Healthcare in South Australia:620853


Current Health policies and medical system in South Australia.
Current Health policies and medical system in other states in Australia.
Current Health policies in and medical system other OECD countries with Names of the Top best hospitals including John Hopkins.

What can we implement in South Australia comparing with other states in Australia and World.


What and how to implement.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Healthcare in South Australia

The Southern Australia provides an improved health care to the public by providing effective leadership in health reforms, medical research and public health services. The south Australian health services provides several important services to the SA community, which includes- Public hospitals, environmental health policies, delivery of metropolitan and public health, epidemiology, control of communicable diseases, excellent pathology services, emergency and ambulance services, organ donation services (Britt et al. 2012). The SA dental service also provides a wide range of dental services for children as well as the adults. The dental service is publicly funded and also works in partnership with the University of Adelaide to train and educate a large number of State’s dental work force. It has been reported that all children and all young people under the 18 years of age are eligible of attending the school Dental Service regardless of the parents or guardians (Chrisopoulos, Harford and Ellershaw. 2016). Adults are eligible for getting the basic dental service. The older adults can have a current concession card or a Department of Veterans affairs Pensioner concession card. If one is not an Australian resident then he or she can access the dental care service at his or her own cost.

The SA health collaborates with other government agencies to provide an appropriate care service to the consumers. The infrastructure directorate of SA helps in the strategic planning and the evaluation of the requirements of the public health infrastructure system. It provides leadership for the health assets of the SA (Corallo et al.2014). It is responsible for delivering security services to the SA health. The South Australia has taken up the health in all policies.

‘The health in all policies’ actually has its origin in Europe. It has been implemented in the latest European health strategies and it has been implemented highly by the all the countries of the European Union. Dental problems are very common among the population of South Australia. As the population of the older adult is high in this state, the oral health status of this state has to be focused on. Oral health diseases are also a major financial cost to the south Australian community. Australia’s first National oral health plan (National plan) has been endorsed by the Australian ministry of health conference in order to make oral health an integral part of the general health, in order to help out the common people to access appropriate and affordable services. Researches and oral health evaluation is made in order to ensure an essential and sufficiently skilled workforce and communities that effectively promote good oral health.

This approach has said to improve the outcomes in patient. HiAP is an innovation that South Australia has introduced to further its vow to joined-up government. Importantly, the South Australian Health in All Policies approach extends the European HiAP work to strengthen the focus on improving health and wellbeing through the achievement of the goals of other sectors, and contributes to bridging the gap between theory and practice.

Health care in Australia

Health care in Australia is mainly provided by government hospitals, private physicians. Half of the cost of the medical services is served by either the government agencies, or paid privately by the clients or provided by the private insurance agencies and the rest is paid by the clients privately. It is known that the Australian government spends 9% of its GDP in health care, which can be close to many OECD countries but is much less than U.S (Duckett and Willcox. 2015). The funding of health care via government is brought about by the Medicare schemes, which provides universal access to a wide range of health services.  This thing is brought about by general taxation system.  The Australian Medicare system has strengthened the health indicators and has helped to increase the life expectancy rate among the Australians. There are a number of health services in the New South Wales. They are- NSW ambulance, good health infrastructure, Health share NSW providing corporate and information technological services health, NSW health pathology, E- health NSW, which is an organization that provides a state wise leadership on the delivery, shape and management of the information council technology led healthcare (Duckett and Willcox. 2015). Other services that are provided are proper dental health clinics, local health districts and specialty network. There are several pillar organizations in order to review the clinical variation and support the clinical network in the development of the good service. There is a cancer institute and bureau of health information and an agency of clinical innovation.

The health care services provided in Queensland is provided by government and non government organizations, professionals, private companies and voluntary groups (Duckett and Willcox. 2015). It has been reported that the Queensland health provides with free public hospital services across 15 service districts.

In Tasmania there is a wide range of government health care services. The government is continuously striving to provide a good patient service. But it has to be noted that the Tasmania needs more funding when it is coming to health. It needed more improved care community, discharge care and training in the medical students (Devaux and De Looper. 2012).

The health care system is Victoria provides a wide range health care benefit to the Victoria. In Victoria, the treatment in the public hospital is free whereas in Private it is to be paid by the consumer depending on the type of insurance benefit one select. The ambulatory care service is provided by the Victorian government. The emergency department is efficient in dealing with the critical patients. Like the other states of Australia, the West Australian health system also provides a combined care to the consumers. Health care funding is supported by the government or by the private health care providers, largely depending on the Medicare facilities. The services got are – skilled general practitioners, wide range of health services including child health, school health, woman health, community and sexual health, organized programs on immunizations (Devaux and De Looper. 2012). The public hospitals are owned by the government of the state. There are some private hospitals that work in partnership with the WA health to provide free service to the customers. The dental health in west Australia is in an alarming position. Nearly half of the 6 years old babies have dental carries.

