Economics assignment essay help online: Corruption
Corruption is defined as a disease ,or we can say it is dangerous disease like cancer which exist into the political , economical and cultural section of the society, and has an adverse effects on the functional of the system. According to Transparency International the greatest challenge to the world is corruption., it erodes the base of good government ,pervert the public policies ,can leads to the misuse of the resources and it is harmful for the development of private sector, and especially create problems for poor .
Political corruption not only leads to the misallocation of resources, but it also affects the manner in which decisions are made. Political corruption is the manipulation of the political institutions and the rules of procedure, and therefore it influences the institutions of government and the political system, and it frequently leads to institutional decay. Political corruption is therefore something more than a deviation from formal and written legal norms, from professional codes of ethics and court rulings. Political corruption is when laws and regulations are more or less systematically abused by the rulers, side-stepped, ignored, or even tailored to fit their interests1. Southeast Asia comprises of eleven countries that includes Cambodia, Singapore, Malaysia ,Philippines, Burma, Brunei, East Timor , Indonesia, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, they all differ with each others in various aspects, such as heritage of culture and social, population, beliefs in religion,and political view. The locals mixed with the Indian, Chinese, European, and Malay and this intermingling has an influence on Southeast Asia where no society has died, or is inactive2. Due to different ideologies and views over politics there have been conflicts between states. In 1990s, it occurred recently ,after the end of the communism in the end of Cold war that Southeast Asia got stable in security. After a Cold War, there has been transformation in Southeast Asia.
Political corruption: A threat to domestic security of Southeast Asia
Transnational crime is a severe problem in the region of southeast Asia and these include trafficking of drugs, migrating illegally, sea piracy, corruption, fraud of credit card, prostitution, terrorist attack as well as corruption. The most severe problems of crime faced by the states of southeast Asia are trafficking of drugs. The Chinese triads, gangs of Vietnam and the Japanese Yakuja are the most dangerous and the largest organization of crime. There has been flourishment of smaller network in the region of south east Asia that has set up these crimes. The main advantages of these groups are that they are aware of the corruption that exist politically and they take advantage of the corrupted politician. and officer, as well as they are aware of the weak institutions of the government as well laws that are being manipulated accordingly. By doing such things developing countries of south east Asia as well as democracies has been eroded. Transnational crime is a threat for the stability and security at national and international level 3.there is not a single law in Indonesia against people who are involved in smuggling as well as trafficking and system of judiciary of Indonesia consider these crimes as an offense done for visa. On the contrary, tougher laws have been adopted by the Thailand since the last few years which includes the 1997 trafficking in women and act of the child. Cambodia and Myanmar ,in these two countries the laws has been partially applied where corruption and struggle has eroded the system of administration and judicial. There are various factors which exist in southeast Asia which makes difficulties in coping up with these transnational crime of southeast Asia and these factors include political corruption and the lack of resources. There is a link between poverty, domestic security and transnational crime. Southeast Asian countries in majority have remained as a weak state which has suffered from various social and economic problem. Corruption as well as week law has spoiled an attempt to fight with gangs who are involved in these crimes. Corruption as well as lack of resources are the reason that one is not able to stop trafficking of drugs as well as its consumption in southeast Asia .the ability of ASEAN to tackle the crimes have been diminished by the poverty and the corruption that exist in southeast Asia especially related to the issue of smuggling of human. Corruption of the officer ranging from senior executives to the custom officer, at the various level of government has created these problem. various organization who are involved in crime and terrorist use corruption in politics as a tool to break the sovereignty of many states. there are the regions of Indonesia, Thailand, Burma and the Philippines that are really not governed by the central government ,but are actually controlled by groups which includes terrorist ,mafia, insurgent, all due to the corruption.
After the attack that occurred on 9/11 there has been rise in terror globally, terrorist regional groups which includes Jemaah Islamiah or we can JI has increased their activities ,use territories which are in conflict for establish their camps for training. The threat of terrorism has become so notable in southeast Asia that it has been labeled as a terrorist sanctuary in the commission report made on 9/114 and United States has designated it as a second front in GWOT ,or we can say Global War on Terror5. Mindanao, Philippines and Southern Thailand are being largely populated by the Muslims and the lack in control of state has attracted the interest of the groups of jihadist such as the JI and al-Qaeda. These organizations of terrors by spoiling these ungoverned territories have extended their operations6, and this is a great concern to the community of Southeast Asia. The security threat that has confronted Southeast Asia are quite different when compared with other regions. Since Muslims of the Southeast Asia have lived under the shadow of Buddhist, Christian and population of Hindus, majority of the Muslims of Southeast Asia are moderate and tolerant. But, the minority of the Muslims of Southeast Asia who have been politicized ,especially from the middle east , by the influence of extra regional, are in the favor of using violence politically and also terrorism to create stat of Islam. Today, there are Islamic groups and political parties of muslim, and group which is names as guerrilla, and various terrorist groups which are campaigning for the Islamic group. Very less percentage of the Muslim are there in these organization, then also political leaders who are hungry ,in order to fulfill their own aims have misused religion. Largest population of the Muslim in the world exist in Southeast Asia, so they consider their duty to assist the Muslims ,who are being affected in the zone of conflict which include Kashmir, Afghanistan, Mindanao and Iraq..According to Dr Amitav Acharya, who is one of an outstanding scientist ,the major reason that tensions that are there between southeast region are unresolved due to the effect of spillover that is there within the territories that are ungoverned. The political, ethnic and ideologies challenges that occur in a state are the factors which result in domestic insecurities which results in rebellion with a purpose of throwing government through armed force or we can say one of the implication is terrorism7.The domestic insecurity within ASEAN states ,as told by one of the critic is due to the lack of attraction politically and socially and lack in development of resilience. Sea piracy is a crime that take place inside water at international level and it include the exclusive zone of economics, high seas and the zone adjacent to each other, which are not under the regional jurisdiction of any country 8 .There has been increased in crime, they are involved in piracy and products in a small vessels have been targeted as they can be sold in a market, or we can say in a black market at a price with higher profits. The ships which are being hijacked are also used for the smuggling of human beings, along with the transport of illegal weapons and drugs. Advantages are taken by the group as they are aware of the corrupted and weak government that does not have will, also lack in resources especially financially, and incapable agencies ,so the government is not capable of handling this criminal activities. There has been rise in sea piracy is southeast Asia which has been resulted from the serious crises in economics and instability in politics which occurred since 1997 in Indonesia. From 1998 to 1999 .the number of sea piracy has been doubled in water of Indonesia
7 The Third United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III) defines piracy as “any illegal acts of violence, detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends…on the high seas against another ship or aircraft…outside the jurisdiction of any state.” Official Text of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea with Annexes and Index (New York: United Nations, 1983). UNCLOS III was adopted on 30 April 1982 and came into force on 16 November 1994
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