Question:

# Introduction

The bridge structure used for spanning for the horizontal beams is made by arc frame Firstly for designing of horizontal bridges it need two horizontals loads for balancing. The basic force analysis for the bridge is done by the stress analysis at the time of the critical loading. The critical loading of the bridge can be plotted by the neutral axis theory (Beben, D. and Stryczek, A., 2016)

In order to calculate phenomenon of stress analysis the calculation of force for the arc frame  is required by the estimation of the suspension of bridge and also it is dependent on the redundant structure for making the degree of the freedom of the links of the bridge to be zero. By using the concept of Degree of the Freedom force analysis can be done-

Figure 1 Design of the arc bridge design

The basic design consideration and the modeling of the arc bridge in the CATIA modeling can be seen below-

### Initial Design

The initial layout of the design used of the steel arc bridge on the CATIA software can be seen below-

Figure 2: Initial layout of the steel arc bridge

Figure 3: The Steel arc bridge indicating the lower and upper chord

For the above designing of the steel arc bridge, the reaction and the forces acting on the bridge is considered to be as negligible and also the forces is calculated as the distributed along the neutral axis of the bridge. The basic consideration of the design parameter can be maintained by the study of the constructed steel arc bridge. The basic design parameters such as effective load, factor of safety, compressive and tensile load, basic load on the neutral axis. So because of this constructed design of bridge is taken in consideration.

# Literature Review

### Estimates activities times costs and the resources

Under the activities it includes the Prototype testing of the bridge, inspecting it by considering the proper factor of safety. The inspection done is given below-

Schedule for the project by using the CPM and determination of ES, EF, LS, LF, As under the design study the complete length of the bridge is considered to be 12m , and the width of 2 m. As here in the arc frame  study for the calculation of the forces which are acting on the three points of the arc frame  can be seen from the applied force on the arc frame .

Here in the design analysis of the truss we can estimate the number of the forces which are acting on the individual members of the arc frame.

Figure 4: CAD design of the Steel arc bridge

The analysis is done on the bridge prototype-

Figure 5: Method of joint on the truss

Analysis done by using the concept of the methods of joints

Here the reaction forces on the A and B are equal to the point load applied on the C, E and D.

By applying the method of joint we have the diagonal reaction acting on the A and B joint.

Here the length of the one link = 4 m

= 30KN

Reaction on the joint A is cos45= 10

= 10

By this we can calculate the value of the reaction force

= 30KN

(Bayraktar,  Altunişik, A.C. & Türker, T, 2016)

### TF, FF, IF for all activities

The basic float values used in the execution of Bridge designing and analysis can be estimated by using the Critical path method used for the Bridge designing and analysis.

Figure 6:  CPM analysis of the Bridge

From the above analysis the values are given below

TF= 65

FF=0

IF= 70

### Selection of five key resources with the functional activities and the implementation according to the early activity times

1. Key information based on the Engineering Judgment
1. The span of the bridge used is large, by doing this the high depth ratio for the bridge made possible.
2. Bridge seems to be more elegant by using cantilever beam of high slenderness ratio.
3. As in this bridge large spans are used, because of this reasons fewer intermediate supports and forest of Columns is required.
4. Here the superstructure used for the bridge is of box girder type in which high torsional type beams are used in order to make bridge stiff. Sloping webs used in the bridge gives box girders a visual and aesthetic appeal.
5. Under this type of the bridge design, the girders which are used in the bridge are fabricated and also angled in the plan at the slice point in order to provide curvature to the road.
6. By the use of the smaller number of the beams by this support of the used bearing is also less and thus maintenance cost reduces. (Bayraktar, Altunişik, A.C. & Türker, T, 2016)

### List of the designing and analysis activities

In the designing and analysis of the bridge it takes lot of time for implementing all the planning, theories, analysis, and cost to model a complete bridge. The list includes the following activities and this are-

1. Planning of the project
2. Estimation of the resources used in the project
3. Testing and the analysis of the Architectural design of the Bridge.
4. Cost analysis of resources used in project.
5. Signed Authority of the approval used during project.
6. Estimation of the time and the manpower for the project
7. Quality analysis with the progress of project
8. Bridge inspection
9. Machinery inspection
10. Complete bridge testing after the completion
11. Launch of bridge after all approval and clearance

