Management and Operation : 655768


Discuss about the Management and Operation.


Task 1

Definition of leaders and managers

A leader is a person who is responsible for to motivate, influence and guide a group of people in order to achieve a common objective or goals.  The members of the group consider the role of a leader to be important and significant and hence entertain the leadership. Leaders are responsible to give and set directions, build a farsighted vision, keep up with the dynamics of a team and develop as well as encourage innovation. A Leader has an eye on the horizon and challenges the status-quo (Bolman & Deal, 2014).

Some of the qualities of a leader are:

  • Determination
  • Alertness
  • Focus
  • Reliability
  • Sympathy
  • Confidence
  • Hopefulness
  • Honesty
  • Encouragement

On the other hand Manager is a person while is responsible for delivering a task with the help of a team. Control, monitoring, administration and organisation are some of the responsibilities of a manager. A person is designated to be a manger based on the skills that he has acquired academically or through experience. The managerial skills are based on several theories and concepts that are developed by scholars (Long, 2017). Some of the qualities of a manager are:

  • Monitoring
  • Control
  • Observation
  • Motivation
  • Team building
  • Approachable

Difference in between a leader and manager

The roles of a leader and manager are almost synonymous but there are several differences in the responsibilities and the approaches of a leader and a manager. There are some major differences in between a leader and a manager.

A leader is responsible to create and develop a vision. According to the path-goal model developed by Robert House, in order to turn a vision into reality a leader with the help of motivation enhances the performance of the people. A leader creates and clarifies the direction in order to reach the desired conclusion and achievement. In this model the author has discussed about four behavioral patterns of a leader directive, supportive, participative and achievement-oriented (Long, 2017).

On the other hand, managers are responsible for delegating and delivering tasks to for the achieving the goals and objectives of the organisation, based on the objective of the organisation the managers create short term goals. Henry Fayol has provided fourteen principles of management which states the various ways in which the goal can be reached (Murphy et al. 2017).

About the organisation and its structure

As the Rays of Sunshine is a non-profit seeking entity the management and leadership of the organization are also different in terms of the objective and attaining the goal. The goals that are set for the managers become very different as the objective of the company is not profit driven.  Rays of Sunshine is an organisation that is a believer of hope and filling the world with happiness. The objective of the company is not only different because it is a charitable organisation but also because the motive is not to help the world with money or material needs but to fulfill the lives of children who are surviving and fighting life limiting ailment. The organisation is registered in UK and serves children who are in between the age group of 3-18 years. The structure of the organisation that is included in the case study suggests that the wish engagement manager is in charge of monitoring the operation of the organisation. This position is followed by the senior with manager who reports back   to the engagement manager. The wish manager is in charge of the wish granters who are responsible directly to make a wish come true.  There are several volunteers who associate with the organization and work with the wish granters in order to fulfill the wishes of the people; the volunteers have to have special skills in order to be appointed as wish granting volunteers (Bolman & Deal, 2014).

Roles of management and leadership


For a manager or a leader in the organisation like Rays of Sunshine the first quality that is expected is that of empathy and understanding along with being smart and tactful. In order to fulfill the diverse wishes of the children the manager or a leader of the organisation is expected to deliver by delegating and managing the wish in time. As appropriately named the managers in the organization are known as wish granters and wish managers. The resource channelizing is the main responsibility of the managers in the organisation as that would be dependent on the success of a wish. If the wish of a child is to meet the Iron Man or Harry Potter, the managers should find a way to get the wish fulfilled. Many times we find celebrities meet the children such contacts and relationships can also be built in these situations. The leadership style that is appropriate in this organisation is situational style as the managers have to be adaptive in nature in order to cater to the various requirements of the children on a daily basis. As the  Rays of Sunshine focuses on people and team work by establishing rapport the situational leadership is the model that would be appropriate in the organisation (Tummers & Knies, 2013).

