Health related report on: Effect of chemical raising agents on cornflour
Concept: The effect of chemical raising agents on cornflour.
Gluten is a composite produced from diverse proteins. It is found most frequently in wheat and other correlated grains, such as barley and rye. It adds a characteristic chewiness and to baked goods, this ingredient is used in other foods as a binder and thickener, protein supplement and flavour enhancer (Vaclavik & Christian 2008). There are two components of gluten which are glutenin and gliadin. Glutenin is the key protein found in wheat flour. It is accountable for the strength and extensibility of dough. Gliadin is a glycoprotein present in wheat and numerous other cereals. It is liable for giving elasticity to the dough (Vaclavik & Christian 2008 ). Corn is naturally gluten free, thus corn flour doesn’t have the glue-like quality of wheat flour, so you typically add a binder such as eggs to corn flour dough to keep it intact when baking (Barlowe, 2011). Another component of flour is starch which is mainly found in the endosperm. Starch is a carbohydrate comprising of a large number of glucose units connected by glycosidic bonds (Vaclavik & Christian 2008). It is the most recurrent carbohydrate in the human diet and is found in big amounts in staple foods such as wheat, potatoes, rice etc. When the starch is exposed to heat and water then the intermolecular bond breaks down in a process called gelatinisation. There are some factors that influence the quality of the flour when it is going under baking such as, baking powder and fat. Baking powder is a chemical raising agent used to boost the volume and lighten the texture of baked supplies such as muffins, scones etc. It works by releasing carbon dioxide gas into a batter or dough through an acid-base reaction, causing bubbles in the wet mixture to expand and thus leavening the mixture. Most commercially available baking powders are made up of an alkaline component (typically sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda), one or more acid salts (like Tartaric Acid), and an inert starch (such as corn starch). It is of two types, both a combination of an acid and alkali, when in presence of moisture and heat produce gas. The alkali base for both types is generally bicarbonate of soda. The two types are single acting and double acting baking powder. The former can be made at home and is cheap whereas the latter is more efficient (Campbell, et al 1980). Another factor is fat. The importance of fat is that it increases the volume by lubricating gluten strands but too much can tenderise and shortens the gluten strands. It keeps the crust tender, the crumb soft and moist, makes the keeping quality less hardening and also gives a better colour (Campbell, et al 1980).