The article chosen for review is “Institutional Strategies to Promote the Health of Black Women Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence”. The review done over this article would entail a logical evaluation regarding the central theme along with supporting arguments and implications presented for further research.
The article is addressing the intimate violence from the partner faced by black women. Records have shown that the violence might be sexual, physical as well as psychological aggression. The violence leads to certain health consequences like mental illness along with physical injuries (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). It had been found that Black women had to undergo several challenges and hence they are seeking active support from formal institutions or organizations for keeping their families and themselves safe. This study on the trauma that a black woman goes would help in developing a required plan for their betterment. The statistics conducted over black women residing in United States and violence faced by them are confounding. It was found on average that one in every three women faces violence on other hand, one in five women becomes the victim of sexual assault. Other studies have shown that the assault faced by African American women faces extremely persistent issues that generally go unreported (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). Hence, currently, black women are demanding institutions to save them from being assaulted. This article by Nnawulezi & West, 2018; addresses all the issues of sexual violence done over black women that are imperative due to the exclusive barriers faced by African American women over economic, political, and cultural levels.
There is certain researcher which addresses that the sexual violence that a black woman goes through had become an essential topic. It is essential to understand that it is highly unfair stereotypes and destructive misrepresentation for black women, where the harassment is being faced depending on the color (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). The article presented by Nnawulezi & West (2018), related to the topic that is being discussed. They represented data showing that approx. of six million black women are a survivor from IPV (intimate partner violence) in the USA. It had been observed from other studies that an associated mental situation of IPV comprises anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, substance usage, and suicide. It had also been found that IPV victims have physical problems such as gastrointestinal, stomach, limb, spinal, and gynecological problems. Hence the paper by Nnawulezi & West (2018) portrayed the fact that the IPV linked health issues that are linked with black women are traumatic. Certain pieces of evidence have presented that show that the black women face biases, microaggression that are individual and environmental, inclinedness from receiving services from formal institutions. It was found that the institutional speculation in rationalized towards gender stereotypes, faces discrimination as well as required hyper surveillance over the safety of black women. It had been observed due to the discrimination that is faced by black women it makes it difficult to take help from institutions causing compromise towards the person in addition to familial health (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). The articles presented a detailed view about health problems being faced by black women in the USA only, however, a global study states that black women had to face IPV in countries where the black population is high. Generally, studies have portrayed the fact that countries where the black population is high face discrimination in terms of economy (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). Women in countries of Africa are being physically and mentally tortured by their intimate partners. Nnawulezi & West in 2018 showed a fact that related to the topic being discussed, showing health problems that are primarily used for clinical assessment, which are unstructured as well as resolute by clinical along with community-based samples (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). National data surveys have portrayed a clinical tool that is limiting, definitive, and have valid assessments considering the situation faced by the women due to IPV. An author such as Kim, 2018 talks about certain statistics conducted over African American women along with the violence that is being staggered. It was found that one out of three females is victims of intimate partner violence, as well as one in five women, who are sufferers of sexual assault. It was found from the data that about 18% of women face abuse, but the number seems low because hardly any women report any abuse against IPV. Therefore, the paper projects a better idea regarding ways this issue can be controlled providing a list of pieces of evidence and various social services needed for handling the cases (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). It was found from these articles that the sexual violence towards Black women has become imperative towards unique barriers confronted by African American women over dogmatic, economic, in addition, cultural level. Nnawulezi & West (2018) have shown that there lays a myth explaining that Black women are vessels for the sexual desire which is being used to justify rape, enslavement, required reproduction, as well as sexual coercion during colonization of Western civilization.
