• Your task is to analyse an actual project. You can choose one of two options for your assignment task:
• Option 2. Appraise an existing or past project. This could be any one of these:
o Appraisal of an activity you believe would be improved by managing as a project
o Appraisal of an existing work project you are currently involved with
o Appraisal of an activity you were involved with in the past that you believe could have been (better) managed as a project.
Then, write a report about your project. Your report must include:
• A brief description of the organizational setting and the project environment to ensure the reader understands the context in which the project is set.
• An outline of the objectives of the project and the importance of the project to the organization.
• A detailed overview and analysis of the use of relevant project management concepts, tools and techniques demonstrating knowledge and understanding of project management as covered in the subject. This section should comprise the main part of your assignment.
The analysis should cover the critical elements of your project in relation to the following as a minimum:
o How the project should be defined
o A discussion of the project plan
o Scheduling resources and costs
o The management of project risks
o Project performance management
All of the concepts in the list above should be addressed, but some of them may be more important for your particular project than others. Feel free to focus your analysis more heavily on the issues that particularly impact your project.
A favourable change takes place in a construction industry facilitates a person in generating returns over a short span of time. Commercial building construction project select by an individual for the current project report. This assignment is related to the selection of the best suitable methodologies in a project. Present investigation lies in creating a project plan by which network diagram and Gantt chart is present to the clients. This sketch helps in determining the duration of a project report as completing a plan in fewer time matters a lot for an entity that generates a number of clients in favour of the business. Risks are also evaluated by an entity as this helps in enhancing the existing performance of an entity.
Project management is regarded as the need of the current business as increasing competition creates business complexity. Every entity tries to provide completed projects to its clients in less time as compared to all the competitors of the company. A project is managed using specialized project management which is not a new thing as this approach is use by all individuals from the ancient time (Fleming and Koppelman, 2016). With the passage of time, alteration takes places in the project management technique. Planning is one of the important aspects of project management in which rough framework is chalk out by the manager of a project which will implement throughout the year.
The activity plan is craft by an individual that guides a project manager in accomplishing all the action towards the completion of the project. Cost, scope, and quality are regarded as three constraints which consider by an entity in managing a particular project (Nicholas and Steyn, 2017). A motive of an individual is to accomplish a project in the less time in facilitating all the needs and expectations of the variety of users in the external environment. Customer satisfaction in the business is taken as the top priority as this helps in creating trustworthy and loyal clients in the outside business. Planning, collecting data, organizing, and monitoring of a particular project is similar with the functions of the management.
A Focus of the current project is in the commercial construction project which will be managed by an individual to complete the project with a higher level of success. The Quality of the outcome is important as it increases the entire productivity of its project as well as personnel associated with the projects. Construction project management is a process that includes directing and controlling of all the activities associated with the construction project. It is regard as the art of coordinating with all the resources used in a project of building. All kinds of resources is use in a plan such as financial resources, capital, personnel, machinery to facilitate a person in completing a project towards the success of a project. Skills and attributes of an individual are taken into consideration as every action of a person contributes differently to various projects (Turner, 2016). Modern management techniques is utilize in a project in crafting all the goals and the objectives for the helpful of a particular project. Goals and the objectives is craft by a project manager different for different project by aligning all the aims and targets of the project. Project management is a broader aspect which covers various projects in the project management which differ according to the nature of all the projects. Several segments of all the project management is taken into account as this would help in accomplishing a particular goals and targets.
Construction management of commercial building involves planning, coordination and controlling of all the tasks and sub duties covered in a construction projects. Designs are create by an architect are presented in front of the client to take their approval for the final creation of a building. Changes are made by the architect according to the needs and an expectation of the clients as preferences of client differs from one person to another. Auto cad drawings are presented to the client to know their preference as satisfying client is the basic motive of an architect. Diverse construction projects includes agriculture, residential, commercial, institutional, industrial, heavy civil and environmental (Martinelli and Milosevic, 2016). Different variety of property types differ from one client to another as the final outcome of a project depends on the project taken up by an individual. In the current assignment, Commercial building project are taken in considerations which includes business buildings, apartments. Elevation of the building is presented in front of the clients. Designs of building have different perspectives such as 2D and D designs that are given to the clients according to the budget of the users. An architect charge different price according to the budget of the client. Streamlining of process of construction project is essential for the project manager in delivering the final outcomes to the user to accomplish a particular project in the best suitable time (Keegan, Ringhofer and Huemann, 2017). Complexity of tasks is important as it helps in prioritizing of the tasks to complete suitable and important tasks as compared to all other tasks in a project. Appointment of project personnel play a significant role in a project as employees are true representatives of the business as their action reflects the policies and working of an entity. Investors attracted towards the business when an entity generates higher returns in the external business environment. Position and goodwill of the firm showcases the skills and talent of the firm. Qualification of personnel for the commercial building construction project is determined by the head of a project as appointed inefficient employees in a project will not able to generate higher returns for the betterment of the corporation (Turner and Ledwith, 2016). Construction and real estate industry regarded as the service manufacturing in which clients are offered with quality oriented service to retain all of them with the existing firm. Single services present to client to create long term relationship among them as they will build their construction projects when they get satisfied with the service offer by an entity. A Cost of a building is one of the concerns for the client as price sensitive customer’s demand quality oriented work in exchange for higher prices paid to an architect.
