What insights do post-modernist perspectives provide and what might this mean for health practice?
|Perspectives of postmodernism in the health care Term post-modernism was developed in the late 20th century relevant to the different sectors prevailing in society and affecting human living. These sectors can be categorised as the arts, philosophy, architecture, clinical health care and sociology. In simple words, post-modernism is reaction to the acceptance of the scientific reality for the things occur in the day to day living. This is a bond between the pre and new modern theories related to the different aspect (Salladay, 2019). Postmodernism in the health care- In the early human life illness or any health issues faced by the human was assumed to be a punishment from the god and they relate it to their religion and beliefs. But in the modern world society relay on the causes and reactions. Following changes took place with the process of moving from tradition to the modern world. Post-modernism clarified, the prayer and fates are not sufficient but the uses of the suitable medicine cure the patient. Post-modernism concept diversified the clinical and health areas and fragmented the modern area. The Post-modernism concept applied the mixture of the traditional therapies and modern medicines to treat the patient serious disease (Australian Human Rights commission:, 2011).|
Despite increases in funding, explain why in Australia, Indigenous health outcomes are still an issue? Provide examples to illustrate your argument.
|Funding and health care development Government of Australia is continuously devoted committed to make effective programs to deliver the high quality and satisfactory health services to develop the health security and safety of the indigenous community. This community is the oldest community residing in Australia hence the government of Australia wants to protect and save their heritage and culture. But after the enormous efforts and spending funds to raise health and living standards of the indigenous community, they are still facing the health issues and high rate of the death every year (AIHW, 2019). The common reason for the unsuccessful result of the efforts of the Australian government can include the following reasons majorly- The living and health standard of the indigenous people is lower than the nonindigenous people hence there is a large inequality gap among them. Role of their mindset and strong belief of unequal treatment from society resist them from taking part actively in the activities of the health care and development (Australian governemnt;, 2015). Life expectancy rate of the indigenous people is very low and challenging than the others. Lack of basic knowledge about health safety and security result in the failure of the healthcare service. Lack of the essential education about the rights in the legislation make them backwards in every sector and many more things are untouched by the planning and development in Australia.|
Psychiatry can be viewed as an institute of social control. Draw on sociological theories and examples to discuss this statement.
|Psychotherapy and social control Social control is the well-known concept prevailing form the ancient history in society. Human sees the change as the essential factor because innovation leads the society towards development. Many changes affect a person and this change leads in the mental stress or any other mental health issue to a person hence psychotherapy can be seen to reduce the stress and lead a person towards settling in the change. Psychotherapy can be used as a means to introduce the change in the society. This can be done by applying the four means. Many issues are faced by a person in his personal, professional and social life (Landstedt, 2017). Attachment- humans are full of emotions and are very sensitive to the things happens around them hence the level of their attachment with something or someone affect the process of the change (Okuyama, Akechi, Mackenzie, & Furukawa, 16-27). Commitment- nature of human is very challenging to understand and the factor of commitment is very sensitive because the commitment includes the efforts and energy to get something determined if a person fails to get that target this lead dissatisfaction ad stress, hence psychotherapy is tool to control the behaviour human in the social context. Involvement- the most profitable theory that is highly acceptable to introduce change because involvement in the activities results in the self-learning outcomes (Ng & Lucianetti, 2016). Beliefs- the role of the assumptions and previous belief is very important for the human and belief are very challenging to change. For example, A person involved in high use of social media need the psychotherapy strategy to change the behaviour. This theory will use the concept of harmful issues and effects of social media (Hunter, Corcoran, Phelps, & Leeder, 2012). Recently many issues in the children and young age people as they are addicted to the virtual life of gaming and this is very harmful for them. Hence to protect them from the addiction of such games Psychiatry can be viewed as an institute of social control.|
What are the key benefits and limitations of e-health?
|e-Health It is a new emerging trend in the present intersection area consist the public health, medical informatics and the health business. This is a developed concept changing the mind of the public towards the health issues and treatments, by using information and communication technology. There are 6 benefits of e-Health in society that it is easy to use, helping in improving the value of care, proven efficiency and effectiveness, provide easily accessible medicine on net in simple Way, empowering the community and sustainability (Janss, Rispens, Segers, & Jehn, 2012). e-Health with the lot of benefits has impacted many issues in like it is very Costly to purchase the essential hardware for using it, there are many challenges in learning the use and implication with the threat of misuse of data-privacy, sometimes due to misleading information and lack of the direct interaction with the health care specialist it becomes challenging to use the e-Health applications.|
How does ideology and politics shape health outcomes? Draw on examples such as the PBS to illustrate your points.
|Ideology and political factors role in the healthy development Ideology of a community or politics of a country plays a role very effectively in shaping of the living of the people in a country. Media and political parties make effective plans and strategies to develop the language, culture, living and health of indigenous and non-indigenous community living in Australia (Tom, 2018). Many broadcasting service helps the government and communities to achieve better health outcomes some examples like Public Broadcasting Service PBS, involved in the broadcasting the programs related to the healthy development are as follows, Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC Television) Special Broadcasting Service (SBS Television) National Indigenous Television These are few examples supporting the ideology and politics of the country to support the healthcare service and to raise the healthier outcomes from the services (Mendes, 2017). Australian human health services is hosting campaigns to develop the health and living of the people in Australia. Close the Gap campaign is planned for closing the gap between the health and life expectancy of indigenous and non-indigenous community by improving information and activities of these communities towards good health.|
Certain mechanisms of functionalist theory are utilised today. Discuss what they are and highlight the main assumptions and limitations of functionalism.