### Determination for the logical relationship among activities

Under the logical relationship it includes the architectural analysis of the bridge using the different view and the analysis. (Beben, D. and Stryczek, A., 2016). These can be seen from the given CATIA design of the steel arch bridge-

Figure 7: CATIA design of the Steel arc bridge

The general arrangements for the views obtained by the blueprint of Bridge are

The basic forces and dimension of Bridge can be obtained by plan study.  As in the bridge its having 8 beams for a part complete bridge part, 4 are main beam and remaining 4 are the secondary beams. (Beben, D. and Stryczek, A., 2016)

The height = 24m

Dimension for the foundation beam = 10.125m2

So the basic drawing for the bridge can be seen in the drawing.

Figure 8: Plan view of the Bridge

# Methods for the Designing of Steel Arch Bridge

For explaining the methodology of the designing and analysis and working, so for this purpose Mount Lane Viaduct Bridge is taken into consideration for study-

### Basic explanation of the bridge

Mount Lane Viaduct is an 8 span post-tensioned concrete bridge.  In the Each span of the bridge it comprises 11 post-tensioned (PS) beams, and deck slab. Diaphragms span across the decking at every quarter point of PS girder. The end of the bridge is act to be free in nature because of the post tensioned concrete in nature.

### Plan, Elevation and section

Figure 9: Drawing showing all the views for the mount Lane Bridge Section

Figure 10: Drawing showing all the views for the mount Lane Bridge Section 2

### Detailed dimension of the typical beam

Under this the key dimension used for the designing and analysis of the beam, and all the properties related to the bridge are given below (Editorial Board, 2016)

1. Maximum number of two columns per pier.
2. Structure has 8 spans, with overall length = 175m with four internal spans of equal length. ,and the beam length = 8m each
3. Twin trapezoidal box girders are used.
4. Précised concrete is used.
5. Use of C40/ 50 concrete and S355 weathering steel is used.
6. Parapet systems used.

Figure 11: CAD design of the Steel arc bridge

### Minimization of fluctuation in the resources and the usage as much as possible

Here the fluctuation analysis is done by the study of the existing project and then implementation of the same for the new one. The complete study is given below-

For the comparison of stress analysis bridge based on the viaduct principle is used. Mount Lane Viaduct Bridge is the bridge which shows the characteristics of Arc Bridge as instead of having concrete arch column it shows suspension in the bridge. The suspension of the concrete bridge is calculated by values of the Mount Lane Viaduct Bridge.  The values so obtained is compared with the steel arch bridge for comparing the theoretical value of acting forces and stress with the actual value of Mount Lane Viaduct Bridge.

Mount Lane Viaduct Bridge carries M2 Motorway over Mount Lane in Sitting Bourne, Kent. The bridge is totally based on the Viaduct principle of bridging. In order to draw the pencil design from the Historic piece of the design, the basic concepts are used (Editorial Board, 2016).

GPS mapping of the Bridge helps me to understand the actual architect of the bridge, basic view of the bridge such as Plan, Elevation and the Section view. (Bayraktar,  Altunişik, A.C. & Türker, T, 2016)

## Maximum usage of resources with the availability and the rescheduling of the project based on it.

Here the project report starts with the basic understanding of the topic i.e. arc frame  and the bridges terminology and also the design of  the truss bridge affects the compression and the tensile strength of the design in every test used for the design strength estimation.  The designing and analysis method of the bridge so used will be purely dependent on the design of the arc frame bridge.   Generally of the testing of the bridge the weight on the bridge is exceeding to highest limit.  In some design, the design is done by the 3D software for the exact analysis of the bridge used and by this the span of the bridge is decided by the force analysis of the bridge. Here in this bridge designed the shows the methodology of the arc frame of the bridge is basically done by the Load testing on the analysis of the different design of the bridges. The analysis for different design used here is also done by the record this manually and the method is by taking photographs, videos, and by manually collecting the data for the project. As in the report the basic brainstorming for the project is done by the suggestion and the concerns about the project.  The basic study be seen by the accurate study of the project is done (Du Bois, 2012).

