By Name






Assessment 3


In the modern construction, there is no building which is entirely constructed using a single structural material. The term timber buildings therefore refer to those structures in which majority of the products of the buildings are made from the timber and its products. This implies that the categories affected ate the engineering superstructures (Ceraldi et al.2017). There are general principles which are involved in the design of the tall buildings and what this particular study has captured is just but a claudication of the various aspects of the science of engineering. Shape and size, details of the construction, geographical location as well as functional uses of the allocated spaces which have been enclosed will definitely influence the characteristics of the in-service performance of the buildings as well as the expectation of the performance quality.

Performance-based Design

Construction problem

Although  timber buildings have been exhibiting  exemplary performance in the vent that such kind of the materials are properly used,  most of the  building codes have displayed restriction in regard to  the number o falls  which can be erected using this material. The challenge therefore becomes management of the requirements of serviceability as well as overload particularly when exposed to fire. The performance based building has been twinned in accordance with the odes of the design as well as fire engineering emergency as a mature science (Izz et al.2016). This has clearly defined the boundaries in regard to what engineers as well as architects are supposed to do. Despite the fact that this particular consideration has been very fundamental, it will be very unrealistic to suggest that the regulatory authorities will be involved in the liberation exercise step by step in regard to what they can allow to be constructed. Also in expectation is that owners ‘approach must be cautious. What this suggests is the need of designing tall buildings in a manner which allow for properly defined compartmentalization of the erected structure and this must take into consideration the barriers of separation between the sub surfaces which are effective barriers of fire.

Alternative Solution

The definition as well as the choice of the structural concepts should be properly integrated with the building design services like ventilations, heating as well as air conditioning so that the concepts of the integrity can be guaranteed particularly in the fire department. The provision of the robust outcome in the case of the tall slender buildings will only be achieved affectively in the cases where the compartments of fire are very small. Alternatively, in the cases where there is provision of the secondary structural systems to assist in the provision of the temporary services of support in case of the fire damage to particular compartments of fire (Izz et al.2016). Taking into considerations the effects of the permanent gravity forces, the secondary structural systems used should be in a position to provide the full support required besides the same proportion of the variable design forces for example wind action as well as snow effects.

Figure 1: Conceptual high performance construction of the timber building in the case of the tall building.

Compliance with the performance satisfaction

Pursuant to the building codes of BCA and taking into full effects the CP2 and CP1, the above measures will ensure that appropriate countermeasures against disproportionate damage which are attributed to the natural actions of the structural components like in the case of the gas explosion, earthquakes as well as deliberate destruction acts like bombing are properly arrested. The means of providing systems that have pro-business will actually handle several purposes in multiple approaches and there will be no requirement of the duplications in the cases where the proper design met. Getting similar results of the effective performance will be an indication of the compliance with the specific parts requirements of BCA,

Assessment 4

Alternative solutions

The only way to effectively achieve symbiotic solutions t these particular objectives will be through systemic thinking. As per the figure shown below, there is hypothetical solution of the systemic design of the building particularly tall structures of timber. It is of interest to note that the specifics of the scheme illustrated are not important (Fink et al.2018). The diagram of the examination will definitely reveal that it is a trial towards implementations of the total solution of varying factors which have already been highlighted. There are others approaches in existence and whatever may be considered as most appropriate will greatly vary between the projects of the design. The alternative solution will therefore involve conceptualization of the systems to incorporate the creation of layers of isolation within the building for effective multi-function.

Figure 2: Timber floor lay-up for the high performance structures (Follesa et al.2018).

Assessment of the alternative solution

Modelling can be most effective approach for assessing the viability of the solution proposed in this study. There are several fracture mechanic-based reasons which have been considered compelling as to why large building system design should have their analysis done elastically. Irrespective of the object’s size, upon initiation, the dame on the timber structure will continue to propagate in case the system will continue being subjected to the work (Schober, and Tannert 2016). This is because; the recorded last increment of damage will be expected to exceed the total losses of energy. The general expectation is that keeping the response of the timber –structured tall buildings in the range of elasticity while having their design assuming the brittle of response will increase the cost of construction grossly. This is attributed to the fact that the primary factors which affect the structural members sizing will actually be considerations on the serviceability (Östman et al.2017).

Approval process

 In order to effectively allow for the approval, the potentially viable solution will therefore include avoiding the need of using massive quantity of timber so that the problems of the fire spread in the case of the tall buildings. This will therefore be a factor of proper construction as well as selection of the structural form including design of compartments of fire which are very small. The authorities will be guided using the modelling results which will be generated as per the provisions of the BCA in regard to building fire safety for timber structures particularly in the case of CP1 and CP2 (Feldmann et al.2016).


There is a conventional approach of timber building design with considerations on the moderate height. However, this particular research has effectively given factors t be considered for meaningful improvements to be made.


Ceraldi, C., D’Ambra, C., Lippiello, M. and Prota, A., 2017. Restoring of timber structures: connections with timber pegs. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products75(6), pp.957-971.

Feldmann, A., Huang, H., Chang, W., Harris, R., Dietsch, P., Gräfe, M. and Hein, C., 2016. Dynamic properties of tall timber structures under wind-induced vibration. In World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2016).

Fink, G., Honfi, D., Köhler, J. and Dietsch, P., 2018. Basis of design principles for timber structures. A state-of-the-art report by COST Action FP1402/WG1.

Follesa, M., Fragiacomo, M., Casagrande, D., Tomasi, R., Piazza, M., Vassallo, D., Canetti, D. and Rossi, S., 2018. The new provisions for the seismic design of timber buildings in Europe. Engineering Structures168, pp.736-747.

Izzi, M., Flatscher, G., Fragiacomo, M. and Schickhofer, G., 2016. Experimental investigations and design provisions of steel-to-timber joints with annular-ringed shank nails for Cross-Laminated Timber structures. Construction and Building Materials122, pp.446-457.

Östman, B., Brandon, D. and Frantzich, H., 2017. Fire safety engineering in timber buildings. Fire safety journal91, pp.11-20.

Schober, K.U. and Tannert, T., 2016. Hybrid connections for timber structures. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products74(3), pp.369-377.

Ugalde, D., Almazán, J.L., Santa María, H. and Guindos, P., 2019. Seismic protection technologies for timber structures: a review. European journal of wood and wood products77(2), pp.173-194.