Project associates try to build a good relationship with the client by offering all kinds of services without emphasizing on the cost but focus on the quality of the services and relationships created by the user in the entire society. Time and budget of a project management plan generate returns and higher profit for an individual in accomplishing a particular project towards the success of a project (Blomquist, Farashah and Thomas, 2016). A project team is another important thing for a project manager that contributes more in creating a good plan for the betterment of a project of the business entity.
The structure of a project is determine by a project manager at the beginning of the plan to give right direction to all individual towards the success of a project. A structure of a thing is decided in advance as it covers both positive and negative aspects connected with the structure. The structure of the real estate organization affects the construction project management to assure an entity about the outcome generated by implementing all the policies. The action of an individual depends on the existing organization structure as the wrong action of the firm will, in turn, affects the returns and revenues generated out of it. It is essential to know about different organizational structures before ascertaining their impact on a particular project (Hu, Cui, Demeulemeester, and Bie, 2016). A motive of the business is to execute all their plans by satisfying expectations of different employees at various levels of the business management. An industry is a collaboration of all the employees and customers who create the position of a firm in the external environment. Decisions of the corporation are unanimously taken by the owner by taking opinions and views of top management, middle and lower management employees. Every decision taken for the benefit of the business requires seeking opinions and views of all the internal as well as external stakeholders of an entity to avoid all the repercussions of decisions. A stakeholder is people that effect or do affect the business with the changes takes places in the internal as well as the external business environment.
Various organizational structures that may affect the construction project management include functional organizational, matrix structure and project organization. Diverse nature of all these approaches may affect the project plan positively as well as negatively. A positive or negative change depends on the current capability of a firm as a change takes places in the environment bearable by the business then it is treated as a positive else negative (Newton, 2016). A venture needs to maintain its organizational strength through employees and not through the capital as higher the personnel and workforce; higher will be the future returns and revenues produce by the corporation in the future.
Functional organization is comprise of people who have expertise in different fields and functions by their skills divisions are created in an entity. Several resources accessed by an entity include finance, human, Information technology, production, and operations. Functional manager delegates responsibilities and tasks to all its subordinates as they have controlling power to take care of the performance of their team. The functional organization will affect a construction scheme like this is set up for daily routine operations of an entity and not for accomplishing a project aim and objectives (Kerzner, H. and Saladis, 2017). This kind of organization restricts an assignment manager as the primary purpose of this type of structure is to produce normal goods and services by fulfilling their obligations.
The matrix structure is a decentralized organization in which controlling power of manager has shared with their employees. It shares their accountability with the functional managers who have expertise in various streams. Work can be completed in less time as compared to other systems as in this approach tasks and duties is distribute to an individual team member along with accountability of tasks allocated to all the team members. Project plan enhances the capability of a person in delegating work to its subordinates rather than holding the power of controlling with the superior (Andersen, 2016). Spontaneous decisions make by the firm in resolving the queries of the customers as subordinates have the power to takes decisions on their own without consulting their top level authority.Plan is fruitful for creating a new project as project manager assign all the tasks of the daily routine as well as the new project of building the commercial building to its subordinates without any hassle. Most of the entity prefers this organizational structure which is flexible enough to continue their normal routine operations along with the new project started by an entity.
Project organization is another organization structure, in which project manager especially focuses on the management of a project. A manager has 100% ownership of the project started by an entity. A supervisor focuses on the completion of the plan which includes setting priorities, objectives, and goals of plan, utilizing resources in a project, setting the budget, appointing workforce. Allocation of tasks is regard as the most important thing for a project manager as the wrong allocation of work responsibilities in a project will not give right direction to a project (McMahon, 2016). The benefit of using this structure is that resources utilized on one project recycle into another project that saves the time and money of the owner of the firm.
