Briefly describe given points..
1. My Vicarious Experience or What it would be like to hold or live out this worldview.
2. Major ideas and practices of your research worldview and Origin of the Confucianism.
3. Sacred Texts, Manuals or the Oral Tradition of your (research) Worldview.
4. An Influential Promoter or one dispute involving an issue of peace, justice or prosperity.
5. Reflections on your worldview research project.
6. An Annotated Bibliography.
1. My Vicarious Experience or What it would be like to hold or live out this worldview
Confucianism as stated earlier is system of ethical and philosophical teachings founded by a Chinese scholar, which is considered as a religion by the followers of Confucianism. Confucianism was introduced into the world around 2500 years ago approximately (Fukuyama, Francis). The primary aim of Confucianism was to provide solution to the problems, which the world faced 2500 years ago. The principle purpose of Confucianism was to educate people and to make them believe that it is not very difficult for any individual to take responsibility of his actions and behave well in the society. I feel very privileged that the said philosophy of Confucianism was introduced to me and as a follower and member of Confucianism feel that its teaching has made me a responsible and a better individual who is loved by all and valued as a child and a friend (Mungello, David E).
The adherents of Confucianism consider Confucianism as a philosophy more than a religion, which requires worship. A recent report in China suggested at only 1% people across world follow Confucianism however the 1% people who follow Confucianism sum up to be 6.3 million people (Yang, Baiyin). However, some adherents of Confucianism consider the same as a religion and follow and worship Confucius, the Chinese scholar who introduced the philosophy of Confucianism in the world.
The teachings of Confucianism surely promote the concept of justice and peace into the world as the teaching if tells u a simple thing to act responsible and be a good person which if followed by people at large will help in achieving a just and a peaceful society (Shin, Doh Chull).
2. Major ideas and practices of your research worldview
The adherents of Confucianism are very limited in the world. Therefore, there is very limited material as well as believers who can provide information about Confucianism. Te internet is therefore one of the primary sources of research in the said matter which provides the history of Confucianism and its founder who is the famous Chinese scholar called Confucius. Confucianism is in the present times considered as an ancient Asian heritage which is valued and the knowledge of the same is available to only a handful people mostly the ones living in the Asian countries (Yin, Robert K). Therefore, my second research sources are my Asian friends and their parents and relatives who follow Confucianism or have good knowledge about the said philosophy because of their Asian origin. However, the traditional research sources which are libraries is not ignored in my research and I have used many books which talk about different Asian and World religions to find Confucianism as a part of religious practises adopted about 2500 years back in the Asian lands finding its actual birthplace in China. Thus, the basic research sources that I have used in my research of Confucianism are interest-based articles, knowledge of my Asian friends and their parents and relatives who follow or know people who follow Confucianism and the books highlighting different religions of the ancient times (Cohen, Louis, Lawrence Manion, and Keith Morrison).
Origin of the Confucianism
The records mentioned in various religious books, shows that Confucianism emerged as a philosophy or as a religion in China during the period, China was witnessing the era of Warring States, which was calculated to be the fifth century (Hwang, Kwang-Kuo). The Asian continent in the fifth century witnessed many philosophical developments especially in the countries of China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. Therefore, the said period was referred to as “Hundred Schools”. The word school did not mean a fixed building where children are taught; it meant ancient traditions, which are associated with certain disciplines with teachings to the society at large. The manner in which the philosophies of this century developed was by a group of people who learned and studied for many years under a single master and adopted the learning and teachings of the said master. These groups of people eventually passed the said teachings to the next generation where the said teachings were re-developed however, it traced back to the single master (Noss, David S., and Blake R. Grangaard). The origin of Confucianism had a similar history where a master whose learning, which started in China, got popular and spread across the world through his disciples.
Confucianism was a philosophy, which was developed by an ancient Chinese scholar called Confucius who is considered the founder of Confucianism. The early Chinese philosophies, which were developed, were more concerned with the social problems and seemed more practical in nature as compared to the western philosophies of the same period. The basic idea behind developing philosophies in China was to determine how China fell into the state of chaos. Thus, various Chinese thinkers developed philosophies, which suggested ways in which China could get out of the chaos and the conduct of the Chinese people it e said chaotic time to overcome the same (Holcombe, Charles). Confucius who was the founder of Confucianism lived close to the spring and the autumn period during the period from 551 – 49 and is idea for developing a philology was to provide a model which can settle the situation of the Warring States in China. Confucius strongly believed that the socio-political issues of his time required efforts ad can be resolved by different school of thoughts and training and not by diplomatic and military schemes. Thus, the teachings of Confucius suggested the future of China can be created ad is in the hands of every man irrespective of their political powers, it is not appropriate for a single man to have a throne or command an army. Confucius suggested at any man can think and make himself a master of ethical skills (Goossaert, Vincent, and David A. Palmer).