Planning and organizing are some of the roles of the managers and leaders in the organisation. The wish granters work closely with the children and their families and record the wishes of the children and figure out a plan to fulfill those plans. Collection of information in this process also plays a key role (Tummers & Knies, 2013).  Hence, interpersonal communication skills among the leaders are imperative. Arrangement of the training session for the volunteers is also a role that the wish granters have to play identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the volunteers the training session should be arranged in order to increase the skills and performance of the people. The organisation can include behavioral concepts like MARS theory in order to keep the people of the organisation encouraged motivated and give in the very best. The mission and vision of the organisation itself is very encouraging and the volunteers are already motivated intrinsically. But the wish granters continues to inspire and direct the people to make sure that the wish of the child is fulfilled and they can deliver at least momentary happiness in the lives of the children (Miao et al., 2014).

In the process of operation the leaders in the public service sector keep facing dynamic challenges system leadership is a new process that the leaders are implementing. There are six aspects of system leadership feeling, perceiving, thinking, relating, doing and being (Tummers & Knies, 2013).  The leaders in the public sector service are expected to have values and principles which drive them through internal motivation. The wish granters of the organisation are expected to listen and observe situations and deal with any opportunities or crisis situation. The responsibilities of the wish granters as a leader are also to have a sense of rationalism and analytics in order to use the resources of the company strategically for both skill development and delegation of task among the people (Bolman & Deal, 2014).



Task 2


Regarded as one of the fastest growing companies in the market, Fruitapeel has also successfully gathered goodwill among the several stakeholders. The organisation offers fruit and confectionery sauce and has a wide range of product portfolio. The company believes in growth and expansion with the help of innovation and product development. The mission and objectives of the organisation is to offer the consumers of the product high quality product and service. The products that are manufactured by the organisation have clean label declaration. The company serves both the business to customer and business to business sectors of the food industry. Several clients of the organisation are from the food service sector as well (About Fruitapeel, 2017).

The key operations of the company encompasses from accumulating the raw materials to getting the finished products to the shelves and the customers.

Accumulation of the raw materials: the raw materials of the company are mostly perishable items and hence the company has to be careful about the quality of each fruit that will pass on to the processing unit. The raw materials are supplied by the suppliers of the organisation and they have been bound by contract and agreements.

Processing of the raw materials: the major raw material that the company uses are fruits and these require to be pealed and washed before the manufacturing process begins the company has a wide spread 50,000 square foot manufacturing plant in Lancashire where all the manufacturing process goes takes place. Managers and workers in this plan are responsible for the smooth daily operations of the business (Gimenez-Espin et al., 2013).

Manufacturing: After the raw materials are being brought in the plant the processing begins. With the help of other ingredients that are externally added to the sauce preparation the manufacturing method proceeds. The process ends with the products being packaged. As the company offers a plethora of products to the consumers the plant is divided in sections for various products as well (Slack, 2015).

Marketing: This department of the organisation is responsible for the promotion of the products and services that the company has to offer to both B2C as well as B2B customers.

Administration: the overall operations of the company are looked after by the administration team in order to plan and strategies according to the requirement and need of the business. This is the department who are also responsible for analysis for the decisions and policy making process in the organisation (Slack, 2015).

Key approaches of the organisation management and role of the leaders and managers

The approaches of the organisation management employed are total quality management or TQM as a manufacturing organisation which is focused in quality this process or this approach is appropriate. Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach that is employed in order to develop the performance and quality of the product or service which will help the company develop value in the customer relationship. This process initiates by grouping the quality related operations and process of the organisation. Some of the aspects of the quality process that falls under the TQM approach are: designing of the product and development of new product, quality control and quality assurance quality improvement, and maintenance (Heizer, 2016).

The aim of the TQM approach is delivering the customers with best possible quality of products and services with the help of tools and instruments that would ensure the enhancement of the quality than before, Fruitapeel is an organisation that seeks innovation and quality development hence some of essential principles of the organisation that can be identified in the process are: the focuses of the company should not be the profit maximization or sales maximization it should follow the interest of the consumers and focus on the customer satisfaction more than anything else (Dale, 2015).  The company should take decisions and should formulate policies regarding the quality of the product with the help of proper analysis and rational reasoning. Tools are employed to achieve and ensure the best quality on the basis of the above stated analysis the methodology of development and improvement  should be implemented, for example if there is an observation that the resources need training and skill development of a certain department then that should be highlighted and implemented. The manufacturing plant of Fruitapeel can also be developed with the improving technology and installing latest technology machineries so that at the productions as well as the quality can be improved. The culture that has been observed in the organisation aims at improving the employee’s capabilities and encourages them to work as a team in order to achieve the objective of the company.  Motivation and encouragement of the employees play a key role in the development of the quality of the service provided by the company. Identification and recognition of the issues related to the quality should be highlighted and communicated with the higher management and choose a suitable solution (Goetsch & Davis, 2014).