The selection of a better organizational structure for a project requires a proper evaluation of all the structures of an entity that suits the needs of a plan. A project manager held responsible for delivering a quality oriented outcome to its clients by meeting all the obligations of the internal as well as the external business environment. In a functional structure of the firm, challenges are there for doing both currents as well as new work. Matrix structure supports existing work along with the new project started by an entity. Lastly, project organization structure comprises of a centralized authority structure in which greater emphasis is on all the projects start by an entity as their aim is to set goals and objectives for every new project of the client (Löfström, Jensen and Johansson, 2016). Matrix organization structure is regard as the best suitable structure which provides the comfortable environment to all the projects started by an entity as a project manager will create a plan which includes generation of the idea for different projects and then performs research on their unique ideas. Collecting data is further step taken by an entity to support the decisions presented to the client to seek their approval on all the designs created by them.
- To build high-quality commercial building
- To provide affordable shops and housing facilities to an individual
- To deliver services within 6 months for an approximate cost of $400000
- To offer to customize design for homes and shops in affordable costs
The current investigation is related to evaluating the construction industry’s trends that would be helpful for accomplishing a particular project by a project manager. A project has two aspects such as favourable as well as unfavourable that create a position of the business in the external environment. Changes in the construction industry are use as one of the important goals and targets in improving the performance of a project. Due to great recession in the external business environment, the construction industry has suffered from the heavy losses which would be compensate by building new construction buildings projects for increasing business revenues (Padalkar and Gopinath, 2016). Changes in the civil engineering also create alteration in all the techniques used by architects in making modern buildings based on traditional principles of industry.
Technological advancements enhance the construction industry as various building machinery is used to lessen the construction time. It also saves the time and money of an individual. Cost is regarded as important sources for real estate business as if they use highly expensive machines in building projects for them to compensate it through receiving money from the clients.
· To build high-quality commercial building
· To provide affordable shops and housing facilities to an individual
· To deliver services within 6 months for an approximate cost of $400000
· To offer to customize design for homes and shops in affordable costs
· A 19000 Square-Foot commercial building covering shops and apartments
· 1,2,3 and 4 Bedroom, hall and kitchen in the apartments at affordable costs
· Possession of house with legal ownership within 6 months
· 24/7 water and electricity, fully secured building
· Amenities such as swimming pool, Gym, sports area, meeting hall offer to an individual
· Personal partying space provided on the apartment floor of an individual
· Modular kitchen offer to apartment users that include shock proof appliances, cooking range, microwave oven, chimney, and dishwasher.
· Fully ventilated apartments
· Legal ownership agreement signed by the user till 15th August
· Foundation poured till 20th August
· Final examination of the location in 10th November
· Local authority permissions approve by the construction site project
· Windows and doors need to pass NFRC class 40 energy license rating
· Exterior wall insulation requirement in this building is to meet A factor of 21
· Ceiling insulation need to pass test ratings of R factor of 38
· Floor insulation must surpass with R factor of 25
· Personal parking offer to client accommodate 2 large size cars
· Building structure must pass seismic stability codes
· Building structure assures the consumer from natural disaster
· Water harvesting system equipped with the terrace to recycle rain
· Building of some apartments is based on the customized auto cad design drawings of the client create a delay in completing the whole building.
· Client held responsible for landscape
· Fridge is not present to the clients in the modular and designer kitchen offered to the clients
· Wiring of AC include in the house but AC is not offer to the clients
· Maintenance of the building is charged personally from the user
· Contractor has right to create a sub contractor
· Work timing of the construction limited to Monday to Thursday, 7.00 A.M to 5.P.M.