Confucius developed the philosophy of Confucianism in the year 500 B.C. He was considered as a very famous aristocrat in the Eastern China however, his philosophy initially had very little influence outside his immediate disciples. As his disciples moved to different states for work, they took his teachings along with and the philosophy of Confucianism spread across different states (Chang, Chung-yuan). This process lead to many young men become influenced with the philosophy of Confucianism and trained himself in the rituals taught by Confucius. Along with the rituals developed by Confucius, his political teachings, which were influenced by the early Zhou political traditions grow popular and gained large compliance (Ma, Debin).
After the death of Confucius, two great Chinese thinkers who were also the disciples of Confucius during his lifetime enlarged and widened the Confucianism teachings of their master. Mencius who was one of the initial disciples of Confucius made major adjustments and amendments in the Confucianism philosophy founded by his master Confucius. Mencius was also considered the only follower of Confucianism who was successful in achieving a political power; however, his power days were very limited and disturbing. Xunzi was another Chinese thinker who lived in the same era as Mencius and wrote some great set of essays about Confucianism in the Classical period (Roberts, John AG).
Confucius belonged from a Chinese village called Lu, which was experiencing a political chaos. The whole idea behind developing the philosophy of Confucianism was to develop an idea to get out of the political chaos and to suggest the people of the state of, a conduct on how to behave during the said political chaos and successfully come out of it. Thus, the teachings of the early Confucianism derives from the fact that it was developed as a ritual which appeared to be concerned with polishing the social society but eventually developed as a basis of human behaviour, skills and emotions (Tong, Jingrong). Confucius clearly stated in most of his teachings all that he desired was to brig amendments in the social relations with defined norms that filtered every individual’s behaviour in the society however eventually the thoughts of Confucius created a sort of radical conservatism in the form of philosophy of Confucianism. During the period of 500-485, Confucius wandered to different states in the Eastern China looking for ruler who would adopt the principles of Confucianism and appoint Confucius at a significant position in the Chinese Court. However, in his journey for the search to develop the principles of Confucianism he attracted more disciples and the philosophy of Confucianism seemed to spread on a larger scale. However, he realized that his political mission to develop and spread the philosophy of Confucianism would fail, he definitely attracted many disciples which followed the teachings of Confucius in his journey of achieving his political mission. At the age of 65, Confucius returned to his state called Lu and gained a position of an honorary member and a private teacher in his state. Thus, Confucius being unsuccessful with his political mission to spread the philosophy of Confucianism was surrounded by disciples in his state and spends the rest of his life teaching his disciples the meaning and the philosophy of Confucianism (Qing, Jiang).
There is a huge confusion about the religious status of Confucianism. The origin of the Confucianism makes it clear that the said philosophy was developed with the idea to curb the socio-political issues in Eastern China, however some disciples consider Confucianism as a form of religion. The only way this confusion of deciding whether Confucianism is a religion or not is to go more deeply in the concept of what one defines as religion. Religion is different for different people, thus, if the idea of religion is the Judeo-Christian model, then Confucianism will surely not be regarded as a religion as it is not based on worship of a single all-mighty God, its ideas about life after death are identical to its centre idea, which promotes socio-political causes (Thompson, Mike). Thus, definition religion in a broader way will surely help us include the teachings of Confucianism as a religion. For example, Frederick Streng described religion as a source of ultimate transformation; Confucianism surely fits into the said definition of religion. Thus, it is evident that human conditions are flawed and required transformation and the means that provides the source of the said transformation is considered as religion. The concept of Confucianism is also to promote a philosophy, which can be helpful to bring change in the socio-political conditions, thus, Confucianism can be considered as a religion. Thus, the philosophy of Confucianism does not support idol worship in temples; therefore, all the ancient Confucian temples in China are converted into museums. Thus, the followers of Confucianism do not follow any form of worship but simply follow the teachings of Confucianism in their routine life as a way of compliance (Frankel, James D). Apart from the ethical and political principles, which Confucianism promotes, the followers of Confucianism do not have set of specific rituals or practices, which are to be followed mandatorily. The usual practices of the philosophy of Confucianism, which are followed by the followers, are derived from the practices of Chinese, Taoism, Buddhism religion that Confucians followed. The Lun-yü (Analects) is considered the bible or the most holy and scared script concerning the philosophy of Confucianism. The followers of Confucianism follow the teachings mentioned in the said script like a form of religion and a philosophy of life. The followers of Confucianism follow the teachings mentioned in Lun-yü (Analects) in their routine life. Thus, according to what the one’s idea is about religion, the concept of Confucianism can be considered both a philosophy and a religion (Eisenstadt, Shmuel N).