Medical system in other OECD countries

Balancing the health care and costs are the common motto of most of the OECD countries. The recent economic and the financial crisis have brought about miseries in the fiscal positions. It should be noted that the public spending on health care had always been voluptuous. It has been reported that most of the OECD countries spend about 6 % of it GDP in health care (Astolfi, Lorenzoni and Oderkirk. 2012). Health care outcomes can be measured on the basis of certain factors such as the longevity, survival rates in patients, number of hospital readmissions and the numbers of hospital discharges. It should be noted that the health status have changed in the OECD countries for the past few years. It has been reported that Japan spends less on health per capita income, but they have got a very high health status. Other countries like Iceland, Sweden and Italy have also high health status. The oral health care is one of the major problems in the OECD countries (Fineberg. 2012).

The dental health is alarming in many countries such as Bolivia, Poland, Phillipines, Bolivia including Australia. The middle of South America has some of the worst oral health of the region.

A comparative study reveals that countries like Japan, Korea and Switzerland achieve best to transform money into health outcome. Countries like Denmark, Greece, Hungary and Slovak Republic are successful in improving the heath outcome keeping the spending constant.

Name of the top best hospitals in South Australia

  • The Royal Adelaide hospital
  • John Hopkin’s hospital
  • The Repatriation general hospital
  • Flinder’s Medical centre (FMC)
  • Lyell McEwin hospital (LMH)
  • Queen Elizabeth Hospital

Comparison of health care facilities between South Australia and other states of Australia

Population of SA is highly concentrated in the urban areas. 80% of the people reside in Adelaide and the outer surrounding areas (Duckett and Willcox 2015). It also has the highest population of older people, thus requires extra health facilities. It has been reported that the health spending in Australia has increased by 2.9% in compared with many other OECD countries and it has also been reported that most of the health facilities are consumed by the couth Australian community (Farrar et al. 2013). It has been reported that the potentially avoidable hospitalizations for COPD is highest in South Australia compared to the other states of Australia. Effective treatment for these clinical conditions can be got at the primary level of care, and the cost effectiveness of the hospitalizations makes it easy for the people to get the desired care. In South Australia, the age –sex standardized cases for asthma is about 64.7 per 1000-00 population, compared with the other OECD countries. It has been reported that the rate of hospital admissions the South Australia is 323.8 per 100000 populations, which is considerably higher considered to many OECD countries. One of the greatest problems in South Australia is the problem of obesity, which cannot be found profoundly in the other states of Australia. There are certain areas in health care where South Australia has to improve. Inspite of all these South Australia performs well when it considering the overall population health. Recent studies say that at 82.2 years, the life expectancy in Australia is the sixth highest compared to the other OECD countries (Devaux and De Looper 2012). The state’s record on colorectal cancer and breast cancer survival is among the best. It has also been reported that this state has one of the lowest records of tobacco consumption.

Challenges faced by South Australia in terms of general and oral health.

In spite of the possible measures taken to improve the oral health in South Australia, there are certain challenges that have to be accomplished. There are funding facilities for the accessing to the dental health care but the loss of the common wealth Dental health program in 1996 reduced the funding availability for the treatment of 400000 South Australian card holders, who were eligible for a dental care that is publicly funded (Hadad, Hadad and Simon-Tuval. 2013). This reduced their timely access to the dental care. Furthermore the large number of aging population and the dental decay among the children are some of the challenges that are faced by the South Australian health care (Arrow, Raheb and Miller 2013). IT has got high rate of hospital admissions for the chronic diseases which have to be decreased considerably in the primary care.  Another factor is the inaccessibility of the health care by the aged population due to the transportation or cost (Hall. 2015).


Strategies taken up to improve health care facilities in South Australia


Proper strategies have to be taken up to reduce the number of factors such as hospital admissions due to COPD, chronic illness (Elshaug et al. 2012). The government has to establish a new model of care, where a wide range of services should be available within a local clinical network. The country hospitals should have a strengthened capacity to deliver a basal level of care to the local community and the broader district. The emergency services, acute and intermediate care, community and primary care (Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health, 2012). The country general hospital should be able to develop highly specialized care units, which should be close to the residential aged care. The health care facility should be reachable to all the classes and even to the remote areas (Runciman et al. 2012). There should be small rural health clinics that will support the fundamental health care services across the countries. The existing health care setting should work on their workforce in order to deliver an appropriate care (Baum. 2016).  Proper programs should be arranged by the ministry of health care in order to impart education to the hospital staffs and the patients for self management of the diseases like COPD and obesity. Proper monitoring and proper discharge goals can help in reducing the hospital readmissions. Proper and assessment of the signs and symptoms and risk management techniques can improve the delivery of care to the patients (Grol et al. 2013). Emphasis also has to be given in improving the aboriginal health care. In a nutshell the steps that is required are-

  • Keeping patient as the primary objectives of all kinds of planning of the health services.
  • Encouraging self management
  • Recognition of the needs of people from culturally diverse background, such as the aboriginals.
  • To maintain a balance between the in hospital and the out of hospital care services.
  • Providing intermediate or primary health care service regarding oral health
  • Provision of appropriate Medicare services in terms of general and oral health.