|Building construction project||82 days||Thu 03-08-17||Fri 24-11-17|
|Construction Contracts||17 days||Thu 03-08-17||Fri 25-08-17|
|– Sale Agreement||2 days||Thu 03-08-17||Fri 04-08-17|
|– Supply Construction Agreement||4 days||Mon 07-08-17||Thu 10-08-17||3|
|– Supply Plans||2 days||Fri 11-08-17||Mon 14-08-17||3,4|
|– Contract Specifications||1 day||Tue 15-08-17||Tue 15-08-17||4,5|
|– Site Plan||2 days||Wed 16-08-17||Thu 17-08-17||6|
|– Contract funding||2 days||Tue 15-08-17||Wed 16-08-17||4,5|
|– Property Loan Settlement||7 days||Thu 17-08-17||Fri 25-08-17||8|
|Document Verification||36 days||Mon 28-08-17||Mon 16-10-17|
|– Finalize Plans||12 days||Mon 28-08-17||Tue 12-09-17||7,9|
|– Review site design||16 days||Wed 13-09-17||Wed 04-10-17||11|
|– Finalize Site Plan||2 days||Thu 05-10-17||Fri 06-10-17||12|
|– Print Auto cad Drawings||4 days||Mon 09-10-17||Thu 12-10-17||13|
|– Approve Revised Plans||2 days||Fri 13-10-17||Mon 16-10-17||12,14|
|– Approve Revised features of plan||1 day||Mon 09-10-17||Mon 09-10-17||13,12|
|– Approve Revised Site Plan||2 days||Tue 10-10-17||Wed 11-10-17||16|
|Bids of construction plan||22 days||Tue 17-10-17||Wed 15-11-17|
|– Make Copies of Plans||2 days||Tue 17-10-17||Wed 18-10-17||15,17|
|– Make Copies of features||2 days||Thu 19-10-17||Fri 20-10-17||19|
|– Distribute Plans||2 days||Mon 23-10-17||Tue 24-10-17||20|
|– Receive Bids||8 days||Wed 25-10-17||Fri 03-11-17||21|
|Verify Bids||4 days||Mon 06-11-17||Thu 09-11-17||22|
|– Implement Subcontractor Agreements||4 days||Fri 10-11-17||Wed 15-11-17||23|
|Grading & Building license||7 days||Thu 16-11-17||Fri 24-11-17|
|– Schedule lot stake-out||2 days||Thu 16-11-17||Fri 17-11-17||13,24|
|– Share of owner||1 day||Mon 20-11-17||Mon 20-11-17||26|
|– File Grading Permit Application||2 days||Tue 21-11-17||Wed 22-11-17||27|
|– File Building Permit Application||2 days||Thu 23-11-17||Fri 24-11-17||14,28,15,16|
Gantt chart and network diagram are two important tools of the project management used in managing a project successfully. Gantt chart is also recognizing in scheduling of a project as project activities are scheduled according to the time of the project. An entity tries to complete all its activities within a stipulated time period. Network diagram is a tool used to present all the activities visually in front of the client. It helps in ascertaining the time duration in which the whole project gets completed within a stipulated time period.
Scheduling of the project resources is an essential aspect involved in a project management that facilitates a manager in knowing the performance of all the resources. Project schedule ascertains all the issues in a project such as when to start, suggesting a direction to project and end the project on right time. Project monitoring helps in controlling the whole project and all its activities in increasing entire return generated out of the project (Görög, 2016). Delays created by the personnel in a project are ascertained in advance to resolve all the issues at a correct time. Resource allocation helps in delegating tasks and duties according to all the project goals and targets.
Scheduling of resources utilize in a project by identifying all the issues associated with a particular project such as resource constraints. Ascertaining different constraints such as people, materials, and equipment that are resource types used in the entire project or it is use as pillars of a project. Keeping the close watch on all the projects helps in meeting shortage of resources by applying re-order quantity technique. In this method, standard resource limit has set so that resources reach that limit get filled automatically (Chen, Chen, and Lin, 2016). Scheduling of resources ensures the success of a project as delaying in a project will get avoided by taking proactive actions.
Time phased schedule plan has created that helps in comparing actual costs with the plan expenses in a project. The gaps in a project fill by a supervisor by adding more resources at lesser costs. Levelling of resources used as another important technique to create balance in a project related to all the resources utilized in a building a construction plan.
Problems occur in a project are resolved by a project manager to forecast the future of project by ascertaining all the constraints that restrict an individual. A technical limitation of a project includes analyzing a plan on different angles such as starting point, pour, frame, roofing, and ending of the construction project.
Resource allocation method used by a person in eliminating all the issues related to several resources utilize in a project. Different methods of apportioning resources include limiting assumptions and risk assumptions. Activities are not split at the beginning of the activity. On another hand, decreasing flexibility in the activities will not induce the risks of the project.