|Functionalism theory is practised in the present era of developing the modern word through social change and development. Functionalism supports the role distribution to different aspects of society to create stability in the society. Government of Australia, to reduce smoking in the youth and pregnant ladies of the indigenous community, is planning health care services (AIHW, 2019). Main assumptions of functionalism Functionalism focus the equilibrium in the society Functionalism believes society to be cohesive if it includes the groups of the people sharing the same interest. The other assumption of this theory is that it assumes the institutions are different from society. Limitations Main limitation in the functionalism is about its assumption about institutions. Institutions are never individual but they are interlinked with the society. It assumes society to be stable but society never remains constant it move towards change according to the need and time.|
What is medical dominance and how does the medical profession achieve medical dominance in Australia?
|System of health care and medical facilities in Australia is one of the world’s best systems. Professionals of the medical dominance use social phenomena and decision making to plan the effective steps for the protection of the child, pregnant ladies and old age from diesel to reduce the death rates and to raise the good living atmosphere for all being to prevent them from illness (Brayley, Alston, & Rogers, 2015). The medical-dominance in Australia is supported by the rural and urban societies and the health care workers like doctors, nurses and nursing practise students are supporting to the improved health of the society (Bennett, 2015). Medical dominance is the concept existing in the present era to determine the concept and nature of the medical profession and its effects on the society and community. Medical profession performs the functions related to the advertisement and market strategies to cochlear implant. Medical power in Australia is very supportive for the development of the community and society including the aboriginal community in Australia. Indigenous community of Australia are facing health issues and the medical profession will lead the stability in the health of those surviving communities (Hunter, Corcoran, Phelps, & Leeder, 2012).|
Explain the concept of discourse and explain how it is relevant to health and biomedicine in Australia. Draw on examples to highlight you points.
|The concept of discourse can be explained as a unit of language in linguistics which is longer than a sole sentence. In order to define discourse generally, it might contain 1 or 2 words. On the other hand, discourse can be seen as the way into which language is used for conveying wide historical meanings socially (Hyland & Paltridge, 2011). It has been found that biomedical discourse always tends to concentrate on medical advances as well as interventions at a single level. When people wish to emphasize the links amid the total environment and health then discourse is used. In the context of discourse relevancy to the health and biomedicine in Australia, discourse carries a vital role in medical discourse and biomedicines into the widest sense (Hyland & Paltridge, 2011). In addition to that, in the context of curing, healing, and therapy, discourse is important. For example, while considering anthropological importance, discourse provides different modes of social actions, curative practices, as well as beyond specific healing encounters. Discourse is helpful for effective cure and treatment in the field of biomedicine and health in Australia (cardinalhealth, home, 2019).|
What is multiculturalism and how might health need differ for immigrants and refugees to people who are born in Australia?
|The view that ethnicities, cultures, and races of minority groups particularly deserving special acknowledgement due to their differences within a culture of political dominance is multiculturalism. The contributions can take recognition forms acknowledging cultural life of the political community as a whole, under the law, demand for special protection for particular groups or rights of governance autonomously for some cultures. It is a response to the fact of cultural pluralism in modern democracies and was of compensating cultural communities for oppression, past exclusion, and discrimination consisting diverse cultural point-of-view, contributions and practices (Kwasnicka, 2016). Immigrants and refugees who arrive in Australia did not have access to affordable housing and employment but there is a reduction in social inequality to support and provide access to services which are culturally appropriate. Immigrants and refugees face numerous challenges when need of accessing healthcare and health status improvisation consist of financial need, language difficulties and unemployment, health workforce, cultural differences and legal barriers due to low awareness specifically towards them compared to people who are born in Australia (Shawyer, Enticott, Block, Cheng & Meadows, 2017). The present Australian government settlement and migration policy definitely impacts on health access and status required to understand the hurdles to health using available resources and assistance depending on the visa category. Accordingly, Australia being a multi-cultural country includes immigrants from Africa, the Middle East and India reported to have fewer chronic conditions comparing with individuals born in Australia showing healthy migrant effect (Kennedy et al., 2014).|
What are the social determinants of health and how do they help us understand the dynamics of globalisation and inequity? Draw on examples in the Australian context to illustrate your key points.
|The social determinants of the health include the social and economic condition that can contribute in influencing the group different and the individual in terms of the health status. This includes the conditions in which people are born, live, grow, work and age. The focus on health leads to impact on globalisation with consistent improvement in the resources. The social determinants of the health helps in understanding how globalisation contributes in improving the access to resources, access to education, health care services and many others (Borde & Hernández, 2019). For example; social determinants of health shows the data of people who are getting health care services and there is an increase in the number of people getting the services. In Australia, health impacts of globalisation are both positive and negative but it vary according to the different factors which include age, sex, origin, educational level and many others. The health community of Australia need to directly engage in the research and policy debates on globalisation and enhance the values to promote human health. Globalisation has led to inequality among the health care sector that is a social disadvantage. In Australia, Some people do not have access to health care facilities because of lack of globalization at the areas where community people are staying. For example: area-level socioeconomic disadvantage is witnessed among the Torres Strait Islanders people because of social determinants of health. This community people are not able to avail services and benefits related to health with help of social determinants of health.|
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