to the researches more than 192 million individuals are residing outside their birthplace that is around 3% of the total world’s populace. Additionally, between the years 1965 and 1990, the total number of worldwide migrants incremented by around 45 million accounting to growth rate of around 2.1%. Further, taking the above discussion into consideration the continuing sections now provide an insight into the fact that how and why there has been change in the migration system of Australia as compared to the previous times.
To start with, Australia is considered to be an exceedingly popular place for highly skillful individuals who wish to begin a new life or set up their career in some other nation(Taylor, 2002). The economy of Australia is strong and is enthusiastically boosting the migration of competent people. Skilled migrants who wish to work within Australia are generally evaluated on the basis of their work experience, language proficiency and qualifications. The migrants have performed a key part in the growth and development of the country. One cannot deny the fact that the skilled permanent and temporary programs of Australia are a chief force behind the strength and resilience of Australia’s economy that prolongs to outdo most of the other OECD nations(Taylor, 2002). Previously Australia gave right to most of the migrants to stay permanently but this has changed with passing times(Iredale, 2001). Several issues such as over-population, decrease in the employment opportunities for Australian citizens etc. made it necessary for the company to later its migration policies and restrict people coming to the country for permanent residence. One of the main challenges faced by Australia today is to deal with the impact of migration on the growth of population and at the same time satisfy the requirements of the labour marketplace(Iredale, 2001).
During the beginning stages of 2000s, the labour market of Australia incremented strongly and level of unemployment fell down(Iredale, 2001). The labour marketplace became very tight, developing an environment which could compromise economic development. It was quite clear that with serious skill scarcities emerging within major industries, Australia required access to expert workers to fill vacancies(Iredale, 2001). It was decided that the best individuals to satisfy the required skill needs were firstly the citizens of Australia by way of increased participation. Nevertheless, where this wasn’t the option, temporary skilled migration was brought into play and also concessions for permanent expert migration were made available for foreign students who had studied within Australia and have built a social and cultural link with Australia having recognized skills and qualifications(Taylor, 2002). Since that time a number of onshore pathways amid permanent and temporary migration have been initiated and the fresh immigration revolution started driven through uncapped temporary migration. As is the situation with all policies, this one resulted in an unanticipated result as well.
Under prevailing regulation the department had a legal obligation to give a permanent visa to an applicant who satisfies the baseline standards. Subsequent to the execution of this regulation, Australia instantly began to receive huge numbers of overseas students who were fascinated by the education institutes and the employment opportunities in Australia. Moreover, as mentioned in their visa, the majority of students were granted work-rights and started to fill positions in the semi-skilled or unskilled workforce. After completing their graduation, they became qualified for applying for a permanent visa. For the reason that the total number of temporary migrants wishing to remain onshore incremented, the applications for permanent visas shortly surpassed the total number of positions available. As a result the channel for permanent visas expanded considerably where the applicants were waiting for visa decision. Further, the waiting period for application assessment very soon increased to months from days.
The greater amount of benefit being granted to overseas students also had the impact of persuading some international applicants to study within Australia institutes just for migration purposes. Several of them, after obtaining their qualification for permanent living reasons, had no or less intent of following a profession which might naturally result from the qualifications they acquired. They were going for the least educational entry point for permanent residence and selected various occupations that needed the minimum educational efforts. With passing times a challenge emerged. Even though, the Visa Department was offering permanent visas for satisfying labour force requirements, key jobs in need by the Australian labour marketplace remained in deficiency. And, since the total number of students subsequent to this opportunistic course perked up, it started to endanger the quality and reputation of international education sector of Australia that is greatly considered worldwide.As a consequence, net foreign migration incremented increasingly and started to have an impact on population growth rates that increased at around 2.1% during the year 2008. According to the Inter generational Report published by Treasury in the year 2010 the population of Australia would almost double to around 36 million by the year 2050 on the basis of net level of overseas migration of about 180 000.
During the year 2008-2009, the Australian Government initiated several reforms to permanent and temporary programs in order to make sure that the country has appropriate system in place to choose the unmatched competent migrants in every group to enhance the rate of productivity and participation in Australia. Moving ahead, quite often Australian companies look to migration asserting that skill deficiencies are prevalent within particular segments. The government frequently need to decide if this is an actual indication of a skill deficiency or an effort to trim down labour pay. The new emphasis of government on a demand-driven strategy is to make sure that chief skill gaps are filled within the Australian labour marketplace through employers directly where local employees are not able to be sourced. In addition to this, the reforms too offered a frame work for recognizing in advance extraordinarily high value abilities required over the period of long term. The migration programs of Australia are a chief fraction of the Government’s strategy along with domestic training as well as skill development ventures to make sure Australia could source expert employees needed for a broad set of occupations. Moreover, Australia is focused towards catching the attention of the best applicants throughout the globe in order to match Australia’s exceptional labor force requirements and at the same time enhancing productivity. Further, the government needs to be prepared to assess and modify further the several migration streams so as to ensure they prolong to satisfy Australia’s needs.
Iredale, R. (2001) The Migration of Professionals: Theories and Typologies, International Migration, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 7–26.
Taylor, E. J. (2002) The New Economics of Labour Migration and the Role of Remittances in the Migration Process, International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 63–88,
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