|Description||Unit||Labour (8 working hours)|
|Reinforcement work||Per qtl||1||1||1||1|
Increased cost for increased duration of construction project
|Increased duration in Weeks||Increased cost||% increase in cost|
|Personnel||% of Time on Project||12||0.3||$4|
|Benefits||23% total staff/faculty salaries||50||0.23||$12|
|Consultants||Consultant fee (hourly or flat)||100||0.15||$15|
|Guest speakers||Honoraria rate||78||0.12||$9|
|Sub – total Salaries||$39|
|Lodging||cost per person/per room||120||50||$6,000|
|Airfare/Train||cost per person/per fare||100||200||$20,000|
|Gas||.485 per mile||58000||0.485||$28,130|
|Per Diem||meal stipend||100||30||$3,000|
|Other||(i.e. taxi, subway, light rail fare)||100||80||$8,000|
|Catering||event & # attendees||100||25||$2,500|
|Flowers||centerpieces, plants, etc||200||45||$9,000|
|Gifts||give aways – cards, pens||100||80||$8,000|
|Graphic Design/printing||posters, flyers, program||50||50||$2,500|
|Advertisements||print or television advertisements||40||36||$1,440|
|Mailing expenses||envelopes, postage||100||3||$300|
|Other MICA Depts/Services||Description||Quantity||Cost||Total|
|Campus Tech||services needed||15||80||$1,200|
|Security||# security guards needed||35||80||$2,800|
|Sub-total Other MICA Departs/Services||$8,000|
|Work Study||# work study students and tasks||50||200||$10,000|
|Other||space rental fee||100||500||$50,000|
|MICA Indirect Costs||Quantity||Cost||Total|
|Indirect||15% of total expenses||$1,000||0.15||$150|
|Department Budget||Department Name||58||23||$1,334|
|In-kind contributions||goods/services donated||120||250||$30,000|
|Other||revenue from partnership||100||5000||$500,000|
|Agreement and license charges||5000||15000||10000||Positive|
Variance budget is part of the important principles of the standard costing in which actual performance of a project is compared with the standard parameters set by an entity. Favourable or unfavourable results are determined on the movement of particular projects. In the above project positive results are increased by maintaining the position of particular projects and negative results are improved by an entity by eradicating the root causes of all the problems incurred in a project. All the problems are identified by the manager to avoid all future consequences.
Different kinds of risks associated with a construction project include construction threat, design risks, organizational risks and environmental danger. All kinds of risks covered in a building project evaluate on the probability and impact that shows that higher point ranked by construction risks with 4.0 point peril.
The risk matrix adopt by an individual in whom three colour codes are used to assess the risks associated with a construction project. Green colour denotes neutral position; yellow denotes peace and red denote danger. Likelihood of all the risks is prioritizing into three colour codes that show the performance of a construction project stated by an entity.
Risks need to be evaluated by an individual as this will restrict an entity’s skills and the capabilities to achieve the desired aim and targets. Role of a project gets increases with the passage of time when an entity will be able to ascertain all kinds of risks incurred in a particular project. Different kinds of risks incurred in particular projects such as financial as well as non-financial risks incurred in a project which needs to be evaluated by a manager. Financial risks involved in a project states that all expenses of a project are required to be met by an entity within the stipulated time period.
Risk register is one of the important parts of a project as the responsibility of a project manager is to focus on existing projects of the company. Quality of a project is associated with the image of the business firm as delivering low quality services will, in turn decreases the image of an entity in the external business environment. Investors are attracted towards the business by showcasing all the skills and attributes of an entity. Skills of the project personnel are prioritized in various categories according to the qualification of an individual. In the construction industry, service is essential factor for an entity that needs to be present in an accurate manner to get the higher level of customer satisfaction among all the users of the business.
Earned value management is an approach used by a project manager in measuring the entire performance of a project as the higher progress of a plan reflects the skills and attributes of personnel associated with a project (Midler, Killen and Kock, 2016). It has focused on the project management triangle that includes scope, time and costs as these constraints improve the performance of a project. Problems associated with a project are forecasted to create alertness among the member.
Figure 1 Earned value management
(Source: Earned value management, 2009)
Execution of EVM plan focuses on all its features such as project plan, budgeted costs of work schedule and budgeted cost of work performed. A project manager keep record of all the project sub tasks as plan value of construction and the actual cost of the project is compare with each other. Estimate value bridges the gap between actual cost and earned value from a single project. X axis will have cost and Y axis will be time as it shows the relationship of all the activities by cost allocated to all activities. It also shows the time in which every movement gets completed.
Figure 2 Work breakdown structure
Work breakdown structure is essential aspects of project management in which three different level responsibilities shown in the above figure. It guides a manager in allocating tasks and assignments to the employees to generate returns from the project. It is one of the performance management tools that seek progress of the assign task to a person in judging their capability by testing the accountability attached to all the responsibilities and duties allocate to all individuals in a project.
It can be articulate from the above assignment that the best suitable methodology used in a construction project meets the higher expectation of the client. A progress of a project depends on the prior evaluation of projects as their motive is to resolve all the problems. It also emphasizes on delivering all the services to the users as satisfying the client’s needs and wants is regarded as the top priority work for an entity. Project manager plays a significant role in managing a project which results in higher returns generation by a manager after evaluating all the needs and wants.
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