As per the problem statement, this literature review has discussed the relevant information about Chinatown which is a remarkable tourist spot in the western parts of Australia. The focus was given on the number of visitors in Chinatown and the reason of their visit. The late night trading is a common system in Chinatown where the retailers are open from 5pm- 8pm for the business. There are number of factors which are attracting the customers in the late- night trading of Chinatown. The different factors behind the visiting tourists are the chain of restaurants, retail shops selling attractive commodities and the street entertainment as a form of relaxation. Chinatown has a number of retail shops, restaurants serving delicious foods, pearl industry and street entertainment. The reason behind the visiting customers varies within these different set of attractions. There are a number of visiting tourists which have contributed to the financial viability of the businessmen. Whereas, the local authorities need to know the factors that pull the visitors so that they can work on its improvement. The retail business in Chinatown is a popular concept and is on the verge of growing and developing. There are a number of participating businesses and this number will increase if the visitors turn into customers. The concept of late night trading is gaining momentum which is benefiting the businessmen as well as the local tourism.
1.1 Structural Framework
The following structural framework on the basis of the late night trading in Chinatown will have highlighted the main factors which attract tourists and visitors in the late night trading of Chinatown. Various factors have been identified by the authors and researchers which can be focused on to give shape to the structural framework. Generally new innovations are at risk of becoming successful but the modern concept of late-night trading in Chinatown is extremely popular among the local communities as well as the visitors who are also possible customers.
Source: As created by the author
It can be argued that the place has a rich history of pearl industry but earlier the workers of this particular industry were exploited. This place has an outstanding amalgamation of Colonial and Asian architecture which is a proof of Broome’s rich history. The main business and commercial centre of the city which used to be busy with pearl sheds, entertainment houses, billiard salons and Chinese eateries has become important shopping district. The city has a line of souvenir shops which sells the common commodities but there are still more than those to explore in Chinatown. This city brags of bearing the most refined pearl showrooms of the world and there are a lot in number. Even if the tourists are not planning to buy pearls but they will have an amazing time while roaming around the shops. There is a place called Pearl Luggers situated on Dampier Terrace where tourists can observe some dry docked and restored luggers and gather information about pearling history and also enjoy the old diving gear by tasting the pearl meat. Johnny Chi Lane is another place which carries the rich history of the place. It is a small mall and works as a connection between the Carnarvon Street and the Dampier Terrace. The place is well decorated with descriptions written on the wall about the earlier Broome. The stories have the ability to take the tourists on a journey of the landing of first ship in Broome along with the narration of the pearling industry and the Second World War to the present scenario of Broome (Kimberleyaustralia.com, 2017).
1.3 The late- night trading
It is mentioned that retail shops are owned and operated by a retailer sometimes and at other times by the manufacturer where the product is sold directly to the consumers. The concept of retail stores is a bit different in Chinatown where the operation takes place at the odd hours of 5pm to 8pm which is the main reason for pulling the customers. It has been reviewed that if the stores are opened for more hours then, that will attract more customers. The Chinese restaurants which provide delicious dishes are the major reasons for pulling visitors in this wonderful town. Street entertainment at other places of Australia includes club style entertainment, LED shows, shadow performance and many more. The Chinatown area experiences special street entertainment in the form of late- night trading as part of the trial supported by the Chinatown traders. There are several participating businesses which gain profit from this trade. The other forms of entertainment include music, balloon twisting and face painting. The attractions of tasty food along with music and entertainment present the visitors with an amazing experience and helping the traders with money- making.
Genakos and Danchev (2015) have described the late night trading system which is a popular concept in the Chinatown market. There are retail businesses which take part in this trading and this is one of the major factors behind the tourist gathering. The timing from 5pm to 8pm of the market attracts a lot of visitors as well as potential customers and it can be said that a longer opening hours would pull more tourists. This concept is economically viable for the businessmen too if the number of visitors are more. This trial system is unique and new to the visiting tourists and they have enjoyed shopping from the retailers thus providing financial benefit.
1.4 Theoretical and Methodological contributions
The theory on the particular problem statement as explained by Ip (2005) juxtaposes the specific areas of settlement and the activities related to settlement of the Chinese traders. In the context of the late night visitors in the city, not only a local and ethnic environment is built up but also challenges the Western image of Chinese in preferring life of urban enclave. The methodology of the given research problem showed that there are significant quantitative data which has focused on the visitors of Chinatown late night trading. Broome’s Chinatown has started flourishing since 1860s ad the trend is still continuing with the concept of late- night trading.