As the basic teaching of the philosophy of Confucianism promotes the humaneness, which means good character by following a defined, set of ritual norms which indentify the quality like loyalty, reciprocity and virtue. Thus, the whole idea behind the basic principle of the philosophy of Confucianism is to promote a better and a safer social and political environment which will automatically promote peace, justice and prosperity. As the followers of Confucianism will follow the principles of taught by Confucius they will be a honest human being which will automatically create a fair society and a fair social and justice system. Thus, as the concept of Confucianism is to filter the conduct of the individuals in the society to make them better human beings with qualities of honestly and fairness, the overall development of the society is a sure thing if the individuals strictly follow the philosophy of Confucianism. Thus, the philosophy of Confucianism if followed by the society at large will surely promotes peace, justice and prosperity (Goldin, Paul R).
3. Sacred Texts, Manuals or the Oral Tradition of your (research) Worldview
The most ancient and the scared script concerning the philosophy of Confucianism is the Lun-yü (Analects). The Lun-yü (Analects) is considered as the bible of Confucianism and stands as the sole scared text, which is followed by the followers of Confucianism. The Lun-yü (Analects) is a script, which is the collection of all the sayings and teachings of the Chinese scholar called Confucius, which is written by his disciples (Haley, George T., Usha CV Haley, and ChinHwee Tan). Initially the Lun-yü (Analects) was just considered a commentary, however soon it earned the status of a centre text which highlighted the principles of Lun-yü (Analects) of Confucianism. The Lun-yü (Analects) is the most read script in the whole of China for the last 2000 years and it still has significant influence on the people living in China concerning the thoughts and value they adopt in routine life.
The Lun-yü (Analects) talks about the principles of Confucianism, which are having a good character, which features the qualities like loyalty, honesty, reciprocity and virtue. The principles of Confucianism promoted peace, justice and prosperity in an indirect manner as the said qualities would automatically be installed in the society if every individual followed the principles of Confucianism, which suggested the conduct of every man to be good, honest and loyal (Wheeler, Kip).
The sayings mentioned in Lun-yü (Analects) suggested the principles of Confucianism, which included best conduct on part of the people who followed Confucius. Thus, the teachings state that what a superior individual seeks is in himself; what the small man seeks is in others and the way to become a superior man is to set affection on what is right and just. The saying also suggest individuals to love the process of learning which is the sole source of virtue and knowledge and acquiring to two is incomparable to anything in the world. Thus the saying meant when righteousness is added with sincerity, it sets the mind free from self-deception which ultimately purifies the heart. Thus, if the followers of Confucianism follow the principles as mentioned in the script of Lun-yü (Analects) the society will automatically be peaceful, just and prosperous (Ebrey, Patricia Buckley).
4. An Influential Promoter or one dispute involving an issue of peace, justice or prosperity
The Chinese Philosopher and scholar named Confucius founded the philosophy of Confucianism in the Eastern parts of China. He stands as one of the most influential philosopher in China in the decade he lived. In addition, the Lun-yü (Analects) which is the script stating the sayings of Confucius is the most read script from the past 2000 years in China. Thus, this makes it clear that Confucius stands as one of the most influential promoters of the philosophy of Confucianism. In fact, it is often heard by the early disciples of Confucius that he never considered himself as the founder of the Confucianism but rather called himself as the transmitter who consciously tried to solve the socio-political problems in China by the developing ritual practices of good conduct (Rudebusch, George).
The actual name of Confucius was Kong Qiu and he was generally known as the Master King as he had many disciples. He was born in 551 BC in eastern China during the rule of Eastern Zhou dynasty in the said state. However, the Eastern Zhou dynasty’s political structure was distributed for about 200 years and Confucius grew up with the motive to re-establish the social and political harmony in the said State by reviving the ethical and moral conduct and character of the dynasty and the people of the Eastern Zhou dynasty. Confucius promoted three different virtues to revive peace justice and prosperity in the Eastern Zhou dynasty. These three virtues were humanity, ritual propriety and respect. Confucius stated that humanity is the goodness and love, which distinguishes man from animal. Ritual Propriety is a form of expressive conduct of goodness, which must be followed by specific defined norms, and lastly respect for elders is a natural conduct, which builds the society. Thus, the teachings of Confucius surely made him very popular, gained him many disciples, and made the philosophy of Confucianism be followed globally in the present time (Yu, Jiyuan).