# Detailed discussion of the design parameters for the bridge designing and analysis

Figure 12: Design parameter used for the arc frame

There are wide ranges of structural possibilities. The bridge is designed for the need to support the motion by connecting different links together. Here the  bridge structure would hold the most mass on the assembly of the different links together. According to the design above, it is similar to the one the group had designed.  With few research and notes, the major types of Truss Bridge Systems which have been chosen is the most simplest and common design. For this experiment, balsa woods are used to model a simple design as this is showing the same property as steel arch bridge shows. The Steel arch in this truss bridge experiences either a pushing or pulling force (Du Bois, 2012).

### Prototype testing for the real bridge

Hypothesis: If the number of member that can distribute the force increase, then the loaded of mass will also increase. This is because there is wide support area and members in the bridge design. (Bayraktar,  Altunişik, A.C. & Türker, T, 2016)

Assumption for the Materials: Balsa wood, steel arch ,Glue, Weights, String, Electric scale

Method: Model a design of truss structure for the deck of steel arc bridge

Under the designing of the link for the formation of the superstructure for the truss structure is having the 6 links. As per the theory of the Grasof’s rule the maximum number links is supposed to have 6 links. By the study of the truss analysis we have found that the under the force analysis of the deck, the structure with the less number of the degree of freedom shows maximum stability.

Trusses structure = Zero (degree of freedom)

Because of this relation we know that trusses are superstructure. Because of the property of the superstructure the stability of trusses is very high and lower the effect of compressive and tensile load for the fixed structure. By this reason the truss structure is used in the deck of the steel arc bridge.

Figure 13 Approximated design of the Bridge made from steel

### General Discussion for the (force Distribution)

Both of the arc frame designs are the same, but the position is different as one of it is upside down. This can shows which position can endure the most forces. Here the basic difference is for the position of the force analysis for the arc frame used (Du Bois, 2012). The way the frame is carrying the load is the only concept for the designing of the arc frame bridge. Once the position of the bridge is maintained the whole geometry for the bridge can be repeated and the basic phenomenon of the bridge design can be achieved.

### Efficiency of the Prototype Bridge

In the testing of the efficiency of the bridge, we have to consider the forces acting on the deck of under the tensile and compressive we have-

Using the weight standard of the arch bridge by considering the neutral axis theory-

The maximum efficiency of the Bridge or Performance Index =

The deflection is done by the compressive and tensile loading of links on the neutral axis, and so it is subjected to maximum loading. The data for the assumption of the weight is done by calculating the weight of the each weight of the link = 30000kg (approximately considered)

=

= 60%

The estimated efficiency is based on the weight of bridge calculated for the each link of the truss used in the steel arch design (Bayraktar,  Altunişik, A.C. & Türker, T, 2016).

### Comparison of the cash flow using the final bar chart

The basic Comparison of the cash flow in the designing and analysis of the bridge by the final bar chart is given below-

Figure 14: Cash flow Comparison

# Conclusion

By the experiment and study the basic knowledge for the designing of the arc frame  bridge is achieved .By this project the basic concept  used  is to design the bridge with the help of the links arrangement to support maximum mass and load(Du Bois, 2012).

In this experiment bridge prototype made up of balsa woods which works same as the steel arch bridge will do and it is used to model a simple design. The steel arch in the truss bridge experiences either a pushing or pulling force. Generally of the testing of the bridge the weight on the bridge is exceeding to the highest limit.  In some design overview of the bridges used the basic need of the links delivery for such method is to maintain the motion of the bridge redundant , the design is done  by the 3D software for the exact analysis of the bridge used and by this the span of the bridge is decided by the force analysis of the bridge. In the bridge so designed it shows the methodology of arc frame  and its working. The analysis of different bridges design is also done to  record  data  manually. Also  the method like  taking photographs, videos, and  manually collecting the  data for the  project is also used in the project for making database.

# Recommendation

From the above study, the complete testing is done by the prototype of the Balsa wood. Here for testing the Balsa wood is considered as it is showing the same property as steel is having under tensile and the compressive forces. So as for the recommendation the bridge is showing effective life with the tested properties and it can be considered for designing and analysis as the efficiency is high.

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