The Minister for Regional Development had spoke about the Royalties for Regions investment of $10M in order to get hold of the detailed possibility studies for providing the transformational projects of supporting Chinatown as the business and the retail centre of Broome. The Shire of Broome has a contribution of $2M of its own along with other funding which makes it a total project of $12.6M (Broome.wa.gov.au 2017). This project was recognized as the pilot in boosting Chinatown by deriving the Shire’s development strategy along with an expanded community consultation. Most of the funds for the project will be used in the improvement of the public area of Chinatown. The Chinatown Revitalization Projects include- Dampier Terrace Upgrade, Carnarvon Street Renovation, Dampier Frederick Street Precinct, Chinatown Investment and Development Coordinator, Roebuck Bay Reconnection and Coastal Protection, Gray Street Extension, Enhanced Laneways, Dampier Street and Frederick Street Connection and Cultural Centre Feasibility (Chinatown Revitalisation Project, 2017).
The goal of the CRP is to enhance the attraction of Chinatown by improving the streets, facilities, landscape and laneways within two years. The investors and the development coordinators, as per are interested in getting involved with the traders and business men of Chinatown, as well as the local community members for implementing the two- year plan. This was done with the intention of attracting more visitors and creating more business opportunities in the town.
Hughes (2014) has stated in his article that the industrialization of the remote and unspoiled tourism destination is still debatable. The regional center of Broome has a diverse culture with rugged landscapes which make up for an ideal coastal recreation area. The proposal to develop a large oil and gas processing complex has been rejected outright. The reason behind this is the impact that it will have on the culture, environment and the society. The benefits from his development are absolutely negligible in front of the negative effect that will be imposed on this region.
The Chinatown Revitalization Project is taking initiatives to improve the public realm of Chinatown (Chinatown Revitalization Project, 2017). The improvement that has been done is accountable for pulling tourists in this unique place. The Broome beaches are the major attractions of which Cable Beach is the most famous. Most of the major places in Broome are clustered in one place. It is not much a big place. The tourists can cover the sight-seeing on a single day as they do not need to scatter here and there. For the tourists, the itinerary can start with the Broome Visitor Centre which is situated in Hamersley Street. This particular place guides the tourists by providing street maps and other materials of information so that they are able to take a tour by themselves. Loy-Wilson (2014) has mentioned about the urban modernity in Australia in his article which is very much associated with the white Australians and the British and the American cultures. It is argued that the business development in Australian rural towns was interlinked with the Chinese retailers. When the previous records were reviewed it was found out that the Australia’s shop- life brings about the Chinese traders, merchants, shopkeepers and the workers. The shop- life that was created and stored throws light on the commercial transactions between the businessmen and the customers which led to cultural exchanges by enhancing cross- cultural knowledge.
As late night trading is a new concept in for the participating businesses in Broome therefore no previous data are available from where comparison can be drawn on its effectiveness. Moreover, there is no literature or journals available on the specific topic or similar researches have been done which could be helpful for this particular study. For recognizing the correct hypothesis out of the two, it was recommended by Price (2005) that quantitative research can be a suitable strategy. Kumar and Phrommathed (2005) have suggested measuring employment and calculating the research problem by gathering data through surveys or personal interviews and observations has helped in revealing the facts in the course of this particular research.
It can be concluded from this literature review that certain groups of researchers have considered the late- night trading trial as a development in the business scenario and an initiation for change in behavior with the goal of highlighting the role of local people, businessmen and tourists in Chinatown. While doing the review it was found out that the rate of tourism has decreased in the past years in Broome due to the global economic crisis so there was a necessity to enhance tourism, hospitality and the retail industry for their survival. Thus, the late night trial shopping can be considered as a great opportunity for creating a daily evening ambience in Chinatown by gathering tourist and the local people in the main retail hub of Broome. Also the timing of the trading can be increased because longer opening hours will experience more gatherings which will lead to more profit of the businessmen. The street entertainments can be improved by initiating live dj-ing, musical interaction with the visitors or hand panting on the walls which will make the place more appealing. To make the event lively and assorted, all the retail business in Chinatown needs to participate in this gathering. It has become a core destination for the choice of industry and finance for the families to sustain and for the tourists to enjoy.
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Anon, 2017. Chinatown Revitalisation Project. [online] Broome.wa.gov.au. Available at: <http://www.broome.wa.gov.au/files/00fb1dad-ea60-4551-8582-56dcc045f063/Chinatown-Fact-Sheet.pdf> [Accessed 13 Nov. 2017].
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