Nnawulezi & West (2018) contains several types of research and survey data projected by the “National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey”. All the data presented by Nnawulezi & West (2018) includes surveys and data obtained from previous studies. The research by Nnawulezi & West (2018), presented an idea that the black women survivors are extraordinarily resistant, towards active seeker for help utilizing certain internal sources for strength that have the spirituality as well as self-reliance. Hence, it was found that the physical fight back for defending oneself along with the children might terminate the abusive associations. Previous research has shown that the help that is supported by the informal foundations of support (Lacey et al., 2020). This includes family associates as well as friends, along with formal help foundations, comprised of police and courts. This research also presented that fact the black feminist examination explains the conversation of IPV away being an individual issue along with pathology in being a structural problem requiring institutional along with systemic variations. Nnawulezi & West (2018) have noted that the deeply fixed in cultural interventionism along with white supremacy in the USA. It had also been found that black people are generally dominated by white and hence, they are deprived of several opportunities, jobs, and facilities thereby causing substance addiction. It was found that this suppression leads to violence, from intimate partners. Women are the biggest sufferer for this and the study also found that it is directed by the postulation that helper or survivor causes defective or deficient (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). The articles also discuss certain formal institutions that are driven by the desire to assist people. It explained the concept of “HELP” that is hypothesized in a distinctive viewpoint recommends to fix social problems. This theory was found to pathologies all the community members as well as seek reconviction for the control and coordination of the lives of black women (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). The article summarises the fact that in the social context, the survivors are continuously responsible for partner’s abuse, and exertions for survivors as well as to communicate them for making better choice pervade institutions as well as significantly affect present-day interferences. Nnawulezi & West (2018) addressed the fact that the connotations between IPV as well as physical along with mental statuses for US Black women. The article explained that the additional evidence where the US Black women, as compared to ethnic women, who were prone to poor health results from IPV. As compared to other studies Lacey et al., 2020, victims of abuse experience several moods, anxiety, in addition to substance complaints along with suicidal tendencies. It was therefore found that the abused women were vulnerable towards poor professed overall physical health. Nnawulezi & West (2018) found that IPV develops different impacts on black women from diverse ethnic groups. Studies have shown that certain associations amongst eating disorders amongst Caribbean Black, along with African American, females victims of abuse. Hence, it was found that the alteration in the behavior has developed a tendency that is to be driven by diverse coping approaches for Caribbean Black as opposed to African American women (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). It was found and summarized from this article that certain movements have been launched in support of black women. The black feminist has created an empowerment model that can work in understanding the goals of survival helping in articulating aim, and acknowledging certain structural barriers for fulfilling the goals and objectives for crafting certain policies in overcoming the challenges (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). Hence, it was found that the unique circumstances, as well as circumstances, develop hope for the future forefront thereby offering preferences as well as assistances that are based on the availability of services in the given organization. The article also summarized the idea that the
The article did not use any certain tools, all the data that was collected were surveyed data and the researchers conducted previously. The data presented provided was accompanied by a detailed explanation of the cause.
Some of the conclusion that was drawn from the research and this article is that black women survivors of IPV are considered to have a deficiency in their deficiency with their intimate partners. It was found that the black feminist standpoint encourages individual to implement certain measures of strength-based method that concedes the therapeutic strategies which are being successfully executed by Black women. Nnawulezi & West (2018) stated in the article that the strength-based approach could be, mental health specialists who struggle to benefit Black women survivors for continuously expressing the susceptibility as well as celebrating the flexibility. Hence, it was suggested in the article that writing journals, listening to music, creating, and storytelling as well as reading books by black women are considered to an art form for helping the survivors (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). Along with this, the provider needs to ignore clients who can fragment oneself to present their identity as well as seek assistance by neglecting an essential segment of oneself. Therefore, it was found that the black feminist has infused some cultural response along with comprehensive service could provide black women survivor in all aspect of treatment. Other researchers have shown that cultural differences strongly impact the coping styles among the victims of IPV (Lacey et al., 2020). The data presented by other research Kim, 2018, showed that the in Caribbean cultural standards place increased value over family privacy as well as the distinction among public along with private life. The data also projected the fact that the Caribbean victims undergoing abuse get discouraged in expressing the personal issues publicly for IPV. The articles also conclude by presenting the fact that African American women have increased cultural support for getting active as well as public strategies in abuse coping (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). The Caribbean women with increased cultural support are found to be more active in coping with abuse (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). On the other hand, Caribbean women, have a disordered style of eating which could be the instantaneous behavioral retort to stressors of IPV in the context of controlled cultural theories that are acceptable in behavioral context. Hence, the conclusion that was retrieved from Nnawulezi & West, 2018 that the cultural bias, as well as structural oppressions, serves as the impairments for Black women survivors unloading care needed for getting resources promoting the well-being. It was obtained from the study that the conducted research and establishing resources focus on institutional modification providing better services towards Black women critical in promoting the health of the Black women in the USA (Nnawulezi & West, 2018).