Achievement of business objectives

The higher management is directly responsible for the success of the TQM application as the people in this position are the ones who employee the policies and decision of this approach. The management acts as a control check and monitors the quality of the products and services on regular intervals.  The leaders are also expected to have a farsighted vision to understand and deal with the dynamics of the internal and external business environment that could impact the production and quality of the product. For example, if bad batches of raw materials are found and the order is already awaiting a contingency plan has to be ready for such a situation as the company is dealing with perishable items. Situational leadership approach is the best style of leadership that is encouraged by the process of TQM (Gimenez-Espin et al., 2013).

Business environment

When the higher management of an organisation employees decisions and formulates polices for the organisation several factors are taken into consideration, the business environment can be of two types internal and external. The internal environment is directly under the control of the organisation hence it can be dealt in a convenient way. On the other hand the external environmental factors such as politics, economics, societal, technological and legal. The management of Fruitapeel deals with the aforementioned factors while taking any decision as it has to abide by the rules and regulations of the state as well as deal with the dynamics of the market. The position of the company is of a market leader and to maintain that position the organisation has to strive hard and be more focused on the objectives (Khanna, 2015).



Improving the efficiency

In order to successfully meet the business objective of providing the customers with best quality product and service the managers have to concentrate on the resources. The human resource of any business organisation are the back bone of operation the managers are expected to  motivate and encourage the team constantly in order to maintain the commitment of the employees towards the organisation. The performances of the employees have to be maintained and monitored on a regular basis to understand the strength and weaknesses. Delegation of tasks should be done on the basis of this segmentation (Khanna, 2015).  The managers who are responsible for the quality check of the end products are essential as it decides upon the goodwill of the company. Apart from planning and organizing checks on a daily basis the managers are expected to find the solution to the issues that are repeatedly being observed. The managers should be able to anticipate the requirement s and need of the organisation in order to meet the target. Maximum utilizations of the resources are one of the most important roles of the manager as the sources available are always limited and expensive (Krajewski et al., 2013).


The operations of a company are dependent on the resources and the management is responsible for the smooth operations of the business on a daily basis. Fruitapeel is a company that is customer centric and is driven by innovations and product development. As the company severs both b2c and b2b sectors of the market the operations of the company works on a large scale. The company constantly strives to improve the operations and develop new and innovative high quality products for the clients and customers.



Reference list:


About Fruitapeel. (2017). Retrieved 17 November 2017, from

Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (2014). Leadership and management. Christian Youth Work in Theory and Practice: A Handbook, 245.

Dale, B. (2015). Total quality management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Gimenez-Espin, J. A., Jiménez-Jiménez, D., & Martínez-Costa, M. (2013). Organizational culture for total quality management. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence24(5-6), 678-692.

Goetsch, D. L., & Davis, S. B. (2014). Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson.

Heizer, J. (2016). Operations Management, 11/e. Pearson Education India.

Khanna, R. B. (2015). Production and operations management. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd..

Krajewski, L. J., Ritzman, L. P., & Malhotra, M. K. (2013). Operations management: processes and supply chains (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Pearson.

Long, A. (2017). Leadership and management. ABC of Clinical Leadership, 5.

Miao, Q., Newman, A., Schwarz, G., & Xu, L. (2014). Servant leadership, trust, and the organizational commitment of public sector employees in China. Public Administration92(3), 727-743.

Murphy, J., Rhodes, M. L., Meek, J. W., & Denyer, D. (2017). Managing the entanglement: complexity leadership in public sector systems. Public Administration Review77(5), 692-704.

Slack, N. (2015). Operations strategy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Tummers, L. G., & Knies, E. (2013). Leadership and meaningful work in the public sector. Public Administration Review73(6), 859-868.