5. Reflections on your worldview research project
The said assignment has helped me develop my knowledge about the philosophy of Confucianism. I was aware of the concept of Confucianism, however after all the research i conducted to complete this chapter, presently I know about its origin and the best part was that the research made me read the scared script of Lun-yü (Analects). After reading the said script of Lun-yü (Analects), my respect for the philosophy of Confucianism increased a lot as the principles it promotes are very simple and basic which can be incorporated by every individual in his routine life irrespective of what religion the individual follows. The philosophy of Confucianism promotes goodness, humanity and Respect, which are the basic values every state can adopt to promote peace, justice and prosperity. I am surely going to try my best to incorporate the principles and teachings of Confucianism in my routine life and I am sure it will benefit me to the most. As the philosophy of Confucianism was developed to create peace in the political chaotic environment of the eastern China, the basic principles of the said philosophy promote the concept of a better society disregarding all the flaws and tensions inherent in the society.
The local resources which I used to complete my search was majorly a local library where I found a translated script of Lun-yü (Analects) which helped me a lot to understand the origin and principles of Confucianism. In additional a major help was provided to me by my Asian friends and their parents and relative. As the philosophy of Confucianism is originated from Asia, my interaction with my Asian friends and their parents helped me in getting more deeply in the topic, as their knowledge on the said topic was right from where the philosophy was born.
6. An Annotated Bibliography
- Mungello, David E.The great encounter of China and the West, 1500–1800. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012.
This article talks about the origin of the philosophy of Confucianism. The said articles described how the philosophy of Confucianism was initially adopted by the people in China and eventually spread to the western countries, as the philosophy got more popular in the recent years.
- Yang, Baiyin. “Confucianism, socialism, and capitalism: A comparison of cultural ideologies and implied managerial philosophies and practices in the PR China.”Human Resource Management Review 3 (2012): 165-178.
The said article compares different ideologies tat developed during the Fifth century in China. This article points that three cultural forces, which are Confucianism, socialism and capitalism, have influenced the management theories and practices in the P. R. China. It suggests that contemporary organizational behaviour and management practice in the P. R. China tend to reflect ideologies of three cultural forces.
- Shin, Doh Chull.Confucianism and democratization in East Asia. Cambridge University Press, 2012.
The said reference is in the form of an e-book, which is from the Cambridge University and discusses how the philosophy of Confucianism changed the society and eliminated the political tension in the eastern Chinese state. The e-book also talks about the principles of democracy, which were linked, with the philosophy of Confucianism.
- Fukuyama, Francis. “The future of history.”Foreign Affairs 1 (2012): 52-61.
The said article talks about the future of history in context how the traditional concept of Confucianism is followed as a major influenced philosophy or a religion in the present times. It describes how the founder of the said philosophy was wandering to promote the same however the said philosophy gained recognised eventually after his death.
- Cohen, Louis, Lawrence Manion, and Keith Morrison.Research methods in education. Routledge, 2013.
The said reference is in the form of an e-book, which describes the different methods available to a student when he is conducting research on any particular topic. It describes that the research work should start from nature of inquiry and lead to validity and reliability of the resource, which lead to the research material.
- Yin, Robert K.Case study research: Design and methods. Sage publications, 2013.
The said reference is in the form of an e-book which was a research work should be complimented with relevant available case studies on the similar topics. The said e-books gives various advices which can be helpful in a professional way of completing any assignment or research work.
- Noss, David S., and Blake R. Grangaard.A History of the World’s Religions. Pearson Higher Ed, 2011.
The said article talks about the different religion, which are followed all around the world. This article suggests that Confucianism is sometimes followed in the form of a religion by its followers and has a sacred text, which contains the principles and sayings of Confucianism.
- Hwang, Kwang-Kuo.Foundations of Chinese psychology: Confucian social relations. Vol. 1. Springer Science & Business Media, 2011.
The said reference is in the form of an e-book which discusses the different aspects of the Chinese philosophy called Confucianism. In the said e-book, the author describes how the philosophy of Confucianism was born and how it was spread in China and eventually then in the western countries.
- Holcombe, Charles.A history of East Asia: from the origins of civilization to the twenty-first century. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
The said reference is in the form of an e-book, which talks about the history of eastern Asia which was distributed with various political tensions. In this era where the states were at war, the philosophy of Confucianism grew ad got poplar as a appropriate solution to curb the said political tensions.