The author used several references from the previous works of “The Audre Lorde Project”, Gregory et al., and work in 2017 followed by Iverson et al., work in 2013. The article was also referenced with Nnawulezi et al., work for the years 2014 and 2017, and a series of other research works that have been conducted related to the given topic. Referral from previous studies have helped in determining a broader prospect of the chosen field of study.
Yes, the work was valid and reliable because the article explains about the savior account that infantilizes black women survivors along with that highlight the requirement of the outsiders embedded with women having color differences and holding higher professional of social status (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). On another hand, it was also found that the African women who were asking for portion themselves as well as to present certain identities who were seeking assistance during neglecting essential parts for themselves. These articles also presented certain ideas about the black feminists, who were culturally responsive as well as comprehensive towards the service that is being provided for various aspects of institutional help provided by the Black women survivor. The articles presented a valid idea that Black women’s health is essential and it is commenced to the country (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). Therefore, the cultural specificity and services provided focus on every aspect of community-supported as well as maintained because fights for freedom are well connected and the actions are considered community-based focusing on the receiving distributive justice among every people.
Yes, the article was well written and well presented. The article that was presented by Nnawulezi & West, 2018 has given a reflective and thoughtful idea of the trauma and the level of violence faced by Black women. A detailed idea was presented showing that intimate partner violence can directly compromise with individual survivor’s health along with their families and thereby influencing directly the communities and neighborhoods where they are residing (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). This article also produced a concept showing that the providers need to demonstrate the focus of the institutions over static, supportive, and short structure rather than that of long flexible mechanisms providing the on-going support. It was found from the study that the US police immediately responded to the violence. The author presents a clear idea that has portrayed the usage of the crisis intervention model (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). It was found that the therapist mainly focusses over the pre-determined sessions and thereby forming an assumption where once people fulfills each other’s need and depending on that terminate therapies and services (Nnawulezi & West, 2018).
The limitation of this article is that it mainly focuses on Black women residing in the United States. There are several countries where black women face violence from IPV. It is not the fact that only, black women face discrimination, abuse, and violence. In countries in Africa, women face violence physically and mentally from their intimate partners (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). However, in this article, the focus was mainly on African American women.
The other thoughts and comments that could be added in this context are that even though with small limitations, the articles present a bigger benefit. The articles presented a well-structured fact regarding the mental health of abused women. The articles demonstrate the experiences of women with that of healthcare needs. This article opened a gateway of research for the IPV individual who was known to have an increased rate and required health care usage by them. It was found from the article that Black women who were exposed to IPV mainly having issues such as discrepancy which might be related to insurance coverage along with that socioeconomic status (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). The article was compared with other studies that have shown that African American women have developed an augmented risk of nonfatal as well as harmful IPV. I would comment that this article fulfills the purpose of the topic and review the current status of the Black women in America. The primary focus that needs to be done is socio-economic factors thereby focusing the sociodemographic factors in surveying the vulnerability in the population (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). Therefore, this article has projected a bigger prospect of the violence faced by African American women. Hence, it is essential to follow the Black women’s involvement with strength, discovering the stimulus of historical actions as well as the prevention of victimization (Nnawulezi & West, 2018). In the future context, this article would help in focusing on survivors’ flexibility along with that activism.
Kim, C. (2018). Religion, Religious Heterogeneity, and Intimate Partner Violence Among Korean Immigrant Women. Journal Of Interpersonal Violence, 088626051875722. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260518757224
Lacey, K., Jiwatram-Negron, T., & Sears, K. (2020). Help-Seeking Behaviors and Barriers Among Black Women Exposed to Severe Intimate Partner Violence: Findings From a Nationally Representative Sample. Violence Against Women, 107780122091746. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801220917464
Nnawulezi, N., & West, C. (2018). Institutional Strategies to Promote the Health of Black Women Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence. Meridians, 16(2), 276-285. https://doi.org/10.2979/meridians.16.2.08