In a word it can be said that a lot of researches are still required to understand the loops and the flaws of the South Australian health care. And proper quality improvement and the risk management strategies can advance the health care facilities of South Australia.





Arrow, P., Raheb, J. and Miller, M., 2013. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay. BMC public health13(1), p.245.

Astolfi, R., Lorenzoni, L. and Oderkirk, J., 2012. Informing policy makers about future health spending: a comparative analysis of forecasting methods in OECD countries. Health Policy107(1), pp.1-10.

Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health, 2012. The avoidance and delaying of dental visits in Australia. Australian dental journal57(2), pp.243-247.

Baum, F., 2016. The new public health (No. Ed. 4). Oxford University Press.

Britt, H., Miller, G.C., Henderson, J., Bayram, C., Valenti, L., Harrison, C., Charles, J., Pan, Y., Zhang, C., Pollack, A.J. and O’Halloran, J., 2013. General Practice Activity in Australia 2012-13: BEACH: Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (No. 33). Sydney University Press.

Chrisopoulos, S., Harford, J.E. and Ellershaw, A., 2016. Oral health and dental care in Australia: key facts and figures 2015. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Corallo, A.N., Croxford, R., Goodman, D.C., Bryan, E.L., Srivastava, D. and Stukel, T.A., 2014. A systematic review of medical practice variation in OECD countries. Health Policy114(1), pp.5-14.

Devaux, M. and De Looper, M., 2012. Income-related inequalities in health service utilisation in 19 OECD countries, 2008-2009.

Duckett, S. and Willcox, S., 2015. The Australian health care system (No. Ed. 5). Oxford University Press.

Elshaug, A.G., Watt, A.M., Mundy, L. and Willis, C.D., 2012. Over 150 potentially low-value health care practices: an Australian study. The Medical Journal of Australia197(10), pp.556-560.

Farrar, J., Hotez, P., Junghanss, T., Kang, G., Lalloo, D. and White, N.J., 2013. Manson’s Tropical Diseases E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Fineberg, H.V., 2012. A successful and sustainable health system—how to get there from here. New England Journal of Medicine366(11), pp.1020-1027.

Grol, R., Wensing, M., Eccles, M. and Davis, D. eds., 2013. Improving patient care: the implementation of change in health care. John Wiley & Sons.

Hacker, K. and Walker, D.K., 2013. Achieving population health in accountable care organizations. American journal of public health103(7), pp.1163-1167.

Hadad, S., Hadad, Y. and Simon-Tuval, T., 2013. Determinants of healthcare system’s efficiency in OECD countries. The European Journal of Health Economics14(2), pp.253-265.

Hall, J., 2015. Australian health care—The challenge of reform in a fragmented system. New England Journal of Medicine373(6), pp.493-497.

Hooley, M., Skouteris, H., Boganin, C., Satur, J. and Kilpatrick, N., 2012. Parental influence and the development of dental caries in children aged 0–6 years: a systematic review of the literature. Journal of dentistry40(11), pp.873-885.

Mossialos, E., Wenzl, M., Osborn, R. and Anderson, C., 2015. International profiles of health care systems. The Commonwealth Fund2016.

Powell, B.J., McMillen, J.C., Proctor, E.K., Carpenter, C.R., Griffey, R.T., Bunger, A.C., Glass, J.E. and York, J.L., 2012. A compilation of strategies for implementing clinical innovations in health and mental health. Medical care research and review69(2), pp.123-157.

Runciman, W.B., Hunt, T.D., Hannaford, N.A., Hibbert, P.D., Westbrook, J.I., Coiera, E.W., Day, R.O., Hindmarsh, D.M., McGlynn, E.A. and Braithwaite, J., 2012. CareTrack: assessing the appropriateness of health care delivery in Australia. The Medical Journal of Australia197(2), pp.100-105.

Scott, S.D., Albrecht, L., O’Leary, K., Ball, G.D., Hartling, L., Hofmeyer, A., Jones, C.A., Klassen, T.P., Burns, K.K., Newton, A.S. and Thompson, D., 2012. Systematic review of knowledge translation strategies in the allied health professions. Implementation Science7(1), p.70.

Witter, S., Fretheim, A., Kessy, F.L. and Lindahl, A.K., 2012. Paying for performance to improve the delivery of health interven-tions in low-and middle-income countries. status and date: New, published in, (2).