- Goossaert, Vincent, and David A. Palmer.The religious question in modern China. University of Chicago Press, 2011.
The said reference is in the form of an e-book which discuss how the philosophy of Confucianism which was developed in China become a source of global debate on how the followers of the said philosophy need to follow the said philosophy. Some scholar considered it as a religion and others opposed of the same.
- Chang, Chung-yuan.Creativity and Taoism: A study of Chinese philosophy, art and poetry. Singing Dragon, 2011.
The said reference is in the form of an e-book, which studies the Chinese religion of Taoism and stated how it is linked with the philosophy of Confucianism in its practices, rituals and form of ethical and virtual values. The e-book also discuss the creativity which is created by linking the religion with the philosophy of Confucianism.
- Ma, Debin. “Rock, scissors, paper: The problem of incentives and information in traditional Chinese state and the origin of great divergence.” (2011).
This article points that the political institution of imperial China – its unitary and centralized ruling structure – is an essential determinant to China‘s long-run economic trajectory and its early modern divergence from Western Europe.
- Roberts, John AG.A history of China. Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
The said reference is in the form of an e-book, which is written by J.A.G Roberts and describes the history of China dividing it into various periods. The philosophy of Confucianism is discussed in the pre-classical and classical period where it was born and developed respectively.
- Tong, Jingrong.Investigative journalism in China: Journalism, power, and society. A&C Black, 2011.
The reference is in the form of an e-book, which investigated journalism in China. This e-book is had incorporated the philosophy of Confucianism in a manner how the journalists in China described the origin and history of Confucianism.
- Qing, Jiang. “From Mind Confucianism to Political Confucianism.”The Renaissance of Confucianism in Contemporary China. Springer Netherlands, 2011. 17-32.
The reference is in the form of an e-book, which discusses the political ideas and concepts of the philosophy of Confucianism and talks about how the said philosophy of Confucianism was developed to curb the political tensions in eastern parts of China.
- Thompson, Mike. “Chinese hedonic values and the Chinese classical virtues: managing the tension.”Journal of Management Development 7/8 (2011): 709-723.
The said article was written with the purpose to explore the extent to which Chinese classical virtues act as a restraint on consumerist hedonic values and the associated priority on profit maximisation by managers. The paper considers how Chinese classical virtues are related to contemporary relational or indigenous values.
- Frankel, James D.Rectifying God’s Name: Liu Zhi’s Confucian Translation of Monotheism and Islamic Law. 2011.
The said reference is in the form of an e-book, which talks about the life, and philosophy of Confucianism and how it worked parallel to the Islamic community which arrived in China many years ago.
- Eisenstadt, Shmuel N., ed.Origins and Diversity of Axial Age Civilizations, The. SUNY Press, 2012.
The said reference is in the form of an e-book, which describes the origin and diversities in the early civilizations and the philosophies that were developed in the ancient classical era. The said e-book discussed the principles of Confucianism, which was developed in the said age-old traditional period.
- Haley, George T., Usha CV Haley, and ChinHwee Tan.New Asian emperors: The business strategies of the overseas Chinese. John Wiley & Sons, 2012.
The said reference is in the form of an e-book, which discusses how the philosophies of the ancient east China got popular in the western countries and how the principles of Confucianism developed and gained recognition in the western countries.
- Wheeler, Kip. “Confucius and Confucianism.” (2013).
The said article talks about Confucius and Confucianism and gives every single detail on how Confucius founded the philosophy of Confucianism. The article talks about how the philosophy of Confucianism was born and developed.
- Rudebusch, George. “Reconsidering Ren as Virtue and Benevolence.”Journal of Chinese Philosophy3-4 (2013): 456-472.
The said article talks about why Confucius is preeminent among Chinese philosophers is his teaching about ren. Interpreters have said many different things about ren, yet two basic assumptions are pervasive which that ren is a virtue and that ren is benevolence
- Yu, Jiyuan.The ethics of Confucius and Aristotle: Mirrors of virtue. Vol. 7. Routledge, 2013.
The said reference is in the form of an e-book, which discusses the ethics used by Confucius to develop the philosophy of Confucianism.
- Ebrey, Patricia Buckley.Confucianism and family rituals in imperial China: A social history of writing about rites. Princeton University Press, 2014.
The said article talks about how the followers of the philosophy of Confucianism began their journey as the disciples of Confucius
- Goldin, Paul R.Confucianism. Routledge, 2014.
The said reference is in the form of an e-book, which talks about the entire philosophy of Confucianism describing in detail all the features of Confucianism from its birth to latest developments.
Links to annotated bibliography: